COMMENTARY NOTES

I.5.1 Cf. 1 Corinthians 7:9, But if they cannot contain, let them marry: for it is better to marry than to burn.
I.6 This epigram depends on a series of untranslatable word-plays involving testis = “witness” and its homonym = “testicle.”
I.7 Sir Francis Walsingham, Elizabeth’s Secretary of State, died in April 1590. This epigram seems to have been written during his lifetime.
I.8 Sir Edward Stradling, owner of St. Donat’s castle after the death of his father Thomas in 1571. He is discussed in the Introduction, there is a biography in the D. N. B. The following poems are also addressed to him: I.40, I.119, I.120, II.9, III.3, IV.62, IV.98, IV.109, and IV.123.
I.8.1 See the note on IV.109.7.
I.8.6 The unspecified antecedent of hisque would appear to be “living Stradlings.”
I.8.9ff. According to the D. N. B. biography, Sir Edward “studied at Oxford, but left without graduating, and travelled on the continent, spending some some time at Rome.” The Rhine is called bicornis by Vergil, Aeneid VIII.727.
I.8.14 See the note on III.117.1.
I.9 In 1566 Sir Edward had married Agnes, daughter of Sir Edward Gage of Firle, co. Sussex [d. 1626], the aunt of the poet’s wife Mary Gage.
I.10 This epigram appears to have been written prior to Drake’s death in early 1596.
I.11 John Davydd Rhys [1534 - 1609], born on in Anglesea and a resident of Brecknocke, studied at Oxford and received a medical degree at Sienna. His 1592 Cymraecae Linguae Institutiones was dedicated to Sir Edward, who subsidized its publication. Biography in the D. N. B. I.60 is also addressed to Rhys.
I.11.3 In Stradling’s poems it is usually clear from context whether Britannia and Britonus mean “Britain” and “British,” or (as here) “Wales” and “Welsh.”
I.12 Thomas Leyson [1549 - 1608?], Oxford-educated physician of Bath and author, among other things, of a Latin verse description of Castle St. Donat’s subsequently translated into Welsh by John Davydd Rhys. Biography in the D. N. B. . Other poems written to or about Leyson are I.25, I.39, I.61, III.47, and III.59. Meter: hendecasyllables (meters of all poems in this collection not written in elegiac dimeters will be identified in commentary notes).
I.13 I have discovered nothing about Barkley or his book, which must have circulated in manuscript since it was never printed.
I.14 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.19 One of the more attractive English national characteristics is their tradition of treating gallant enemy commanders, from Saladin to Rommel, with profound respect. In this case, Alessandro Farnese, Duke of Parma, was Philip II’s regent of the Netherlands from 1578 to 1592, a far more competent opponent than the Duke of Alva whom he succeeded.
I.21 Written prior to the Queen’s death (March 1603), as is II.5 (III.51 was written afterwards).
I.22.2 For the pun on sapio, “be clever,” and “stink,” cf. Plautus, Pseudolus 737f.:

[PS.] Sed istic servos ex Carysto qui hic adest ecquid sapit?
CH.
Hirum ab alis.

Furthermore, in the book opusculum is printed opus-culum, to suggest a pun on culus, “anus.” This same humor is found in IV.82 (see the note ad loc.).
I.25 For Sir Edward Stradling, cf. the note on I.8; for Leyson see the note on I.12.
I.25.3 If Stradling imagined there was a famous ancient healer named Alexis, he was wrong. Or, despite the fact that the word is capitalized in the book, it may be a common noun, the Greek word ἄλεξις, used in the sense “helpful remedy.”
I.25.37f. Cf. Horace, Ars Poetica 343, omne tulit punctum, qui miscuit utile dulci.
I.26 Sir Edward’s father Sir Thomas [1498? - 1571]. Biography in the D. N. B.
I.27.10 Despite Stradling’s sidenote citing “Mart. lib. 2.6,” the echo is of Martial I.iv.8, lasciva est nobis pagina, vita proba.
I.28 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.28.6 I should understand the point of the epigram better were dominae the reading in this line.
I.29.13 Falernian was a particularly excellent form of Roman wine. Stradling occasionally employs the word as a common adjective to designate fine wine.
I.29.17 See the note on I.25.37f.
I.30 Lungius composes as absurd a love-song for his mistress as Polyphemus the Cyclops did for the nymph Galatea in Theocritus.
I.30.6 Monticolae is a poetic compound taken from Ovid, Metamorphoses I.193.
I.30.16 Vocalisonus may be a poetic compound of Stradling’s own invention.
I.31 The famous clown-actor Richard Tarlton died in 1588. Besides the article in the D. N. B. , see the bibliographical links under Tarlton’s name listed here. Meter: iambic strophes (iambic trimeter + iambic dimeter).
I.31.11 Roscius was the great comic actor of Cicero’s day.
I.36 Bull (his first name seems lost to history) was the headsman who executed Mary Queen of Scots: Geoffrey Abbott, Lords of the Scaffold: A History of the Executioner (London - New York, 1991) 13. He also appears to have presided at the execution of the Gunpowder Plotters: cf. the Earl of Northampton’s speech the trial of Father Henry Garnet (A True and Perfect Relation of the Proceedings at the Severall Arraignments of the Late Most Barbarous Traitors, London, 1606, X.148). Speaking of Papal Bulls, the Earl said, The Buls which by the practise of you and your Catiline, the lively image of your heart, should (by lowd lowing) have called all his calves together with a preparation to band against our soveraigne at the first break of day, and to have cropped those sweet olive buds that envyron the regall seate, did more good then hurt as it hapned, by calling in a third Bull, which was Bull the hangman, to make a speedy riddance and dispatch of this forlorne fellowship. Meter: iambic trimeters.
I.37 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.38 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.39 Save for the mention of this poem by Wood, Athenae Oxonienses II.28 (who misreported his name as Grott), I have discovered nothing about his original poem or Charles Thynne’s paraphrase, nor anything about either author. Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.39.8 In the absence of the original poem, I can only guess that Arnidis = “of the Arno.”
I.39.14 One can only guess that the non-Classical word nigiter means “darkly.”
I.39.26 By an excruciating pun the name Charles (Carolus) is associated with the Greek words for “wholly fire.”
I.39.31 See the note on I.29.13.
I.40 For Sir Edward Stradling, cf. the note on I.8. Presumably the grapevines described in I.120 represent this same project. Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.40.2f. Rather awkwardly for a translator, Stradling appears to forget that the ursa is one of the triones.
I.40.5 See the note on I.29.13.
I.40.32 Bacchus.
I.41 If the order of names in the pedigree provided by Traherne p. xxi represents the order of birth, Edmund was the fourth son of Francis Stradling.
I.42.11 This image of a literary monstrosity represented by a biological one sounds like the similar ones described at the beginning of Horace’s Ars Poetica
I.44 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.47 The eponymous founder of the Britons was supposed to have been Brutus, a refugee from the fall of Troy. Hence London was a second Troy (Troynovant). III.30 and IV.108 are also addressed to Spencer.
I.51 Meter: iambic trimeters.
I.52 The death of Sir Philip Sidney (October 1586) was the occasion for an outpouring of national grief, and also for something like a national poetry-writing competition. Other epigrams written about Sidney are I.108 and I.114.
I.54 The poet’s parents were Francis and Elizabeth Stradling of St. George’s, near Bristol. Francis died in 1589 (Traherne p. xxi). His mother, the sister of Joan Portman (cf. III.174 with the note ad loc.), was a daughter of Thomas Michell of Carrington. Meter: dactylic hexameters alternating with iambic dimeters (like Horace, Epodes xiv. and xv).
I.54.10 Phaleusiique is an error for Phalaeciique (hendecasyllables). I have retained the reading in the text because it appears likelier that this was Stradling’s own mistake rather than a printing error.
I.55 Traherne, p. 264, prints a 1581 letter from Young to Sir Edward Stradling, and provides the information that he was a citizen of Bristol knighted in 1574, and that he died in 1603. He presents no evidence for a family relation with the poet. It is possible that Young was an uncle on Stradling’s maternal side.
I.56 Thomasina (or Damasyn) Stradling was a sister of Sir Edward Stradling, the second daughter of Sir Thomas. Traherne, p. 264, prints a 1567 letter from the Countess of Feria announcing her death. The Countess was Jane, daughter of Sir William Dormer and his wife, the daughter of Sir William Sidney, a maid of honor to Queen Mary, who married the Spanish Count of Feria, subsequently elevated to a Dukedom (Traherne, p. 1).
I.57 Meter: iambic dimeters.
I.57.4 The Roman plutocrat Crassus was the third member of the First Triumvirate.
I.58 Meter: choliambics.
I.60 See the note on I.11. The dialogue in question De Vita et Morte Contemnenda Libri Duo, was printed at Frankfurt in 1597.
I.61 For Leyson see the note on I.12. Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.62 Written after Drake’s death in 1596.
I.63 Written after Hawkins’ death on the same expedition, two months earlier.
I.64 No brother named Hugh is listed in the Stradling pedigree (Traherne p. xxi). Meter: dactylic hexameters alternating with iambic dimeters.
I.66 If the order of names in the pedigree provided by Traherne p. xxi represents the order of birth, Percival was the fifth son of Francis Stradling. It is unfortunate that we do not seem to know more about this interesting member of the Stradling family, who participated in various adventures, including the 1589 expedition to Lisbon commanded by Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norris, and the 1596-96 expedition to the West Indies in which Drake and Hawkins perished. Traherne, p. 336, prints an undated letter from Drake to Sir Edward Stradling:

