Notes to the Commentary

NOTE 1 Essentially the epithet echoes the Church’s distinction between an honorable sexual union (honesta sexuum commixtio) in marriage and the alternative, a sexual liaison not intended to lead to marriage: Philippe Ariès, “The Indissoluble Marriage,” in Western Sexuality: Practice and Precept in Past and Present Times, eds. Philippe Ariès and André Béjin (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985), 145.

spacerNOTE 2 Haec prima aegloga de honesto amore foelicique eius exitu inscribitur non sine ratione: nam licet nondum religionem professus haec veluti ingenii sui praeludia composuerat: ad poesim haud dubie natus auctor: tamen quia ne tunc quidem quicquam inhonestum aut concipere aut edere voluisset: & nunc cum recognosceret si offendisset nimirum reiecisset. Proinde ne si de amoribus titulum quispiam severus [severius?] religiosus lectitans aufugeret : inscipisit de amore honesto : quo revera nihil est homine dignius. Hic autem amor honestus describitur : quia affectione matrimomiali initus. Additur autem de foelici eius exitu : vt eos qui amare volent ad honestum amorem inuitet quippe cuius foelix est exitus. (Ad, fol. 107)

spacerNOTE 3 Echoes first noted by Katarina Windscheid in Die englische Hirtendichtung von 1570 - 1625 (Halle: n. p., 1895), 39-40. Sabie’s eclogues are reprinted with a discussion of sources by Mustard and J. W. Bright in “Pan’s Pipe, Three Pastoral Eclogues, With Other Verses, By Francis Sabie (1595),”MP, 7 (1910), 433 - 64 (see also here). Mario Equicola summarizes the action of Mantuan’s first three eclogues in his Libro di natura d’ amore (Venice: Gabriel Giolito de Ferarra, 1554), 68f. (M 48).

spacerNOTE 4 See note 77 to the Introduction, for Bewick’s and other translations in collections. Lines 48-52 were anonymously translated as “Eclogue the First Baptistae Mantuani. Love Described,” in MS. *Rawl. poet. 197, fol. 10v, Bodleian Library, Oxford.

spacerNOTE 5 Neo-Latin Literature and the Pastoral (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1965), 129. In addition to Grant (129 - 34), the following have also translated this eclogue in this century: Lucia Gualdo Rosa, in Poeti latini del quattrocento, eds. Francesco Arnaldi, Lucia Gualdo Rosa, and Liliana Monti Sabia, (Milan/Naples: Ricciardi, 1964), 888 - 99; Pierre Laurens, in Musae reduces: anthologie de la poésie latine de la renaissance (Leiden: Brill, 1975), 84 - 87. Thomas A. Ryan, “The First Eclogue of Mantuan,” Allegorica, 1 (1976), 117 - 25. (Ryan also includes a translation of Mantuan’s dedicatory letter); Fred J. Nichols, in An Anthology of Neo-Latin Poetry (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1979), 203 - 11.

spacerNOTE 6 Anon., Mantuani Aeglogae tertia and quarta... Teucrides Annaeus Privatus [i.e., Johann Adam Lonicer], 1601 (C 447).

spacerNOTE 7 “Die Eklogen des Alexander Barclay,” Neuphilologische Beiträge I (1886), 27.

spacerNOTE 8 Like Nashe, Greene contends that Mantuan inferred “a generall by a particular” (Mamillia, in Life and Complete Works II.100f.), failing to recognize, as Nashe puts it, that among women “as amongst men, [there be] some good, some badde...” (Anatomy of Absurditie, in Works III.225). Besides these references (M 41f.), Mustard notes (41) that Greene twice returned to the topic in Mamillia, stressing in the second part that Mantuan’s railing is “more of course then cause, and rather inforced by rage than inferred by reason” (Life and Complete Works II.107, 226). In “Julia,” one of John Donne’s elegies, Mantuan’s name has become virtually synonymous with misogyny: “Would to God [Julia] were / But halfe so loath to act vice, as to heare / My milde reproofe. Liv’d Mantuan now againe, / That fœmall Mastix, to limme with his penne / This she Chymera... (The Elegies and The Songs and Sonnets, ed. Helen Gardner [Oxford Univ. Press, 1965], 100f.).

spacerNOTE 9 As Mustard points out (44), Umber's attack is alluded to contemptuously by Jane Shore in a passage in England’s Heroicall Epistles that Drayton notes he would annotate with quotations from Mantuan’s eclogue “were it not, that [fantasticke and insolent women] are growne wiser, then to amend for such an idle poets speech” (Works, II.255, 259). Nonetheless, Lord Bonavida threatens to throw Mantuan’s words back at the “proud Queen” Isabel in Thomas Heywood’s Challange for Beautie (The Dramatic Works, ed. R. H. Shepherd [London: J. Pearson, 1874], V.6) (M 44).

