Dramatis Personae In L only (followed by Smith), Academia is included as a character. But, although the word academia is capitalized in the mss., I do not think that the university is supposed to be a personification, save perhaps in the present Prologue. Then too, this would seem to contradict the following SCAENA IN ACADEMIA.
4 Circumscriptor is found at Juvenal xv. 136 [Sm.].
6 The allusion (like that at 14f. below) refers to Fucus’ threat to write (so one presumes) to Cornelius’ father in order that the boy would be disinherited (1779f.).
7 The old Cambridge formula for presenting degree candidates began with the words Praesento vobis hunc iuvenem quem scio tam moribus quam doctrina esse idoneum [Sm.].
9 I am not in a position to give the reader a definitive history of the word histriomastix (“scourge of actors”). It is not found in classical Greek, but is formed after the example of Homeromastix (“Scourge of Homer”), a sobriquet given the captious Alexandrian grammarian Zoilus. The word had of course already been used for the title of a play by John Marston (printed in 1610), but I do not know if Marston coined it, or if Ward took the word from that play. Nor do I know if William Prynne intended an ironic reference to the present play when he used Histriomastix as the title of his lengthy 1633 diatribe against the theater.
29 There may be a pun here: mariners returning from a long and arduous voyage to the East Indies were cheered to reach the Cape of Good Hope, where they could rest and water.
31 Setting: the street before Prudentia’s boarding-house.
32f. Both mss. have toga commutare pallium, which should mean “exchange my gown for a cloak” (one is supposed to use the ablative for the thing given and the accusative for the thing received). But Cornelius is a new student, whose desire is exactly the reverse, to exchange the normal citizen’s cloak for an academic gown. I have therefore emended the text.
36 Cf. Terence, Phormio V.i.8 [Sm.].
46 Cornelius cannot wear a gown because he has not yet undergone the matriculation ceremonies.
60 For this phrase cf. Erasmus, Adagia I
.iv. 89 [Sm.].
91 Cornelius is lodging in Prudence’s rooming-house rather than a college. Maybe the idea is that such makeshift lodgings existed to house the overflow of students that colleges could not accommodate, and a newcomer like Cornelius would definitely count as overflow (the notion of using such a venue may have been suggested by Tuscadilla’s similar one in Forsett’s Pedantius.) Or again, this may be a temporary expedient until he matriculates.
99 The quotation is Juvenal xi.8 [Sm.].
113 In both Roman tragedy and comedy, the creaking of the stage-building’s door is a frequent sign that one or more new characters are about to enter. Despi
te the stage-direction, only Giles exits at this point (L’s attribution of Ego…crepuere to Cornelius is therefore insupportable). Cornelius stays, but goes into hiding so he may overhear the following dialogue in safety.
I.ii As was the custom in academic drama of the time, the five Acts are subdivided into numbered scenes. Each of these, prefaced by a list of speaking parts in it, is precipitated either by the entrance of new characters or when the stage is momentarily cleared. As such, these scene-divisions often serve as a rather imperfect means of indicating entrances and exits, and no discontinuity of time or place is necessarily implied.
117 For virtus consistit in medio cf. Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics II.vi.15 [Sm.].
120 Smith noted that “Fucus’ constant use of sane represents the Puritan’s addiction to the asservation ’truly,’” citing Sir John Harington’s description of a precise tailor (in Alcilia, 1628), in his speech he used no oathes but “truely”, and Richard Corbet’s gibe at the Puritan-dominated Emmanuel College, in It is not yet a fortnight since, that the college chapel truly doth stand much awry. Just north and south, yes verily.
133 The stage-direction suggests that the preceding passage was performed as an interior scene: previously, the door of the “house” has opened to reveal Fucus and Prudentia. But, despite the stage direction, only Fucus comes outside at this point. The frightened Prudence has run into the interior of her house and has to be coaxed out.
145 For meis verbis = “on my behalf,” cf. Oxford Latin Dictionary, verbum def. 14 and note the comic examples cited.
150 Cf. Plautus, Epidicus V.i.3, Quid illuc est quid illi caperat frons severitudine? [Sm.] Smith also compared Laelia 432, et frontem caperet affectata severitudine, noting that, although in classical Latin the verb caperrare is intransitive, “the participle caperatus…testifies to a transitive use: which may be the use in the present passage.”
182 Smith pointed out that in Loiola the Puritan Martinus gives voice to the same dislike of feast-days (I.5): Ego festos dies odio habeo
183 The humor of these lines is explained by a couple of definitions quoted by Smith from William Lily’s Brevissima Institutio, the Latin textbook used in schools at this time, a.) Nomen: Adde, dies numero tantum mas esto secundo; b.) Nomen: Propria quae maribus tribuuntur mascula dicas. There may also be a bilingual pun intended on mas in words like Michaelmas and Christmas; certainly, for the purpose of my translation I shall pretend it is so.
186 Cornelius quotes Juvenal i.74 [Sm.].
193 Vagabonds constituted a notorious social problem of the age.
195 For this famous proverb see Cicero, Philippics XII.2 [Sm.].
207 A parody of Horace, Odes III.i.1, odi profanum vulgus et arceo [Sm.].
220 It is perhaps no accident that being corrupter of youth was one of the charges made against Socrates.
222 Cf. Terence, Andria I.i.134, manibus pedibusque obnixe omnia facturum [Sm.].
234 An inversion of Plautus, Amphitryo Prologue 54f., faciam ex tragoedia comoedia ut sit [Sm.].
flaI.iii The focus of the action shifts to Judgement’s house, on the other side of the stage. As the scene begins, Iudicium and Ingenium are coming out of the house.
277 Smith compared Laelia 433, canit etiam haud bubo dulcius.
287 All of Villanus’ jingles are meant to be sung to popular tunes of the day, many of which are indicated in L. For the music of the play, see Nelson II.1026f.
This first song is a clever parody of Horace, Odes I.xix.5ff.,