To the righte worshipfull Sir Edwarde Stradling, Knight

Sir, This bearer, your kynesman, I have uppon your lettres entertayned to proceed in this actyon, and doe hope yt shall turne to his greate good. The commendacions yow geve in his behalfe shall cause me the better to regarde him, and to take the care that shalbe meete for a man of his calling. And soe, with right hartye commendacions, doe byd you farewell. Plymoth, this viijth of August.

Your very loving frind,
FRA. DRAKE

One wonders if this is Drake’s agreement to accept (on Sir Edward’s recommendation) Percival Stradling as a member of one these military excursions. Meter: dactylic hexameters alternating with iambic dimeters.
I.68 Written after the deaths of his brothers Hugh and Percival. If the order of names in the pedigree provided by Traherne p. xxi represents the order of birth, Henry and Thomas were the second and sixth sons of Francis Stradling (the pedigree lists two sons named Thomas, Francis’ third and sixth sons — assuming the pedigree to be correct, and one of these names not to be present in error for Hugh — this could only happen if the earlier Thomas had died young).
I.69 John Norris, who commanded Elizabeth’s forces in the Netherlands and Ireland, died in 1597. Meter: choliambics.
I.70 The famous Welsh soldier Thomas Morgan died in 1595.
I.71 His kinsman, the equally distinguished soldier Roger Williams, died in the same year. Meter: dactylic hexameters alternating with iambic dimeters.
I.72 Elizabeth Portman was the daughter of Sir Henry and Jane Portman (cf. III.174 with the note ad loc.). Jane Portman was Stradling’s maternal aunt. Traherne pp. 257ff., prints correspondence between Sir Edward Stradling and Lord Thomas Pawlet (or Poulet).
I.74 The influence of the vernacular ep;igramist Sir John Harington on Stradling is discussed in the Introduction. II.101 and IV.8 are also addressed to Harington.
I.79.1 I. e., the apostolic succession.
I.80 Meter: hendecasyllables.
I.81.1 See the note on I.47.
I.82.1 The proverb festina lente was a favorite saying of Augustus (Suetonius, Augustus xxv, where it is quoted in Greek).
I.83.6 Laus sordet in proprio ore is a Roman proverb.
I.89.2 The ladder of the gallows.
I.100 Sir Edward Stradling’s younger brother Robert married a daughter of Watkin Lougher of Tythegston near Bridgend, Glamorganshire (see the pedigree printed by Traherne p. xxi), hence the poet can call Richard Lougher a kinsman. According to Traherne, who prints a letter from him to Sir Edward Stradling (p. 321) a presumably later man named Watkin Lougher “…married Catherine, daughter of Robert Gamage of Coity. He died in the year 1607. Sir John Stradling addressed to epigrams to him.” This appears to be a confusion of two members of the same family. IV.26 is also addressed to Lougher.
The kind of abbreviated Latin used by contemporary practitioners of the Common Law is also ridiculed in George Ruggle’s 1615 Cambridge comedy Ignoramus (IV.viii.2208ff.). The implication is of course that lawyers wrote such stuff to conceal their incompetence as Latinists:

Cape hoc, asine: semper scribis falsum Latinum. Si non potes scribere verum Latinum ut ego scribo, abbrevia verba per dimidium, scribe cum dasho, ut multi faciunt. Sic nec facies errorem in Latino, nec errorem in lege.

[“Take that, thou asse. Wilt ever write false Latin? If thou canst not write true Latin as I doe, cut off thy words in the middle, and make quirks and dashes as many doe, soe shalt thou neither erre in the Latin or in the law.”]

