Appendix I

spacer1. The first text printed below, extracts made by John Bale from Mantuan’s Suburbanus and the information supplementing them, NOTE 1 have been transcribed from fols. 34v – 36 in a manuscript compilation in scribal hand, NOTE 2 MS. Selden supra 41, now at the Bodleian Library, Oxford.  For the second item, a text of an early version of Mantuan’s ninth eclogue, I have chosen a late fifteenth or early sixteenth century manuscript in two italic hands—MS. 1/4, now in the library at the Collegio di Sant’ Isidoro, Rome—that is unique in preserving Mantuan’s original letter of dedication. NOTE 3 The third item, a transcription of the manuscript version of the tenth eclogue, is based on a unique copy preserved in an early sixteenth–century manuscript in italic hand—MS. Ottob. lat. 2280—now in the Vatican Library. NOTE 4 The title and headnote of Mantuan’s eclogue, which I have transposed to the beginning of the text, appear as a fortunate afterthought copied out on folio 178v, an otherwise blank page. In all the transcriptions I have retained the spelling and word division of the original texts. Punctuation has likewise been preserved, modern punctation marks within brackets having been inserted in a few places for clarity. For the same reason a few capital letters have been inserted within brackets. Superior letters have been lowered, v has in all cases been distinguished from u, and all abbreviations have been expanded (e being rendered as ae only when accompanied by an abbreviation mark). Textual variants, for the most part few and minor, between the Sant’ Isidoro text and the other copies have been left unrecorded. The Vatican copy of Eclogue IX has several variants sufficiently suggestive of a slightly different version of the poem, however, that I have incorporated them, bracketed in italics, into my transcription.

spacer2. In the dedicatory letter to his revised version of the Adulescentia, Mantuan complains that much in the original poems was too youthful (multa nimis iuvenilia), and that he had partly in mind their style is indicated by the fact that fewer than fourteen lines from Bale’s extracts survive recognizably in Mantuan’s printed version of the Adulescentia. NOTE 5 (Small wonder that he felt free to rededicate what must have seemed to him virtually a new work! NOTE 6 ) All three texts reveal Mantuan’s care in replacing metrically defective lines NOTE 7 and awkward diction; NOTE 8 and beyond this, they show him reigning in a verbal prolixity that was to be a besetting vice throughout his career. NOTE 9
spacer3. So little survives in Bale’s excerpts from the eclogues that generalizations as to the nature of Mantuan’s original collection must be tentative. Nonetheless, granted Mantuan’s interest in stylisic revision and elaboration, a further meaning might be seen in his objection to the youthfulness of the poems in Suburbanus. Bale’s extracts are all taken from what became in the final version the first four eclogues, on erotic love and women. His selections reveal a disturbing tendency to view women as an almost supernatural cause of all men’s woes in love. NOTE 10Touches of this attitude remain in the printed version (e.g., II.111 – 14), but in the Adulescentia much of this material has been placed in Umber’s attack on women. NOTE 11 Especially in depicting Amyntas’ love in the second and third eclogues Mantuan puts a good deal of stress in the printed text on deliberation and choice, Amyntas being urged to consider how foolish he looks (III.53 – 55), how destructive love is to his fortunes (II.115 – 19), and so forth.  The effect of Mantuan’s revision is to tone down and place the misogyny that to some extent disfigures even the revised version of the poems. As a title, Adulescentia may describe the time in his life when Mantuan first drafted many of the eclogues. Nevertheless, the intelligence that shaped their final form seems to have been not only artistically more sophisticated but morally more alive to the factors that govern human actions and choice. NOTE 12