urit me Glycerae nitor
splendentis Pario marmore purius,
urit grata protervitas
et voltus nimium lubricus adspici.

To hear Walsingham click here, to hear Fortune my Foe click here, and to hear Dulcina click here.
324 The juxtaposition of this mention of a hobby-horse and the following statement about the bagpiper, which is otherwise mystifying, is explicable as a reference to Ruggle’s Ignoramus, in which the hobby-horse Davy Dromo rudely insists on playing the Prologue. Possibly the hobby-horse costume used in Ignoramus was still available, and was produced onstage to get a laugh.
330 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia I.i.10, testudine
um istum tibi ego grandibo gradum [Sm.].
336 Smith pointed out that amplior . . . proludant is a phrase lifted from Laelia 293.
339 Cf. Terence, Andria V.iv.4, quid tu Athenas insolens? [Sm.].
345 Smith observed that the use of nubet for a man is common in literature of the period
353 For this usage, cf. Terence, Andria V.1v.22, pol Crito antiquom obtines (“you’re the same old Crito”) [Sm.].
362 Cf. Terence, Heautontimoroumenos II.iii.79, multimodis iniuriu’s [Sm.].
370 Cf. Plautus, Trinummus II.ii.39, Quo magis specto, minus placet mihi hominis facies (also imitated at Laelia 1394) [Sm.].
382 This greeting imitates that at Terence, Eunuchus II.ii.39f., Plurima salute Parmenonem summum suom impertit Gnatho [Sm.].
396 Quid tibi…est? is taken from Terence, Eunuchus II.ii.83 [Sm.].
421 Cf. Terence, Eunuchus V.iv.9 - 11 [Sm.]:

quo modo adulescentulus
meretricum ingenia et mores posset noscere,
mature ut quom cognorit perpetuo oderit.