I.104 A sidenote refers the reader to Luke 3:38, the conclusion of a genaealogy of Jesus that deduces His lineage from Adam.
I.108 Surely Sir Philip Sidney is meant.
I.109.1 Omnia vincit amor is from Vergil, Eclogue x.69. Presumably the rest of the line is a second literary quote, but it is not Classical and I cannot identify it.
I.110 Pliny, Natural History XXXV.lxxxiv, wrote of the famous Greek painter Apelles, “In general it was a standing practice with Apelles never to be so occupied with carrying out the day’s business, that he did not practice his art by drawing a line, and the example which he set has come down to us as a proverb.”
I.113 Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, died in 1585.
I.115 According to Wood (II.396), Greene was a prebendary of Bristol Cathedral, and presumably master of the Cathedral School of St. Augustine which Stradling attended (III.7).
I.116 “G. G.” is William Gage, brother of Stradling’s wife Mary. IV.11 and IV.91 are also addressed to him. IV.11 and IV.91 are also addressed to him.
I.117 The great historian and antiquarian William Camden [1551 - 1623].
I.118 Meter: iambic trimeters.
I.118.8f. Words involving obvious puns with Latin obscenities (mentula, testis, cunnus). Note that, despite Stradling’s protestation here, there is precisely such off-color punning (involving testis) at I.6.
I.119 Meter: dactylic hexameters.
I.119.3 In Book VI of the Iliad Glaucus and Diomedes exchange armor. Glaucus gives away golden armor in exchange for armor of brass, a proverbial example of an ill-advised exchange.
I.119.12 This is the first time I recall seeing Nero’s mother Agrippina described as innocua.
I.119.27 See the note on I.29.13.
I.119.45 Lycaon was an Arcadian king so savage that Jupiter turned him into a wolf.
I.119.66 Auri sacra fames is a tag from Aeneid III.57.
I.120 Griffiths (pp. 41f.) quotes a contemporary description of Castle St. Donat’s standing in a very fair large park of fallow deer that butteth to Severn which ebbeth and floweth against the walls of the garden. I have not seen the Latin poem describing the Castle and its grounds by Stradling’s friend Thomas Leyson. Meter: dactylic hexameters.
I.10.34 Cythera was an Aegean island sacred to Venus.
II.4.1 William Camden in his Annales Rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum Regnante Elizabetha for the year 1588 tells how astrologers had predicted that 1588 would be a year of marvels.
II.6 William Camden in his Annales for the year 1589 tells the story of the insuccessful Lisbon expedition meant to expel the Spanish and place Don Antonio, the pro-English pretender, on the throne of Portugal. This poem only makes sense if we understand that hostibus in line 2 refers to Don Antonio and his motley following of Portuguese exiles, not the Spanish. I have not identified Thomas Moseley.
II.8 Newport is a coastal town hard by the mouth of the Severn. Nova-villa seems to be Stradling’s rendition of the Welsh name for the place, Casnewydd. A sidenote refers the reader to Camden’s Britannia (specifically to p. 498 of the 1607 edition), where one finds the text of a prose description by Stradling accompanied by the present poem. Meter: dactylic hexameters.
II.9 This engineering project was meant to end silting at Merthyr Mawr, a small town slightly inland of the mouth of the Ogmore, which seems to have flowed through the western extremity of Sir Edward’s property (III.3.7f.). Other evidence for this project is cited by Griffiths p. 47 n. 127. I translate villa as “hamlet,” but it is possible that Sir Edward maintained a farmstead there.
II.10 Meter: iambic strophes (one iambic trimeter + one iambic dimeter).
II.11 Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.11.6 See the note on I.29.13.
II.12 Meter: iambic trimeters.
II.12.7 Here bolos = boletos.
II.13 Anne Stroud was presumably the daughter of the “Mr. {John] Strowde, a justice of the peace in Dorsettshire, dwelling neere Netherbury” mentioned in a 1576 letter from Sir Henry Portman to Sir Edward Stradling printed by Traherne, pp. 183f. I have not ascertained to which of our poet’s brothers she was married. See also the epigram addressed to her father, IV.127.
II.15 Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.16 Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.22 Meter: iambic trimeters.
II.23 William Camden in his Annales for the year 1587 tells how the traitor Rowland Yorke introduced into England the art of fencing with the rapier. The implication of the poem’s conclusion is therefore that good old-fashioned British ways are better than newfangled foreign innovations. Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.23.9 The stick in question was no doubt a wooden practice sword.
II.23.10 For Tarlton the clown see the note on I.31.
II.23.19 Proteus is the shape-shifting Old Man of the Sea in Book Four of the Odyssey.
II.25 Zoilus is a proverbial name for a captious critic.
II.35.6 It would produce a better translation if o ingeniosus could be taken to = ingenuus, “the parrot is polite” (I assume that the imperfect erat is gnomic).
II.36 Meter: hendecasyllables (the first two lines contain metrical errors that do not appear to result from errors by the printer).
II.48 This appears to have been written prior to Burleigh’s death in 1598.
II.49 Cecil was created Earl of Salisbury in 1605. III.154 is also addressed to him.
II.50 Written after Burleigh’s death in 1598.
II.51 After the death of Alfonso II Duke of Ferrara, who had no legitimate heir, the dukedom lapsed and its estate accrued to the Pope.
II.57 In 1591 Sir Richard Grenville became a national hero by singlehandedly fighting a Spanish fleet off the Asores in his flagship the Revenge. The story is told in William Camden’s Annales for the year 1591.
II.58 Democritus was known as “the laughing philosopher,” and Heraclitus as “the weeping philosopher.”
II.61 Sir Philip Sidney’s sister Mary Herbert, Countess of Pembroke [1561-1621] Biography in D. N. B.
II.62 Thomas Locke matriculated from Magdalen College, Oxon., in 1585 and when was at Grey’s Inn (Foster III.61). Since Stradling had left Magdalen before Locke’s arrival, he probably made his acquaintance during the period he was at the Inns of Court.
II.63 William Basset [b. 1564] was a son of Christopher Basset of St. Athan, Glamorganshire (a younger brother of William Bassett of Baeaupre). Cf. Traherne, p. 74. He matriculated from Broadgates Hall, Oxon., in 1578 (Foster I.63).
II.63.1 Gnatho is a parasite in Terence’s Eunuchus, and his name has become proverbial for a sycophantic flatterer.
II.64 In 1595 a Spanish raiding party landed at Mouse-hole in Cornwall, and provoked the English raid on Cadiz in the following year (William Camden tells the story in his Annales for 1595). This poem was presumably written prior to 1597, when Charles Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral of England, was created the Earl of Nottingham.
II.65 For Camden see the note on I.117. Camden first published his famous description of England Britannia, in 1586 (revised versions printed in 1594, 1600, and 1607).
II.65.4 Seu = ceu.
II.66 Meter: choliambics.
II.66.15 The allusion is to Seneca’s Hercules Furens.