spacer4. From manuscript evidence we now know that the span of more than twenty years separates the pastoral poems excerpted by Bale from the eclogues dedicated to Falcone de’ Sinibaldi and Bernardo Bembo. The first eight eclogues, as the title of the printed collection suggests, date from Mantuan’s adulescentia, from his years of admiration for the Latin elegiac poets and deep personal turmoil affecting his family and eventually leading him to a life within the cloister. The ninth and tenth eclogues come, in contrast, from the time when, as spokesman for the Mantuan Reform movement in northern and central Italy, he was involved in recalling his religious order to its ancient ideals and deeply concerned with the corruption that he saw overtaking the Papal Court. Shepherds have become pastores in Mantuan’s ninth and tenth eclogues, religious allegory being placed in the service of ecclesiastical satire. His decision to yoke the two poems together for publication with his earlier eclogues immediately brought him face to face with a number of potential difficulties. Especially in the first four eclogues, Mantuan had pushed strains of rustic realism to limits unprecedented in previous Latin pastoral, and in uniting his two allegorical pastorals with this first group of poems, he wisely attempted to correlate the world of his pastores with the lives of his more worldly shepherds.
spacer5. This accommodation is most clearly evident at the beginning of his ninth eclogue. The original version opens simply and sparely with Faustulus’ pastoral offer of a consoling glass of wine: “Wine lessens thirst and shields us from painful thoughts (Vina sitim minuunt: animique doloribus obstant),” he says, to which the oppressed Candidus laconically responds, “Wine lessens thirst, but sadness and pain both remain (Vina sitim minuere : manet moerorque dolorque)” (lines 21f.). In the revised version this exchange has been considerably expanded. Faustulus begins by describing a sort of seven–stage conquest of thirst that, commencing with a sip or two of wine, ends in the triumph of Bacchus. The jest, he says, came from Oenophilus—a reference, of course, intended to take us back to the conclusion of the first eclogue, where in a long and memorable passage (lines 161 – 71) the shepherd Faustus describes how Oenophilus, the “wine lover,” along with Tonius, the drunken bagpiper of bergerie, had led the celebration of Faustus’ marriage to squint–eyed Galla.
spacer6. But if Oenophilus’ jest and the reference to him in the ninth eclogue link Candidus and Faustulus with the earthy world of the opening poems, the motivation behind Faustulus’ offer betrays a complexity and worldliness that is also reminiscent of the earlier eclogues. In the final version Faustulus dwells too long and loudly on the benefits of the grape. Repulsed in his claim that wine will sooth Candidus’ cares, he urges him to drink the wine unmixed. This will be the antidote for your heartache, Faustulus claims; with this potion Rome cures a troubled mind. Badius long ago recognized the true meaning of what is going on here: that Faustulus is openly urging Candidus to drink so that his subsequent attack on the corruption he has found in Rome can be set down by anyone overhearing it simply as an expression of drunken intemperance.