442 Dum in dubio est animus comes from Terence, Andria I.v.31 [Sm.].
II.1 The scene is still in front of Iudicium’s house.
482 Ballada vestra (“your Ballad”) because Ballad is Comedy’s half-sister.
454 Ingenium quotes Cato, Dist
icha I.27 [Sm.].
467 Mulsa loquitur comes from Plautus, Poenulus I.ii.112 [Sm.].
II.2 Comedia must have just caught sight of Fucus coming out of Prudentia’s lodging-house on the other side of the stage. The whore Ignavia has been waiting for him outside (or perhaps she has been plying her trade on the street).
509 For verbis meis see the note on 145.
532f. Ignavia begins to quote Ovid, Amores II.v.25, cetera quis nescit? lassi requievimus omnes, and Fucus finishes the quotation [Sm.]. Smith did not remark on the sexual implication.
534 Smith pointed out that Semel insanivimus omnes comes from Baptista Mantuan’s first Eclogue, and quoted a remarke by Nashe (Works III.79 McKerrow) that this had become “a wether-beaten piece of a verse out of the grammer” (because “the good old Mantuan” was standard fare in the school curriculum). See also the commentary note on line 195.
540 Cf. the proverb quoted at Terence, Eunuchus IV.v.6, sine Cerere et Libero friget Venus [Sm.]. Again, Smith studiously ignored the sexual implications of this line. The humor of Fucus’ uncharacteristically witty retort consists in a word-play involving two Latin homophones, sapio = “have a taste of” and sapio = “be wise.”
546 Since Bacchus and Iacchus were cult-names for the same god, there is of course no difference at all.
549 Juvenal
ii.3 [Sm.].
559 Fucus quotes from Terence, Adelphi III.iii.32.
562 Cf. dictum sapienti sat est at Plautus, Persa IV.vii.19 and Terence, Phormio III.iii.8.
II.3 Ignavia crosses the stage and accosts Philomathes in front of his father’s house.
597 The comic actor’s slipper or soccus (as opposed to the tragedian’s buskin).
620 For regionem consilii cf. Plautus, Miles Gloriosus III.iii.13 [Sm.].
II.4 This scene, like the next, is probably set in front of Ingenium’s house.
634 For hoc ulcus tangere cf. Terence, Phormio IV.iv.9 [Sm.].
641 Cf. Plautus, Asinaria II.ii.2, ego illos lubentiores faciam quam Lubentia ’st [Sm.].
643 Cf. Plautus, Casina III.v.9, unde meae usurpant aures sonitum? [Sm.].
II.5 According to Smith, “Ballada speaks from a window in Ingenium’s house. Cp. ll. 27, 28 [i. e., lines 674f. of this edition].” But according to this interpretation, the author only provides the actor with the space of two lines to get down and come out, unless Ballada speaks 678f. while bustling down an outside staircase (which would be effective, but is there any evidence for such a staircase in English universi
ty drama?) More likely, she comes out during the morris dance, which would give the actor plenty of time for a liesurely descent, and 674 descendamus means “let’s kneel down on the ground to attend to Villanus.” There are other plays, such as John Hacket’s Loiola and Edmund Stubbe’s Fraus Honesta, that use descendo in such a way as to suggest a “house“ two storeys high.
662 The identity of these women (not included in the list of speakers in either manuscript) is far from clear. Evidently they are included only in order to make the throng larger, and, below, to give Fucus a choice of dancing-partners.
666 Gru (”a
bit,”, only used with negatives) comes from Aristophanes, Plutus 17, and is used at Loiola III.1, ego ne gru intelligo.
669 Smith suggested this appeal may be made to Ingenium, looking out another window. More likely Mimus is addressing Villanus: if Ingenium were witnessing Villanus’ subsequent collapse, it would be strange for him to keep his silence and abstain from the effort to revive him.
670 According to Smith, the phrase pulvere saltatorio is suggested by Quintilian X.i.33 pulvere forensi.
704 Cf. Martial XI.27, cum perfricuit frontem postuitque pudorem [Sm.].
710 Cf. Plautus, Poenulus III.i.29, vicistis cochleam tarditudine (imitated at Laelia 616) [Sm.].
719 and 731 The mss. have longurio (“a tall man”), which may be a mistake, of the author’s or in the manuscript tradition, for longurius (“beanpole”).
725 Quam…memini = Laelia 190; both are inspired by Plautus, Poenulus I.ii.135, quam magis aspecto, tam magis est nimbata [Sm.].
766 Quid tute tecum is from Plautus, Mostellaria III.i.24 [Sm.].
789 Smith compared the use of the non-classical verb circumgyro at Laelia 266.
801 ”The classical form is not pertex, -icis, but pertica, -ae ”: Smith.
825 Cf. Vergil, Eclogue ix.64, cantantes licet usque, minus via laedit, eamus [Sm.]. In view of Vergil’s line, possibly we should read Saltantes licet usque, <ut> minus via laedeat, eamus.
831 Cf. Terence, Andria IV.i.46, hac non successit, alia aggredimur via [Sm.].
III.1 In front of Iudicium’s house.
839 Philomathes quotes Vergil, Eclogue i.11 [Sm.].
867 mirum…somniavi somnum is taken from Plautus, Rudens III.i.v [Sm.].
886 Cf. Terence, Phormio II.i.35, unum cognoris, omnes noris [Sm.]. For the next sentence, Smith compared Laelia 725, denique omnes mulieres ad unam incudem factae sunt, a translation of Les Abusez: Quand tout est dit, toutes femmes sont forgées à un coing.
897 For the idiom cf. Plautus, Menaechmi V.ii.64, intra aedeis huius…penetravi pedem [Sm.].
III.3 The scene shifts to Ingenium’s house on the other side of the stage.
923 Another quote from William Lily’s Latin grammar. Smith noted that it is also quoted in Abraham Fraunce’s Victoria 281 and also Abraham Fraunce’s (?) 1578 comedy Hymenaeus 23.
974 The last line of Villanus’ ditty quotes Terence, Andria III.iii.23 [Sm.].
989 The words cantantem lachrymae are not, as Smith thought, a textual corruption. Rather, Hirsutus foretells that he will see Villanus weeping and obliged to sing John Dowland’s doleful Lachyrmae (“Flow, My Tears”). This allusion is probably suggested by Ruggle’s Ignoramus III.10.166 (exclaimed by Cupes while Polla is attacking his orchestra), Heus fidicines, Lachrymae.
992 Cf. par pari referto at Terence, Eunuchus III.i.15 (in some mss.) [Sm.].
1004 Cf. Terence, Phormio III.ii.10, cantilenam eandem canis [Sm.].
1009 Hirsutus quotes Vergil, Eclogue ix.36 [Sm.].
1012 An approximate quote of Plautus, Captivi 598, larvae stimulant virum.
1019 The reference is to the mock-epitaph for Rosamund printed in Carminum Proverbalium Loci Communes (1579) [Sm.]:

Hic iacet in tumba rosa mund, non Rosamunda:
Non redolet, sed olet, quae redolere solet.

Pace Smith, the reference to flores poetarum probably does not refer to Octavius Mirandula’s Illustrium Poetarum Flores (1566), which does not contain this epitaph, but more generally means “anthologies.”
1027f. For similar amans…amens word-play, cf. Plautus, Mercator Prologue 81 and Terence, Andria I.iii.13 [Sm.].
1028ff. Smith noted that this passage is based on Laelia 567ff., Sed, deus bone, quae haec stultitia est? Amavi ego etiam…mei…ordinis hominem… habui tamen aliusmodi amicum, quamvis ipsa dico, quae hera habet…nec tamen illum aut vidi aut expectivi videre nisi festis tamen diebus. Hunc autem hera aegre fert si non profestis etiam viderit. He also compared Laelia 663, aurium tenus in amore fuit.
III.5 After Hirsutus goes off in pursuit of Villanus, Plausus comes out of conceallment (see the end of III.3), and encounters Philomathes passing by.
1041 It would seem that Philomathes is quoting some writer or proverbial saying. If so, Smith did not identify it, neither can I. Certainly it is not taken from a classical source.
1080 Wearing this costume Philomathes would look like a Catholic priest, and Fucus could not stand the sight; the fake “holy water” mentioned below would produce a similar effect for the same reason.
III.9 Philomathes runs across the stage and goes into Iudicium’s house. Plausus lurks outside and observes as Fucus knocks at the door.
1097 See the commentary note on 1027f.
1101f. Cf. Plautus, Trinummus III.ii.79f.:

Non enim possum quin exclamem Euge, euge, Lysiteles, palin
Facile palmam habes! Hic victus. Vicit tua comoedia.