II.67 Sir Thomas Baskerville [d. 1597], general who commanded English forces in the Netherlands and M. P. from Carmarthen. Biography in D. N. B. .
II.68 William Camden tells the story of Lancaster’s raiding expedition to South America in his Annales for the year 1594).
II.69 Frobusher died in 1594.
II.70 This seems a strange epigram. Stradling has the famous sailor’s Christian name wrong, for surely this is written for the famous seaman Thomas Cavendish, who circumnavigated the globe in 1586 - 88 (when he set sail on the voyage he was 36 years old, scarcely a iuvenis), and perished in 1592 during an unsuccessful attempt to repeat the feat.
II.72 Sir Edward Mansell of Llangewydd [d. 1595], head of one of Glamorganshire’s most powerful families. Biography in D. N. B.
II.73 Sir Edward married Lady Jane Somerset, younger daughter of Henry, Earl of Worcester [d. 1548]. Through the Gamages they were related to Charles Lord Howard of Effingham.
II.74 Two individuals of this name, both gentlemen from Glamorganshire, were associated with Brasenose College. The elder [b. 1566] took his B. A. in 1574, the younger [b. 1573] matriculated in 1584 (Foster III.990).
II.75 Sir William Herbert [d. 1596], grandson of Sir George Herbert of Swansea and eldest son of Matthew Herbert, by Mary daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage (Traherne, p. 74), a frequent correspondent of Sir Edward Stradling. He is also the addressee of II.124, and III.162, and IV.41. In the headings of some of these epigrams he is identified as OF MONMOUTH or OF RAGLAN to distinguish himself from his namesake, Sir William Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. Meter: choliambics.
II.76.6
I.e., with money (pecunia, derived from pecus, “cow”).
II.77.2 Seu = ceu.
II.80.3 See the note on I.29.13.
II.81 Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.88.3 Vergil, Eclogue iii.93.
II.89 Traherne, pp. 261f., prints a letter to Sir Edward Stradling from William Evans LL B., Chancellor of the diocese of Llandaff [d. 1589], who subscribes himself “Your worship’s poore kinsman and frind,” although I cannot ascertain the nature of the familial relationship. Presumably Leysan Evans was a relative of this individual, perhaps a son.
II.95 Seu = Ceu.
II.96 In Stradling’s idiolect, the Greek loan-word battologus (which he presumably acquired from Matthew 6:7) does not designate a stammerer, but rather an incoherent or driveling writer.
II.101 See the note on I.74.
II.102 William St. John was some member of the family of Oliver St. John (Baron St. John of Bletso), whose aunt Margaret married Sir Thomas Gamage of Coity. A daughter produced by this marriage, Catherine, was the wife of Sir Edward Stradling’s father Sir Thomas (see the pedigree at Traherne p. xxi, and p. 92).
II.104 Thomas Lutterel of Somerset, gentleman [b. 1562] , matriculated from Broadgates Hall, Oxon., in 1579, and registered at Gray’s Inn in 1580 (Foster III.951). The nature of his familial relationship to the poet is unknown. IV.100 is also addressed to Lutterel.
II.106 Elizabeth Jane Weston [1581 - 1612] was still in early infancy when her father died, and soon thereafter her mother married the alchemist (and Dr. John Dee’s “skryer” or crystal-gazer) Edward Kelley. When Kelley entered the service of the emperor Rudolf II, he brought his family with him, but he eventually got in trouble by killing one of Rudolf’s courtiers, and died in prison in 1597, leaving his family stranded and destitute in Prague. In happier days, Kelley had provided Mary with a Humanistic education, and Mary proved to have a phenomenal talent for writing Latin verse. She attracted the attention of the Silesian nobleman Georg Martinius von Baldhoven, who encouraged her talent, appointed himself as a kind of impresario to gain attention for her, and edited a volume of her works arranged in two Books, Poemata (1602). An expanded version, containing a third Book largely consisting of Latin letters to and from Weston, was published ca. 1608 under the title Parthenica. Besides displaying Weston’s very considerable accomplishments as a poet, these volumes have two main purposes. In many poems addressed to the Emperor and personages of the Imperial Court, she laments her plight, and is solicits much-needed support and patronage. At the same time, she is not behindhand in exploiting the artistic possibilities inherent in her predicament: she often writes in terms reminiscent of Ovid’s exile poetry. Weston’s works have recently been edited, Elizabeth Jane Weston: Collected Writings Edited and Translated by Donald Cheney and Brenda M. Hosington with the assistance of D. K. Money (University of Toronto Press, 2000). At the end of this volume is printed a number of verses by her by contemporaries. It is striking that all except the present item are written by Continental poets, and that Stradling appears to have been the only contemporary Englishman to acknowledge her accomplishments.
II.110 Because he was a knight (see IV.107, also addressed to him) this individual cannot be identified with the John Wyndham of Somerset, pleb., who was the father of the similar-named man who matriculated from Magdalen College, Oxon, in 1600 (Foster IV.1693). I have discovered no evidence about the nature of his familial relationship to Stradling. Meter: hendecasyllables.
II.115.10 Parmeno is the slave-character in Terence’s Eunuchus.
II.116.7 Irus is the disreputable beggar in the Odyssey. Codrus was a legendary king of Athens, and perhaps the idea is “a man as old as Codrus.”
II.116.22 Ecclesiastes 3:1.
II.124 See the note on II.75 (Raglan Castle is seven miles from Monmouth).
III.1 Meter: hendecasyllables.
III.2 Momus (who appears in Lucian’s dialogues) was the ancient god of captious criticism.
III.3 Since this catalogue of Sir Edward’s engineering projects does not include the seawall he built at Aberthaw (Swansea) in 1606, we must think it was written prior to that date.
III.3.1 Nil pulchrum nisi difficle appears to be a proverb (it is not a quote from Classical Latin literature).
III.3.5
Sir Edward’s lands included these two rivers, the Ogmore to the west (emptying into the estuary-like mouth of the Severn at Ogmore-by-Sea) and the Thaw to the west (emptying into the mouth of the Severn just east of Breaksea Point).
III.3.7 The river silting was overcome by Sir Edward’s aquaduct described in II.9.
III.3.11 The protective wall built for Sir Edward’s garden, mentioned also in I.120.
III.3.15 According to a sidenote, this quay projected three hundred and sixty feet into the waters of the Severn estuary. Williams (p. 31) interprets this construction project as an attempt “to construct a tiny harbour at Ogmore.”
III.4 Stradling married Elizabeth, daughter of Edward Gage of Firle.
III.5.2 At De Amicitia lxxxi.1, Cicero defined a friend: est enim is, qui est tamquam alter idem.
III.6 Anne Gage, Elizabeth’s sister.
III.7 The Cathedral school at Bristol (the Cathedral was originally an Augustinian abbey), where Stradling had been taught by the prebendary Edward Greene (cf. I.115). It is striking that the poet includes two items expressing gratitude for his early education, but nothing similar about his time at Oxford.
III.8 Compare the epigram quoted by Attorney General Edward Coke in his speech for the prosecution of Father Henry Garnet in 1606,