spacer7. Indeed, Candidus and Faustulus move within a fearful, malevolent world, a realm that in its uncertainty has a good deal in common with the difficult, often dangerous lives that Mantuan’s shepherds lead in his first eight eclogues. To strengthen this link, in revising the ninth eclogue Mantuan substantially expanded his portrait (Adulescentia, lines 85 – 89) of the figure, Fortuna, whom the shepherds in his first group of poems often blame for their troubled lives. Both her features and thoughts are changeable; according to Faustulus in the revised poem; she cares for nothing, all goes by chnce. Mantuan’s language here intentionally echoes the famous tirade against women in his fourth eclogue (e.g., Ad. IV.111, 114f. and IX.85, 88; Ad, IV.141 –43 and IX.87f.): the agents, he strongly implies in the opening poems, through whom Dame Fortune works her greatest harm. In Eclogue IX, however, Fortuna by no means distributes her afflictions blindly; rather, she has turned her back on Candidus, according to Faustulus, to teach him a lesson because he valued her gifts too lightly. At the beginning of Mantuan’s third eclogue, the source and role of earthly hardships and suffering are dismissed as unknowable. In the clearer air of his allegorical ninth eclogue, the workings of the world seem to be more open to view.
spacer8. That such certitude is possible is justified in the final version by Mantuan’s organization of the eclogues. As noted in my introduction, NOTE 13 Eclogue VII is the hinge on which the development of his collection turns. Written, as its headnote indicates, “when the author is already aspiring to enter the religious life (cum iam auctor ad religionem aspiraret),” the vision of the Virgin Mary presented in this climactic eclogue radically alters and defines the direction of the rest of Mantuan’s collection. Most immediately, erotic love, the subject of the first four eclogues, disappears, being replaced in the eighth eclogue by Pollux’s devotion to the Virgin Mary. It is in the last two eclogues, however, that his vision exercises its full effect. Here, as appearances are sifted in light of it for the truth behind them, mimesis gives way decisively to allegory, Mary’s words extending outwards through the quest of the pastores Faustulus, Batrachus, and Candidus (the last, in particular, a refraction of the implied author “after his entry into religious orders [post religionis ingressum])” NOTE 14 for an earthly Carmel preparatory to their heavenly one.
spacer9. At crucial points in both eclogues Mantuan returns to the language and imagery of Mary’s revelation in the seventh eclogue, strengthening the connection in revision. Among the many dangers in the allegorical Roman landscape of Eclogue IX there are brambles whose spicula longis dentibus  in Mantuan’s final version (Ad., lines 134f.) recall the thorny thickets, described by the Virgin Mary, that maim and transform their helpless victims (Ad., VII.111f.). And likewise among the monsters in the tenth eclogue Batrachus discovers a scorpion whose cornua (MS X.76), a term used exclusively of animals, are metamorphosed in revision into plurisignificant bracchia (Ad., X.140). NOTE 15 Expanding a suggestion in the first version of the ninth eclogue (MS. IX.96 – 98), Mantuan in a fabula makes Rome itself into an owl that entices and traps its victims (Ad., IX.120 – 28); and a Virgilian adaptation (cf. Virgil, Ecl. VIII.97 – 99) that portrays Papal predators as men who transform themselves into wolves to slaughter their flock (MS. IX.114 – 17) leads in revision to a satiric excursion on Rome as the exemplar par excellence of animal worship (Ad., I.153 – 58).
spacer10. The most conspicuous reflection of Mary’s vision occurs, however, in the tenth eclogue. Here Batrachus, fleeing eastwards from the monsters he found in Myrmix’s company, comes upon rich pasturelands, untainted waters, sweet springs without fault. These are the fields where his forefathers dwelt, he tells us; even traces of their cells remain (MS X.81 – 89; cf. Ad., X.145 – 53). It is, of course, Carmel; and after much wandering Batrachus has at last reached his goal: the liminal dwelling described by Mary in the seventh eclogue.