This is imitated at Laelia 765, Non possum quin exclamem Euge euge, here, vicisti [Sm.].
1111 Cf. Plautus, Curculio I.ii.16, vindemia haec huic anui non satis est soli [Sm.].
III.7 This passage is only counted as a separate scene because Ballada has left the stage (although she in fact has already made her exit at line 1114).
1136 Citing Roxburghe Ballads IV p. 273, Smith showed that O hon honononero tararero was the refrain of a Gunpowder Plot ballad, And will this wicked world never prove good?
1167 For ad restim res rediit cf. Terence, Phormio IV.iv.5 [Sm.].
1169 Cf. Plautus, Aulularia I.i.37, ex me ut unam faciam litteram longam, meum laqueo collum quando obstrinxero [S.].
1187 For flos veteris vini cf. Plautus, Curculio I.i.2 and Laelia 1044 [Sm.].
1188 For madefeci pantices cf. Plautus, Pseudolus I.ii.50 [S.].
1192 Cf. Plautus,Truculentus II.ii.1, Quis illic est qui tam proterve nostras aedis arietat? [S.].
1195 See the note on 396.
IV.1 Outside Prudentia’s house.
1263 Resipisco sounds too much like resipio, “I recall the flavor of.”
1275 For mea tu see Plautus, Rudens 563 and Terence, Eunuchus 664.
1320 Cf. Laelia 1215, Hercle ego filiam…vel precise religiosam habeo [Sm.].
1352ff. In his introduction, Smith devotes quite a bit of space to describing “John Sanderson,” a contemporary dance employing a cushion, in which the participants repeatedly kiss each other.
1355 In the manuscripts, this character is identified merely as PUER (he is not included in this scene’s initial list of speakers in either manuscript). He is in fact Cornelius, and was misidentified as PUER in a common ancestor of L and O by confusion with the young servant of Ingenium identified as PUER in V.iii. This identification is supported by the boy’s address to Fucus as praeceptor at 1359.
1389 See the note on 1835.
IV.5 The scene shifts to Judgement’s house. Until line 1472 Philomathes observes the action from a distance.
1432 Cf. Laelia 431, modo pectit se et aratam faciem levigat ad speculum…Rithmos quotidie meditatur amatorios [Sm.].
1435 I am merely guessing at the meaning of stolo. According to the Oxford Latin Dictionary, this word means “stem, shoot,” and no colloquial or figurative meaning is recorded, but it is etymologically related to stolidus.
1440 Democritus was “the laughing philosopher.”
1442 Smith pointed out that Cinnamus is the name of a barber at Martial VII.lxiv, and also that Ben Jonson wrote of Cinnamus the Barber in the dedicatory epistle to Volpone (1607).
1446 Smith noted that the proverb ante pilos sapit (“he is wise before his age”) is attested by Erasmus, Adagia, ch. III
.iii.10, where it is explained that this comes from Persius iv.4f.:

scilicet ingenium et rerum prudentia velox
ante pilos venit.

1450 Sed supersedendum est exemplorum multitudine comes from Laelia938, and is based on Cicero, de Inventione I.xx.28, supersedendum multitudine verborum [Sm.].
1453 Cf. Plautus, Captivi II.ii.18, utrum structimne attonsurum dicam esse, an per pectinem [Sm.].
1459 Philomathes quotes Vergil, Eclogue viii.34 [Sm.].
1460 Villanus retorts with a quotation from William Lily’s grammar [Sm.].
1463 Smith explained that “This form of beard apparently consisted of moustaches turned upwards at the the ends and an imperial,’ altogether taking the shape of a T. Cp. D’Urfey’s Pills IV p.160 (’The Ballad of the Beard’):

The Roman T in its bravery
Doth first it self disclose,
But so high it turns, that of it burns
With the flames of a Torrid Nose.