Cum triplici fulvum coniunge leone leonem,
Ut varias atavus iunxerat ante rosas,
Maius opus varios sine pugna unire leones,
Sanguine quam varias consociasse rosas.

III.9 Bristol-born Tobie Mathew was something of a superstar among contemporary preachers, and had been Dean of Christ Church during the years Stradling was at Oxford. The present poem was written after his consecration as of Durham in 1595, and before his translation to the see of York in 1606. IV.106 is also addressed to Mathew.
III.10 Gervase Babington was consecrated Bishop of Llandaff in 1591, translated to the see of Exeter in 1594, and to the see of Worcester in 1597.
III.11 Francis Godwin, consecrated Bishop of Llandaff in 1601, is best remembered as the author of The Man in the Moone: or A Discourse of a Voyage Thither by Domingo Gonsales, the Speedy Messenger (printed 1638). He is presumably addressed as a “brother in Christ.” IV.97 is also addressed to Godwin.
III.16 Probably written to Barbara Gamage (for whom cf. III.159 and the commentary note ad loc.).
III.20 Stradling seems to be writing of of Prince Henry as the Prince of Wales, although he was not formally invested as such until June 1610.
III.21 In many of the epigrams about James I, Stradling places great emphasis on the new Union created by his accession. In a sidenote he quotes a saying of the king, “I shall make them into one people.”
III.21.1 A deliberate echo of Vergil, Eclogue i.66, et penitus toto divisos orbe Britannos.
III.22 ΒΑΣΙΛΙΚΟΝ ΔΩΡΟΝ (“The Royal Gift”) was the title of a 1599 book of practical advice about statecraft written for Prince Henry by James
III.23 Stradling made one of two mistakes To the Romans a lustrum was a period of five years, but he may have thought it was ten, since the previous Prince of Wales was the future Henry VIII, who occupied the position from 1504 to 1509. Alternatively, he may have wrongly assumed that Edward VI had held this title. This wrong impression was not uncommon: portraits of Edward do exist showing him sporting the three-plumed emblem of the princedom.
III.24 Lord William Herbert was the son of Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke. This poem was written after Herbert’s assumption of the Earldom in 1601.
III.25 This sickly girl died at a young age.
III.26 Egerton was created Baron Ellesmere and appointed as Lord Chancellor soon after James’ accession in 1603. IV.21 is also addressed to him. A sidenote quotes the adage “The highest law, the highest injury.”
III.27 Sir John Popham, Chief Justice of the King’s Bench under James. IV.21 is also addressed to him. Popham’s mother was Jane, daughter of Sir Edward Stradling [d. 1535], Sir Edward Stradling’s grandfather.
III.27.2f. The allusion is to Hercules’ first labor, the killing of the Erymanthian boar (“Maenalian” = Arcadian).
III.28 Henry Wriothesley, third Earl of Southampton (Shakespeare’s patron). He had initially angered Elizabeth by his 1598 secret marriage to the lady-in-waiting Elizabeth Vernon. The next year he was recalled in disgrace from Essex’ Irish expedition. His involvement in the Essex Rebellion initially led to a death sentence, which was changed to one of life imprisonment. On the accession of James, he was restored to liberty and favor.
III.30 Spenser’s home at Kilcolman, Ireland, was burned in Tyrone’s rebellion of October 1598. I.47 and IV.108 are also addressed to Spenser.
III.31 IV.108 is also addressed to Daniel.
III.32 Perhaps the writing of this epigram was provoked by the appearance of Drayton’s 1606 Poems Lyric and Pastoral (1606), which contained Drayton’s attempt to write an epic, The Battle of Agincourt.
III.38 Battus claims to be a poet, but traditionally when one is called “a man of three letters” the letters in question spell fur, “thief.”
III.47 For Leyson, see the note on I.12.
III.48 This epigram bears a striking resemblance to Charles Fitzgeoffrey, Affaniae III.64.
III.49 The pedigree given Traherne, p. xxi, by does not show the issue of Stradling’s brothers.
III.50 Although Stradling evidently had two brothers named Thomas (see the note on I.68), use of the word cognatus suggests a more distant kinsman.
III.53.1 For Gnatho see the note on II.63.1.
III.59 For Leyson, see the note on I.12. Stradling concocted his odd simile by combining two Classical passages. 1.) Phaedrus, Fabulae Aesopiae I.xxv.3f.:

Canes currentes bibere in Nilo flumine,
A corcodillis ne rapiantur, traditum est.

2.) Pliny the Elder (Natural History X.clxxvii.5), quae ante iustum tempus concepere, diutius caecos habent catulos.
In the first line Seu = Ceu.
II.60 A humorous twist on Cicero, de Finibus II.xlv.22, ut ad Archytam scripsit Plato, non sibi se soli natum meminerit, sed patriae, sed suis, ut perexigua pars ipsi relinquatur.
III.64
None of Stradling’s friends attested in his epigrams has the initials R. A.
III.69 I have not succeeded in identifying this man. In this case, as in that of Robert Robotham below, dominus is probably an academic title (the word designates a man who has been admitted to the degree of Bachelor of Arts), and not to be translated “Sir.”
III.71 Robert Robotham was appointed both precentor of Llandaff Cathedral and rector of St. George-super-Ely, Glamorganshire, in 1603. Academic record and biographical sketch at Foster III.1270).
III.75 A member of the same family as Sir John Wyndham, for whom see the note on II.110.
III.86 Stephanos is the Greek word for a wreath or garland.
III.89 This epigram is glossed by a sidenote citing Psalm 13 (i. e. Psalm 14 in the K. J. V.), which begins The fool hath said in his heart, There is no God. They are corrupt, they have done abominable works, there is none that doeth good.|
III.90 Addressed to “doubting Thomas.”
III.92 John 16:3.
III.96 Rice Morgans was appointed rector of Llandow, Glamorganshire, in 1588, of Llanfoist, co. Monmouth, in 1589, and of Wenvoe, Glamorganshire, in 1596. Academic record and biographical information at Foster III.1030.
III.97 Morgan Johnes or Jones, appointed treasurer of Llandaff Cathedral in 1597 and rector of Newton Nottage 1603. Academic record and biographical information at Foster II.825.
III.97.1 Matthew 6:1.
III.98 Luke 23:12: And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.
III.103 The humor of this epigram is suggested by John Owen’s epigrams I.79 and VII.34.
III.104 Cf. the note on II.25.
III.112 Cf. the note on II.25.
III.117.1 Cf. Horace’s translation of the famous line from the Odyssey proem at Epistulae I.ii.19f.:

qui domitor Troiae multorum providus urbes
et mores hominum inspexit.