spacerNOTE 10 Besides versions in the collections recorded note 77 to the Introduction,, the following translate or paraphrase large portions or the whole of this eclogue: Hermann von Sachsenheim, Die mörin..., Strasbourg: J. Grüninger, 1512. (C 212); Anon., “Pastorale in dispregio delle donne,” appended to Consiglio Matrimoniale fatto a dì...1553, in MS. Cod. Ferrajolus 723, pp. 962-68, Bibl. Apostolica Vaticana, Rome. (A translation of lines 110 - 245); Anon., Mantuani Aeglogae tertia and quarta..., Teucrides Annaeus Privatus [i.e., Johann Adam Lonicer], 1601 (C447) (a translation into German); Anon., “The Nature of Women,” in John Dryden’s Poetical Miscellanies, third ed. (London: Jacob Tonson, 1702), II.213 - 23; William Parsons, “Woman, the cause of all our joys and pains,” in MS. *Don. d. 123, p. 211, Bodleian Library, Oxford. (a paraphrase of lines 110 - 49;) N. N., Vrouwen-lof... in Nederduytschen Rijm gesteldt..., n. p., 1678. (ref. C 483) (A translation of lines 110 - 241); Pierre Laurens, in Musae reduces: anthologie de la poésie latine de la renaissance, Leiden: Brill, 1975, pp. 86 - 93. (A translation of lines 110 - 245).

spacerNOTE 11 Culturally as well as in literature: in Table Talk Martin Luther quotes a portion of Umber’s attack (lines 110 - 50), apparently from memory: D. Martin Luthers Werke. Tischreden (Weimer: Hermann Böhlau, 1912 - 21), III.376. (At another point [ibid., I.107] he remarks that the enforced study of scholastic philosophy in the schools confined his study of poetry to the works of Mantuan, Virgil, and Ovid [the Heroides]).

spacerNOTE 12 A string of epithets attacking women in Folengo’s fourth eclogue, according to A. Momigliano in “Le quattro redazioni della ‘Zanitonella,’” GSLI 73 (1919), 196f.

spacerNOTE 13 Grant, op. cit., 397, 396. Mustard (56) also finds a clear echo of Umber’s attack in Luigi Pasqualigo’s influential comedy Il Fedele (see the note on line 124).

spacerNOTE 14 Oswald Reissert, op. cit., 23 - 26.

spacerNOTE 15 For Spenser’s use of Mantuan’s eclogue, see Var VII (1), 372f., 378 - 87, and 389 - 90, and Lee Piepho in the forthcoming Handbook of Spenser Studies edited by Richard McCabe for Oxford University Press. In L’Eglogue en France, Alice Hulubei discusses the influence of Eclogue V on Clément Marot’s “Eglogue au Roy soubz les noms de Pan et Robin” (pp. 218 -2 0). Mantuan’s eclogue has been translated in the twentieth century by William Porter in “Eclogue Five of Mantuan (1448 - 1516): Candidus: On the Treatment of Poets by the Wealthy,” Allegorica 6 (1981), 7 - 20.

spacerNOTE 16 H. Walther, Das Streitgedicht in der lateinischen Literatur des Mittelalters, esp., for contrast, p. 154.

spacerNOTE 17 A.1650.1, in Stith Thompson, Motif-Index of Folk-Literature, rev. and enlarged ed. (Bloomington: Indiana Univ. Press, 1955 - 58), I.245.

spacerNOTE 18 Oswald Reissert, op. cit., 15f., 17 - 23.

spacerNOTE 19 Si frivolum non sit dicam non sine ratione in hac septima aegloga agi de conversione iuvenum. Nam septenarium numerum qui ex primo impari & proxime illum subsequente pari consicitur constat habere nescio quid mysterii: non solum in sanctis literis sed etiam apud poetas. Unde est illud. O terque quaterque beati. Et Nam te iam septima portat Omnibus errantem terris & fluctibus aestas. Dicunt praeterea septimo quoque anno immutari nobis aetatem. Ut primis septem annis simus infantes. Proximis pueri. tertiis adolescentes. quartis iuuenes: qua aetate constituendum est nobis genus vitae: quos & quales nos esse velimus: & in quo genere vitae. Bene ergo (ut de caeteris aetatibus quae pari ordine subsequuntur taceam) in hac septima aegloga agitur de iuvenum ad religionem conversione. Vnde hactenus adolescentiam suam (sic enim inscripsit opus) poeta cecinisse putatur: deinceps canturus iuventam: & virilem aetatem: in duobus videlicet ultimis carminibus quae in religione composuit. (Ad, fol. 125v).

spacerNOTE 20 See the note to line 88 and “Composition and Publication of the Adulescentia and its use by Tutors and in Grammar Schools” in the Introduction.

spacerNOTE 21 Oswald Reissert, op. cit., 16f.

spacerNOTE 22 Katarina Windscheid, op. cit., 41.

spacerNOTE 23 See Joseph Vicentius ab Eucharistia, “Libamentum Aesthetico-Marianum ex B. Baptistae Mantuani operibus,” AOCD 20 (1948), 205 - 58.

spacerNOTE 24 E.g., Ad divam Virginem pro recipienda sospitate post febrim acerrimam, votum (Opera II.54f.). and the unprinted poem edited by Graziano di Santa Teresa as “Un carme inedito del B. Battista Mantovano relativo alla S. Casa di Loreto,” Il Monte Carmelo 28 (1942), 19f.