spacer11. All this seems quite sensible, weaving as it does the last four eclogues together to form a unit coherent in theme and figure. And yet at the end of the tenth eclogue Mantuan made an important revision that would seem to qualify this strategy.  Both versions of Eclogue X conclude with Bembus’ judgment on the proper course of action for the Carmelite order. In both cases Bembus’ speech begins with a call to “walk in the footsteps of your forefathers (ferte per antiquos patrum vestigia gressus).” But then in the first version, Bembus’ words open out into an allegorical vision of an achieved Carmelite ideal (MS X.122 – 35) that echoes Batrachus’ earlier description (79f.) before closing in again with the words that also conclude the printed version of the eclogue: “Call back flocks wandering among the valleys and rocks, among the haunts of wild beasts. Build your huts again in the fields of old.” NOTE 16
spacer12. At least two reasons suggest themselves for this change. Most immediately, within the dialogue form, Mantuan’s alteration displaces Batrachus’ point of view from the central position it had held by being affirmed within the first version in Bembus’ concluding judgment. Mantuan was writing the eclogue, it would now seem, in the late 1480’s, after the most conspicuous point of dispute between the two Carmelite factions, the controversy over the order’s habit (S 98 – 106), had officially been settled. Although he elaborated allegorical details recalling this dispute—most notably Batrachus’ comparison of the black and white fleece of the reformed and non–observant Carmelite “flocks” (Ad., X.88 – 90)—Mantuan’s tone in the conclusion of the revised tenth eclogue stresses accommodation and unity in pursuit of a shared goal: a spirit also evident in Candidus’ admonition, added in revision, that the two factions recognize the foolishness of their quarreling and listen in peace to Bembus’ judgment (Ad., X.194 – 200).
spacer13. Beyond this rhetorical strategy, Mantuan’s excision also shifts the emphasis of his conclusion away from possible achievement to evangelistic struggle to win back flocks wandering per lustra ferarum of this world. To grasp the significance of what he has done here, we must keep clearly in mind the workings of the biblical pastoral imagery that Mantuan had inherited from the allegorical eclogues of Petrarch, his chief model for religious pastoral and ecclesiastical satire. In Petrarch’s sixth eclogue, Pamphilus (Saint Peter) returns to lament the disregard for the flocks shown by Mitio (Clement VI), who has allowed innocent lambs to die and he–goats to ravage the woodlands and crops. In the concluding lines Pamphilus leaves, warning Mitio that, amidst his ease and false sense of security, Christ, their common master, will come again to change Mitio’s joy to sorrow. Given that Petrarch has been justly accused NOTE 17 of being purposely enigmatic in his Bucolucum carmen, in its general outlines Eclogue VI can nonetheless be considered willful or riddling only if we confine him to Graeco–Roman pastoral imagery instead of allowing him the use of biblical pastoral images that had long since become an accepted and familiar part of his literary heritage. NOTE 18 But, more than this, we must bear in mind that along with this imagery the Bible brought to pastoral its own view of the future and its own way of seeing things.  As an alternative to Virgil’s picture of the coming Golden Age, the Old and New Testaments, as the Middle Ages and Renaissance understood them, offered to Petrarch and Mantuan a composite, evolving view in which (to pick immediately relevant details) Yaweh and later Christ would come to punish wicked pastores (Jeremiah 23:1–2, Ezekiel 34:10), separate the sheep from the he–goats (Matthew 25:32 – 33, cf. Ezekiel 34:17), and lead the flocks into rich pasturelands on the high mountains of Israel (Ezekiel 34:13 – 14, cf. Isaiah 40:11). Such imagery must surely be described as a legitimate extension of the age–old pastoral motif (e. g., Virgil, Ecl. I.2 – 15) of the shepherd’s concern for his flock. But, as Northrop Frye has reminded us, NOTE 19 images like these are at the same time radically visionary and prophetic: anagogic and, in the last passage, also tropological. NOTE 20
spacer 14. The sleek herds that ravage the fields in Mantuan’s ninth eclogue are, like the wanton heifers in Petrarch’s poem (VI.45), descended from the herds in Ezekiel that tread down the pastures and foul the waters (34:18) and that are to be subjected along with the he–goats to divine judgment at the end of time. But in neither of his last two eclogues does Mantuan open tropology out towards the anagogy of Petrarch’s concluding apocalyptic threat. Rather, at the end of his ninth eclogue Mantuan invokes a Virgilian framework, making Falco into an Octavian figure able to cure all the ills besetting Candidus in Rome.  Contemporary rumors suggest that Falcone de' Sinibaldi aspired to become a cardinal (S 130); but Faustulus’ assurance that Falco is worthy to succeed the magister Solymus (Christ, the good shepherd) and the Assyrii pecoris pastor (Peter, whose flock had its origins in Palestine: hence “Assyrian”) can do little, especially within the framework of the printed collection, to divert us from seeing that, no matter how sincere or well grounded Mantuan’s hopes in Falcone might have been, we are being asked in the final analysis to put our faith in the Pope’s treasurer.
spacer15. Batrachus’ Carmelite pastoral goal in the tenth eclogue, a more balanced ideal with which to conclude Mantuan’s collection, is likewise tropological, looking outwards only by implication to the anagogic link between two Mount Carmels of the seventh eclogue. More than this, however, in the revised version Mantuan glances only fleetingly at this earthly goal, the campi antiqui in defense of which he had raised his standards. Like his tropological focus, Mantuan’s concluding stress on the need for struggle within this life represents a distinct turning away from the anagogic focus of Petrarch’s sixth eclogue. The revised conclusion to Mantuan’s tenth eclogue would seem moreover a better reflection of the spirit and style of his printed collection. Puttenham and Drayton quite rightly speak of “moral Mantuan.” But deeper than this insistance on right action, from the first to the last line of Mantuan’s eclogues there lies a recognition of decay and human fallibility and of the constant need to protect what one has gained or been given. At the same time Mantuan’s Batrachus also holds out, couched in visionary imagery, the possibility of an achievable eremitic paradise on earth. In the interplay between Batrachus’ Carmelite pastoral vision and the revised version of Bembus’ concluding judgment, Mantuan in effect kept true to the claims lying behind the blending of allegory and corporeal realism that so strikingly characterizes his collection of eclogues: NOTE 21 the claims, that is, of body and spirit, and of struggle and vision that run throughout the final, printed version of his Adulescentia.