III.121.4 As indicated by a sidenote, allusion is to the old philosopher’s definition of Man as a “featherless biped” (first recorded in the Pseudo-Platonic Definitions, p. 415a).
III.130 Perhaps Atwill (whom I have not been able to identify) had the joking nickname “Caverley” with reference to the silk-weaver Sir Hugh Caverley, who was accounted one of the “Nine Worthies of London” for killing a large bear in Poland.
III.131.1 The patron saints of Ireland, Wales, Scotland, France (over which English sovereigns persisted in claiming sovereignty), and England.
III.124 The unflattering comparison is of course with Orpheus.
III.133 I have not been able to find the legend to which Stradling refers in this epigram.
III.139.4 Esse is the indicative of the verbs sum (“to exist”) and edo (“to eat”).
III.140.4 Malum with a short first syllable = “bad.” Malum with a long first syllable = “apple.”
III.143 Camden (in his Annales for the year 1601) narrates Montjoy’s defeat of the Irish rebels, and the honorable surrender of their disgusted Spanish allies.
III.143.12 This line = Aeneid I.204.
III.143.23 The Irish are “yellow” because they wore surplices dyed with urine, as explained by Camden in his Annales for the year 1561.
III.144 The addressee is not James’ heir Prince Henry but his predecessor as Prince of Wales, Henry Tudor (the future Henry VIII) who, having a Lancastrian father and a Yorkist mother, embodied in his person the ending of the War of the Roses and a new national unification. There is an implied comparison with James, who has achieved the Union of England and Scotland (as is made more explicit in III.149). As indicated in a sidenote on III.149, HENRICUS ROSAS was the inscription on the gold coin known as the rose-noble.
III.145 Edinburgh is a source of delights because it produced King James.
III.149 See the note on III.144. The title and the beginning of the epigram of course echo the injunction from the office of holy matrimony in the Book of Common Prayer, “whom God hath joined together no let no man rend asunder.” Stradling may have written this epigram in imitation of the similar statement about the Union in the Earl of Northampton’s speech the trial of Father Henry Garnet (A True and Perfect Relation of the Proceedings at the Severall Arraignments of the Late Most Barbarous Traitors, London, 1606, X.187), I resemble the rare object of the King our masters ayme (in seeking to unite and knit together all his subjects affections, scopes and endevours nodo indissolubili [with an indissoluble knot] to this end chiefely, that it may not rest hereafter in the power of flesh to seaver what thath been conjoyned by the hand of grace) etc.
I.151.5 A parody of Aeneid I.33, tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem.
III.152.5 Westminster Abbey is dedicated to St. Peter.
III.152.15 The Burse or Royal Exchange, constructed by Sir Thomas Gresham in 1571.
III.152.21f. A deliberate contradiction of Vergil’s boast about Rome at Eclogue i.24f.:

verum haec tantum alias inter caput extulit urbes
quantum lenta solent inter viburna cupressi.

At the same time, he implicitly compares himself, the country dweller come to town, with the shepherd Tityrus who utters this exclamation in Vergil.
III.153 Written after Thomas Sackville, Baron Buckhurst, was created Earl of Dorset in 1604.
III.154 Cf. the note on II.49.
III.155 William Herbert, third Earl of Pembroke [b. 1580], and his brother Philip, Earl of Montgomery [b. 1584], who eventually succeeded him as fourth Earl of Pembroke.
III.155.7 Castor and Pollux, sons of the swan-born Helen.
III.156 Henry Howard, Earl of Northampton [1540 - 1614].
III.157 The Frances Sidney, daughter of Sir Philip Sidney and Frances Walsingham, married the Earl of Rutland.
III.158 Sir Philip Sidney’s younger brother Sir Robert Sidney, Lord de l’Isle, created Earl of Leicester in 1618.
III.158.7 Gods of commerce and war.
III.159 Sir Edward Stradling’s mother was a Gamage, creating a family relationship with this powerful Glamagorganshire family. Sir Robert Sidney, Sir Philip’s younger brother, Lord de l’Isle and Earl of Leicester, married Barbara, daughter and sole heiress of John Gamage of Coity, in 1584. III.16 is probably also written for Barbara Gamage.
III.160 Sir Robert Sidney’s daughter Catherine married Lewis Mansell , bart., of Margan, son of Sir Edward Mansell (see the note on II.72).
III.161 Sir Robert Sidney’s sons William and Robert.
III.162 See the note on II.75.
III.166 Calvus (which actually means “bald”) is one of the names frequently used by Martial to designate his fictitious characters. Such names became traditional for later epigramists.
III.167.1 See the note on II.76.6.
III.168 A puzzling heading. The book has AD HEN. FOX. FR. SUUM, and there seems no plausible expansion of the abbreviation other than FRATREM. But one can only guess who Henry Fox is. To be sure, in I.116 and elsewhere Stradling employs the word frater for his brother-in-law William Gage. Was Fox a stepson of his father-in-law, or possibly an illegitimate son of Stradling’s own father?
III.170 Richard Trevor of Denbeigh matriculated from Queens’ College, Cantab., in 1577 and received his LL. D. in 1598. In 1598 he was knighted and elected M. P. from Bletchingley. Academic record and biographical sketch at Venn IV.164.
III.171 See the note on I.9. Meter: alternating dactylic hexameters and iambic dimeters.
III.170.12 Although I translate it as “indictment,” which seems to fit the context well enough, I actually do not know what glossa meant in the Latin terminology of the Common Law.
III.172 Meter: hendecasyllables.
III.173 For Sir Edward Stradling’s younger brother David, an activist Recusant, see Griffiths p. 39; I have found no other evidence for his interest in Natural Science.
III.174 Sir Henry Portman, son of Sir William Portman, Chief Justice of the King’s Bench [d. 1590]. Traherne, pp. 183f. prints a 1576 letter from him to Sir Edward Stradling. For his wife Joan, the poet’s maternal aunt, see the note on I.54. Meter: alternating dactylic hexameters and iambic dimeters
III.175 Probably Francis Stradling was a nephew.
III.176 Edward Lord Zouche of Haringworth [1556 - 1625]. He was married to Lucy, sister of Sir Philip Sidney.
III.177.5 The stigma was a marginal mark of censure employed by ancient critics.
IV.2.2f. See the note on II.60.
IV.3.7 Pythagoras believed in reincarnation.
IV.3.8 See the note on II.58.
IV.V.1 For the first phrase see the note on I.119.66. The only example of the second I can find in classical Latin literature is Silius Italicus, Punica V.264f. quid gentibus auri / nunquam extincta sitis?
IV.6.4 A sidenote glosses this line with the idiomatic phrase to slander one with the truth.
IV.8 See the note on I.74.
IV.10 William Thomas of co. Carnarvon [b. 1563]. Academic record and biographical sketch at Foster IV.1474). IV.136 is also addressed to Thomas. In this epigram Stradling plays with two possible etymologies of the word exchequer. The first, from scaccario (It. “board”, or “bank”), is discussed in the Oxford English Dictionary s. v. chequer (Stradling found it in Camden’s Britannia, although it has a long history). The alternative that the poet proposes is merely playful. Meter: iambic trimeters.
IV.10.2 See Camden's Britannia on The Courts of England (tr. Philemon Holland):

The Exchequer tooke that name of a boord or table whereat they sat. For thus writeth Gervase of Tilburie, who lived in the yeere 1160. The Exchequer is a foure cornered boord, about ten foot long and five foot broad, fitted in a maner of a table for men to sit round about it. On every side a standing ledge or border it hath of the bredth of foure fingers. Upon this Exchequer boord is laid a cloth bought in Easter terme, and the same of black colour, and rewed with strikes [stripes] distant one from another a foote and a span.