1466f. Cf. Laelia 572, At ille meus barbam tanquam capra habuit. Then Philomathes quotes Martial VII.xcv.12f. [Sm.].
1468 The barber joins in this quotation-swapping contest with a parody of Vergil, Eclogue iv.52, aspice, venturo laetantur ut omnia saeclo [Sm.].
1477f. Now Philomathes quotes Plautus, Epidicus V.i.17 [Sm.].
1488 A symptom of syphilis.
1495 Lateram lavo = to do something impossible, taken from Terence, Phormio I.iv.9 [Sm.].
1496 See the note on line 60.
1499 According to Smith, the source of the expression cos amoris is obscure, but he quotes passages by Lyly, Coryeat, and G. Griffen in which it appears, for example Lyly’s Euphues (I.184 Bond), Venus had hir Mole in hir cheeke which made hir more amiable: Helen her scarre on her chinne which Paris called cos amoris, the Whetstone of love. To these examples can be added the 1597 Cambridge comedy Silvanus, line 98.
1502 Ever-ready with a classical quotation, Philomathes repeats Martial XIV.xxii.2 [Sm.].
1503 Cinnamus caps this by reciting Martial XIV.xxiii [Sm.].
1534 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid II.204, horresco referens [Sm.].
1559 For hamum vorat cf. Plautus, Curculio III.61 and Truculentus I.i.21 [Sm.].
1608 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid I.600, grates persolvere dignas [Sm.].
IV.7 In front of Prudence’s house.
1617ff. The wolf’s beard and serpent’s tooth come from Horace, Satire I.vii.42, and the owl’s feather from Vergil, Eclogue v.20. The waxen image, used to compel its model to fall in love, comes from Eclogue viii.81f. A similar idol is mentioned at Fraunce’s Victoria 634 [Sm.].
1643f. A pastiche of phrases from Seneca, Medea 7 - 13: so Smith, who could have added that academic tragedies are filled with so many Seneca-imitating passages spoken by ghosts, Furies, and similar supernatural beings, that these lines could easily be taken as a parody of this kind of thing.
1646 Regiones Acherunticas are mentioned at Plautus, Bacchides II.ii.21 [Sm.].
1648ff. The reference is obviously to Plautus’ Amphitruo.
1654 Cf. Plautus, Mostellaria I.iii.61f. [Sm.]:

In anginam ego nunc velim vorti, ut veneficae illi
Fauces prehendam, atque enicem selestam simulatricem.

1667 Smith compared tibi corpus arent at Ovid, Ars Amatoria II.118.
1669 Megaera was one of the three Furies.
1676 Crocodile tears are mentioned at (e. g.) Erasmus, Adagia, II.iv.60, and Spenser, The Fairie Queene I.v.18 etc. [Sm.].
IV.8 The scene is in front of Wit’s house; Fucus, Calumnia, and Invidia observe from hiding.
1697 Cf. Laberius ap. Macrobius, Sat. II.vii.3, ni mirum hoc die uno plus vixi mihi quam vivendum fuit [Sm.].
1705 This = Plautus, Epidicus IV.i.42 (with tandem for demum) [Sm.].
1714 Cf. Plautus, Poenulus III.v.45, obtorto collo…trahor [Sm.].
1728 Fucus quotes Ovid, Amores I.xv.39 [Sm.]. In a play in which so many characters (including peasants and a barber) quote tags from classical Roman literature, one cannot be quite sure how much weight can be placed on this, but it may be a further sign of Fucus’ hypocrisy that he can quote with relish from a work which a Puritan would condemn.
V.1 In front of Prudence’s house.
1754 Hinc illae lacrimae comes from Horace, Epodes I.xix.41 [Sm.].
1814 See the note on 766.
V.4 In front of Judgement’s house.
1829 For similar “senates” cf. Plautus, Epidicus I.ii.56 and Mostellaria III.i.158 [Sm.].
1833 Cf. Terence, Adelphoi IV.vii.34, tu inter eas restim ductans saltabus [Sm.].
1835 For risum teneatis, amici? cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 5 [Sm.].
1842 Cf. Plautus, Mercator IIl.ii.47, fecere tale ante alii spectati viri [Sm.].
1846 Cf. Plautus, Menaechmi I.ii.31, commoditatis omnes articulos scio [Sm.].
1864f. Ingenium quotes Martial IV.lxxxix.9f. [Sm.].
1867 See the note on 220.
1874 Cf. Vergil, Aeneid I.75, pulchra faciat te prole parentem [Sm.].
1938 This and the following lines involve puns on the homonyms mina = “gold coin” and mina = “threat.”
1961 Iam sumus ergo pares comes from Martial II.xviii.2 [Sm.].