 

See the translation

Idem [B]aptista [M]antuanus edidit librum metricum (cui [S]uburbanus tytulus est)  [fol. 34v]
ad Johannem Baptistam [R]efrigerium / prohemium incipit[:] spacerspacer excerta ex hoc prohemio

Pauperis es domini modico contentus amictus
spacerIbis et incompto parve libelle sinu.
Peccat quisquis opes cultu mentitur inani[;]
spacerProventus debent sumptibus esse pares.

et infra[:]

 pluris apud multos [V]enus est quam [P]alladis artes[,] spacer
spacer|Cecus [A]mor pluris quam tua [P]hebe lira.
Tubicenas nusquam superest [A]ugustea virtus
spacerOccidit ac [C]rassus imperat atque [N]ero.
Non est equali qui ponderat omnia lance
spacerNec bona sed que sunt commoda quisque probat. [10]
Spreta fugit virtus : et pro virtute libido
spacerRegnat. in hoc vicium femina virque ruunt.

Alloquitur postea librum suum jdem [M]antuanus[:]

I felix tenere proles mea prima iuvente.
spacerI felix animi conscia carta mei.
I precor. I felix fausto precor omine vade.
spacer Parve libelle [mea?] munera prima tege.
Astra tibi faveant. faveant tibi numina teque
spacerDent precor longa posteritate legi.

Et infra[:]

Que modo vulgamus pedibus sunt edita senis[;]
spacerImparibus restant plurima facta undis[.] [20]
Nostra sinu servat plures [E]leg[i]a tabellas
spacerAbsconditque suas callida delicias[.]
Ipsa suas depromet opes non invida quando
spacerSe sciet auctori posse placere suo[.]
Interea tristes solancia carmina sensus
Perlege. dum spei nobile crescit opus.

Argumentum libri videlicet [S]uburbani vel fragmenti incipit /

Faustus adit segetes et [F]ortunatus easdem
Ambo pastores . annis gravioribus ambo[.]
Gesta domi positis recitant iuvenilia veris spacer et cetera

Faustus et [F]ortunatus sunt collocutores in [S]uburbano.

et infra[:] Non puerilia hec ederem : nisi iam et apud multos vulgata et sub nomine meo [fol. 35]
legi certe scirem[.]

[E]t infra metrice[:]

Ut doceam [V]eneris nil esse nocencius igne[.] [30]
Heu[,] funesta lues[,] durum et crudele venenum[;]
Pectora letiferis populans mortalia flammis[,]
In furias agitans homines[,] in proelia mittens[,]
Sevus [A]mor bellis et fuso sanguine gaudet[,]
Quem merito cecum fixit cordata vetustas[.]
Nulli etenim parcit[,] nullum puer iste veretur[:]
Mittit in incertum tristes sine lege sagittas
Ignicomasque faces[;] si [J]upiter obvius iret[,]
Figeret iste [J]ovem.

[E]t infra[:]]