IV.11 For “G. G.” (William Gage) see the note on I.116.
IV.12 For Gnatho see the note on II.63.1.
IV.12.1 A sidenote refers the reader to Diogenes Laertius, Lives of the Philosophers VI.32.5
IV.13 Probably John Gage, for whom cf. the letters to Sir Edward Stradling printed by Traherne, pp. 217 - 223, a member of the family joined to the Stradlings by a double link of marriage.
IV.18 Richard Seyes of Glamorganshire [b, 1564]. Academic record and biographical sketch at Foster IV.1337). I have not ascertained the nature of his familial relationship to Stradling.
IV.19.2 Another pun on testis = “witness” and = “testicle.”
IV.20 Meter: hendecasyllables.
IV.21 For Ellesmere cf. the note on III.26. For Popham cf. the note on III.27.
IV.22 I have discovered nothing about Sir Robert Lewkenor, presumably a kinsman of the next addressee.
IV.23 Samuel Leukenor, author of A discourse for such as are desirous to know…of all those cities wherein doe flourish priviledged universities (London, 1600). I have found no biographical information about this individual. Nor have I found any evidence for the familial relationship of the Lewkenors with the Stradlings.
Stradling’s notion that the reading of history is supposed to be morally instructive is quite in keeping with serious contemporary thought on the subject. Cf. Digory Wheare’s De Ratione et Methodo Legendi Historias (1623).
IV.25.3 Aristarchus was an exacting Alexandrian critic.
IV.26 See the note on I.100.
IV.27 See the note on III.3.1.
IV.28 A rumor of the King’s death circulated in March 1605 and had to be refuted by a royal proclamation. Cf. John Nichols, The Progresses, Processions, and Magnificent Festivities of King James the First (London, 1828) II.38 - 40.
IV.29.1 Queen Anne was the daughter of Frederick II of Denmark and sister to his successor Christian IV.
IV.31 James’ second son Prince Charles was created Duke of York in January 1605.
IV.33 Margaret died in infancy in 1598, Mary died at two years of age in 1607.
IV.34 Lady Arabella Stuart [d. 1615], daughter to James’ uncle the Duke of Lennox, was the closest claimant to the throne after James. This was of course written while she was still in official favor, before her imprisonment in the Tower in 1609.
IV.35 I have no idea who these “collateral princes” are supposed to be. The younger brother of James’ father Charles Lord Darnley, Charles Earl of Lenox, had only one child, Lady Arabella Suart
IV.36 Mercury was the god of commerce.
IV.38 See the note on II.64.
IV.39 Sir John Croke [1553 - 1620] was appointed a judge in Wales in 1603; subsequently he replaced Sir John Popham as Chief Justice of the King’s Bench.
IV.40 Francis Tate [1560 - 1616], antiquarian and member of the commission of the peace for Glamorganshire in 1604. Biography in the D. N. B.
IV.41See the note on II.75.
IV.42 Sir Francis Popham [1573 - 1607], son of Sir John Popham, for whom cf. the note on III.27.
IV.43 Presumably Hugh was the son of Sir Henry and Joan Portman. For the Portman family and its connection to the Stradlings see the note on III.174.
IV.44 Sir Thomas Stradling’s sister Catherine married Thomas Palmer of Parham, Sussex [d. ca. 1583], and, according to the Stradling pedigree, had issue (including a son John). The addressee of the present poem presumably belonged to the same family, perhaps another son of Thomas and Catherine. As described in Camden’s Annales for the year 1596, he was knighted for heroism during the Cadiz expedition.
IV.45 Traherne, pp. 239f. prints a 1583 letter from Arthur Bassett to Sir Edward Stradling that contains the following passage:

I am hereby to requeste you to sende unto me, at any of my houses in Devonshire, your servaunte, Thomas Richardes, by the last daye of this instante moneth; and to cause him to bringe with him bothe his instrumentes, aswell that with ys stringed with wyar stringes, as his harpe, bothe those that he had when he was laste in Devon. I have geven some commendacions of the man, and his instrument with wyars, unto sondry of my good frinds, namely, to my cosen Sir Phellipp Sydney, whoe doth expect to have your man at Salsbury before the viith of Marche next, where there will be an honorable assemblye and receyte of many gentlemen of good calling.

IV.48 The poet’s two sisters are included in the Stradling pedigree (Traherne p. xxi). On the showing of the present item, they were evidently spinsters.
IV.53 See the note on II.96.
IV.58 Duns Scotus [c. 1266 - 1308], theologian and philosopher; either the philologist and physician Julius Caesar Scaligar [1484 - 1558], or his son the scholar - poet Joseph Justus Scaliger [1540 - 1609]; the mathematician Girolamo Cardano [1501 - 1576].
IV.59 Porphyrius was a Neoplatonic philosopher of the third century A. D., whose fragmentary treatise Concerning Cult Images was (to judge from this epigram) read as part of the university Divinity curriculum. Essentially, the work is a theological and philosophical interpretation of the symbolism of the Greek gods and goddesses. Porphyry explains why the gods and goddesses were represented in certain ways, and how their names and symbolism are allegorical references to the powers of nature or cosmic principles (possibly some Protestants found ammunition in this for deriding Catholic adoration of Saints). Stradling is evidently disturbed that a pagan work would be read by Christians.
IV.62 This seawall constructed by Sir Edward’s expense at Aberthaw (Swansea) was built in summer 1606 and destroyed in a terrific flood in January 1607 (described at IV.98).
IV.64 - 68 This little cycle of epigrams was written on the Gunpowder Plot.
IV.65 Anxious lest fellow believers be caught in the explosion, the Plotters sent a letter to the Catholic George Parker, Baron Monteagle, cryptically warning him to stay away from Parliament. But he proved a loyalist and handed the letter in to the authorities. As the story was given out, by his genius (and with a healthy dose of divine inspiration) James understood the letter’s purport (the subject of the following epigram), and the Plot was disrupted on the eve of Parliament.
IV.65.5 An echo of the famous line from Cicero’s De Consulatu Suo, O fortunatam natam me consule Romam!
IV.69 Read in the context of this cycle on the Gunpowder Plot, this epigram must be read as a rebuke of Father Garnet and the other Jesuits who allegedly supported the Plot.
IV.69.7 John 18:10 - 11.
IV.70 This epigram is suggested by the Jesuit doctrine of Equivocation advocated by Father Garnett, the Jesuit Superior in England, who was tried and executed together with the Gunpowder Plotters. According to this doctrine, the Faithful are entitled to lie to governmental authorities about their religious convictions. The reader may be interested in Attorney General Coke’s explanation of this doctrine in the trial of the Gunpowder Plotters, set forth here.
IV.82.2 See the note on I.22.2. The same humor can be found in John Owen’s epigram VIII.11, printed after the present work. Did Stradling invent the joke, or did both epigramists inherit it from a common source?
IV.85.2 The liar’s ears are embarrassed by his tongue.
IV.86 The D. N. B. biography mentions (without citing evidence) a period of foreign travel after Stradling’s sojourn at the Inns of Court. The present poem is the only one in the collection that would appear to emanate from that Tour.
IV.87 In view of Stradling’s pronounced tendency to consort with West Country men, Hugh Sanford was perhaps a kinsman of John Sanford of Chard in Somersetshire, chaplain of Magdalene College, Oxon., whose lyric cycle celebrating Elizabeth’s 1592 visit to Oxford, Apollonis et Musarum Εὐκτικὰ Εἰδύλλια. The factual basis of this epigram is that, now that the war with Spain was winding down, James was much more generous in the bestowal of knighthoods (and patents of nobility, as Stradling was soon to discover) than Elizabeth had been during wartime.
IV.89 William Weoth of co. Monmouth matriculated as a Case Scholar from Jesus College, Oxon., in 1586. Another individual of the same name [b. 1576], also from co. Monmouth, matriculated from Christ Church, Oxon., in 1596, received the M. A. in 1605, and (subsequent to the publication of the present volume) was appointed rector of Llanvaches and Llanvihangel Rogiet, co. Monmouth (Foster IV.1689). IV.113 is also addressed to Wroth.
IV.89.3 A sidenote refers to Horace’s injunctions for careful writing at Ars Poetica 438ff.
IV.89.2 A lustrum was a Roman way of counting five years.
IV.90 John Owen, the popular epigramist [1564? - 1622?], whose first published work, Ioannis Audoeni Epigrammatum libri III, had appeared a year before the present volume, was, like Stradling, Welsh-born and Oxford-educated. His influence on Stradling has been discussed in the Introduction. His complete works are included in the Philological Museum here. See also IV.106 with the commentary note ad loc.
IV.91 For Gage see the note on I.116.
IV.92 Maurice of Nassau [1567-1625], stadtholder of Holland and Zeeland, captain general and admiral of the United Netherlands. Subsequently, in 1618, he was created Prince of Orange. The present epigram is written in reaction to his failed attempt to invade Flanders and expel the Spanish from the southern territories of the Lowlands.
IV.92.7 Dabit Deus his quoque finem is taken from Aeneid I.199.
IV.94 Traherne, pp. 300f. prints a 1585 letter from Simon Thelwal of Plasward, Denbighshire, to Sir Edward Stradling that contains the following passage:

She was verie glade of your lettre that you wrott unto me touchine the correction of the genealogie of the Stradlinges, sett forth by Doctor Powell; and I do thanke you largely for the same lettre.

I cannot imagine what place “Ast” is supposed to be. Even if we assume that Stradling swung around through Gloucestershire (the Severn becomes much more easily passable above Chaxhill), there is no town along the river named (e. g.) Aston. Perhaps this word designates the name of Powell’s manor rather than the town in which he lived.
IV.95 No William Stradling appears in the the Stradling pedigree (Traherne p. xxi).
IV.97 See the note on III.11. As indicated in a sidenote, the “flames” from which God has recently rescued the British represent the Gunpowder Plot.
IV.98 The construction of this seawall at Aberthaw (Swansea) is described in IV.62. Stradling employs old style dating: the flood occurred in January 1607.
IV.98.6 Vesta was the Roman goddess of the hearth, i. e. of fire: Stradling had imagined there was a boundary which neither fire nor water could transgress.
IV.98.10 Glaucus was a marine deity in antiquity.
IV.100 See the note on II.104. Dunster is a town in Somerset.
IV.103 See the note on III.9. This poem was written after Matthew’s translation to the see of York in 1606.
IV.103.4 Inferius (“or less”) perhaps indicates a veiled hope that Matthew will be elevated to the see of Canterbury.
IV.104 Richard Vaughan was translated from Chester to the see of London in 1604.
IV.105 John, Baron Lumley [d. 1609], entrusted with various serious responsibilities by both Elizabeth and James, was named as an executor of the wills both of Sir Edward Stradling and of his father Sir Thomas. Traherne, pp. 316f. prints an undated letter from Lumley to Sir Edward Stradling.
IV.106 Lady Mary Neville was the daughter of Thomas Sackville, Earl of Dorset (for whom see the commentary note on III.153), married to the courter-diplomat Sir Henry Neville. Her “bard” was John Owen, who dedicated his 1606 volume of epigrams to her (see the note on IV.90), so that this poem is written in praise of Owen no less than of Lady Mary.
IV.107 See the note on II.110.
IV.108 I.47 and III.109 are also addressed to Spencer. III.31 is also addressed to Daniel.
IV.109 From I.26 we learn that the restoration of Castle St. Donat’s had actually been started by Sir Edward’s father.
IV.109.7 According to the (legendary) story, the Norman conqueror parcelled out Glamorganshire to twelve knights in about 1090, one of whom, Sir William le Esterling, alias Stradling, the supposed founder of the family, received the manor of Castle St. Donat’s. This story is told most fully in the Morganiae Archaeiographia written by Rice Merrick (Rhys Meurig) in the mid-sixteenth century, and repeated by Sir Edward Stradling in his The Winning of the Lordship of Glamorgan (ca. 1565, printed 1584). Both documents can be read in the edition of James. William Camden retold this story in his Britannia while describing Glamorganshire. In actuality, the Stradling family in England dates to the latter part of the 13th century, as detailed here, when Castle St. Donat’s was acquired by marriage from the de Hawleys, as detailed here.
IV.110.2 I have not identified the source of this line.
IV.111 Simon Peter and Simon the Mage of the Book of Acts.
IV.113 See the note on IV.89.
IV.115 Cf. 1 Corinthians 15:9, 1, For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
IV.116 Probably sons of Sir William Lewis of the Van. Traherne, pp. 337 - 9. prints an undated letter from Sir William to Sir Edward Stradling. I have not ascertained the nature of the familial relationship of the Lewises to the Stradlings.
IV.119 King Christian IV of Denmark, brother to Queen Anne, paid a state visit to England in July 1606.
IV.120.1 See the note on I.47.
IV.121 In his Annales for the year 1600 William Camden tells the story of how James was rescued from the clutches of the Earl of Gowrie by Areskin and Ramsay, during which affray Ramsay killed Gowrie’s brother Alexander Ruthven.
IV.123 Since Sir Edward was born in 1529, he celebrated his birthday in 1607.
IV.124 Sir Francis Vere [1560 - 1609], a kinsman of the Earl of Oxford and general who commanded English forces in the Netherlands.
“Ever since their days as descendants of Vikings in the Contentin, the De Veres seem to have been given to elaborate punning…Most especially, the name Vere lends itself to connections with Latin verus ‘true’ — the family motto was Vero nichil verius, ‘nothing is truer than truth/Vere’”— Ralph Hanna III and A. S. G. Edwards, “Rotheley, the De Vere Circle, and the Ellesmere Chaucer,” in Sith Lerer (ed.), Reading from the Margins: Textual Studies, Chaucer, and Medieval Literature (San Marino, Cal., 1996) p. 22.
IV.127 See the note on II.13.
IV.129 See the note on III.155.
IV.132 Meter: hendecasyllables.
IV.136 See the note on IV.10.
IV.142.2 A sidenote explains that Saturn’s realms (sky, sea, Underworld) were inherited by Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto respectively.
IV.145 See the note on II.25.
Typographus lectori This epigram precedes the list of errata on the final page of the volume.