Sed ne te per multa vagans sermone fatigem[,] [40]
Accipe quae nisi contempnas mandata. [S]enesces
liber agens dulcem sua sollicitudine vitam
Candida lascive cum videris ora puelle[;]
Et nam luctifici sunt vera [C]upidinis arma[.]
Illius a facie bellum tibi crede parari[.] [
F]lecte alio vultus[,] alio vestigia flecte[:]
Non secus ac trepidans conspecto cerva leone[,]
Non secus ac viso fugit angue viator inermis
Qui contra capud attollens sperasque resolvens
Sibilet accelerans sinuosum in pulvere gressum[.] [50]
[F]eminea sub fronte latet genus omne malorum[:]
Inde dolor[,] cure[,] clamor[,] convicia[,] rixe[,]
Dedecus atque mine[,] labor et sine fine querele.
Mens vaga[,] blandicie ficte[,] mutabile pectus[,]
Os mendax[,] lachrime iusse[,] risusque dolique[,]
Et fuco picta facies[,] oculique procaces[,]
Composite fraudes . hec sunt mulieribus arma[.]
[F]emineum genus est nobis hoc utile tantum
Quod parit et partum nutrit . temptare recusa
Dum licet . hic fragilis quot habet fastidia sexus[.] [60]
[F]emineum crudele genus[,] moderamina nescit[:]
Aut amat aut odit nimium. facilisque videri
femina si studeat[,] fiet lasciva procaxque[.]
Si gravis esse volet[,] si frontis amica severe[,] [fol. 35v]
[T]rux fiet . servare modum[,] cohibere furorem[,]
Et freno racionis agi[,] fedusque fidemque
Custodire velit si femina[,] nesciet[;] omne
Labitur in vicium semel ut pudor excidit . et quod
Non est ausa scelus mulier[?] quae crimina non sunt
Feminea tentata manu[?] [70]

[E]t infra[:]

Nil magis est hominum quod possit vertere mentes[:]
Verba minus gramenque nocent[,] minus efficit hostis[,]
Tela minus fulmenque nocet[,] minus efficit ensis[,]
Saxa minus ledunt eris [i.e., imis?] quae impacta cavernis
Sulferis et clausi violencia proicit ignis[.]
Nec tantum est tenere segeti sus noxia nec tam
Dente caper viti . neque grandinis impetus uve
Quantum feminei venus insidiosa veneni
Mentibus infirmis iuven[i]um viridique iuvente[.]
Audisti ne viros plures inferna petisse [80]
Tartara et ad patrios iterum rediisse penates[?]
Dic michi quae tristem mulier descendit ad [O]rchum
Et rediit.

[E]t infra[:]

Femineos fuge congressus[,] fuge rethia[,] pastor[.]
Si qua dee veniet dubia sub ymagine contra[,]
Esse negato deam[,] fallacem respice formam.

Sequitur in prosula / Que sequuntur in laudem [G]regorii [T]ipherni / viri utriusque lingue et omnium liberalium arcium supra omnes quos etas nostra habuit periti : preceptoris quondam mei [M]antue composui. [H]ic post peragrata [G]recie (quae tota tunc Christianorum erat) [Y]talieque et [G]alliarum gimnasia [V]enecias [i.e., Venetiae?] concesserat scribendo et docendo reliquum vite sue tempus illic consumpturus : sed superis visum est aliter[.] [N]am antequam annum [V]eneciis complevisset[,] subita morte sublatus est. Morienti illi astabant Matheus [A]ntimachus [M]antuanus et Hadrianus [C]iniber [(]qui eamdem mecum religionem professus est[)] fidissimi eius discipuli[.] [I]n sanctorum [J]ohannis et [P]auli cimiterio sepultus est . In mortui locum successit Georgius [M]erula[,] doctissimus eius discipulus inter illustres gramaticos et rhetores annumerandus : qui nunc utramque linguam [V]eneciis (ut audio) florentissime tradit.

Et sequitur post multa[:] [fol. 36]

Noxia feminei fugito contagia sexus[,]
Nam cute sub moli[,] sub purpureoque colore
Bella latent.

[E]t infra[:]

Robore non animi[,] non ullis viribus aude[.] [90]
Nulla tibi pugne dabitur victoria[;]tantum
| Spem tibi pone fuga[,] [P]arthos imitare fugaces[.]

Et infra habetur de Helia [C]armeli principe[:]

Quid referas te[,] magne pater[,] quem flammea biga
Sublimen rapuit[,] quid te[,] sanctissime vatum[,]
Cui gemino sacros madefecit flumine crines[,]
Optimus immensi Jhesus moderator [O]limpi[,]
Femineas artes passi[?] cognoscitis ambo
Tincta gerat quanto mulier precordia felle[!]
Prode[,] precor[,] pater omnipotens[,] immite nocensque[,]
Prode[,] genus satis et dampni satis atque laborum [100]
Intulit. [H]arpie sunt he quae ventre soluto
Proluvie fetida thalamos[,] cenacula[,] mensas[,]
Compita[,] templa[,] vias[,] agros[,] mare[,] flumina[,] colles[,]
Inficiunt. He sunt (verum si dicere fas est)
Gorgones extremis [L]ibie quae finibus olim
Aspectu vertisse viros in saxa feruntur[.]
Perde genus pater invisum[,] da [P]ersea nobis
Alligerum[,] [L]ycie da [B]ellorophonta [C]himere
Victorem[,] qui trans [T]auri iuga maxima transque
Caucaseas rupes abigant hec impia monstra. [110]

Et infra prosaice / Sicut ultima vite pars tota in religionem solet esse conversa : ita [S]uburbanus meus in beatissime virginis [M]arie (a qua ordini meo peculiare cognomen est inditum) laudes exit et religiose terminatur.

Expliciunt extracta quedam notabilia a [L]ibro suburbani bucolicorum [B]aptiste [M]antuani. Quod totum transcripsit ex exemplari actoris magister Hadrianus de [E]chout / doctor Carmelita [B]ononiensis anno domini 1476o. [Q]uo eciam anno doctor [P]adue effectus est . et decanus theologorum in eadem alma universitate . [H]ic obiit [G]andani in conventu.

See the translation

Reverendo in Christo patri ac Domino Falconi Sinibaldo protonotario ac Thesaurario apostolico/ Frater Baptista Mantuanus Carmelita salutem ac foelicitatem dicit.

Scio te hominem propter excellentes animi tui virtutes accuratissimum lectionibus indigere que recreare et honestam possint asservare voluptatem. Ingenia enim nostra ut cultellorum acies exercitio retunduntur : et opus est ea sicut cultellos cote / iocis et salibus exacuere. Hoc precipue videtur anni principio id est sacratissimae domini nostri Jesu Christi nativitati convenire. Erant namque maioribus nostris celeberrimi dies Natales : Et in anni principio reintegrande charitatis et reconciliande amicitae gratia depositis curis hilarius vivebant. iocis indulgebant. munuscula mittebant. quod equidem et in hominibus christianis laudaverim modo nulla pars careat officio. Huius igitur naturam temporis admonitus Æglogam quam egrotans meditatus sum Tibi dono / dico / et mitto Ut sit / pro anni principio xenium / pro mea servitute tributum / curarum tuarum medicamentum / et apud dominatum tuum nostri memoriale[.] Vale[.]

Fratris Baptistae Mantuani Carmelite
ad Dominum Falconem Sinibaldum aegloga.

Collocutores Candidus et Faustulus. Candidus autoris personam gerit. Conqueritur sibi et gregi non esse prosperam fortunam in Latio.

FAUSTULUS
Candide quo casu patriis procul actus ab oris
Hec in rura venis? hic pascua nulla nec amnes.
Nec liquidi fontes nec ovilia tuta nec umbre.
Et tamen assiduos gregis hec pascuntur in usus.
CANDIDUS
Faustule me noster Corydon qui plurima quondam
His armenta locis habuit : magnamque peculi
Congeriem fecit : pecori me credere adegit
Esse salutares istis in montibus erbas.
At postquam segnes agros et inertia saxa
Vidimus : et siccis arentem fontibus oram [undam][,] [10]
Poenituit. longeque viae patrieque relictae.
FAUSTULUS [fol. 118]
Postquam te incolumem saltus intrare latinos
Contigit. antiqui potes hec mea tecta subire
Iure sodalitii. sunt hic mihi pauperis agri
Iugera pauca mee vix sufficientia vitae[,]
Quidquid id est comune puta[.] tibi forsitan ulla
Prospera sors aderit. Fortuna simillima vento est.
Cariceae succede casae dum preterit aestus.
Dum grex in gelida procumbens ruminat umbra [herba][.]
Pone pedum ut mihi sit tecum / cape pocula / sermo[.] [20]
CANDIDUS
Pocula quis tanta demens aestate recuset?
FAUSTULUS
Vina sitim minuunt : animique doloribus obstant.
CANDIDUS
Vina sitim minuere : manet moerorque dolorque.
Non madet imbre dies. nec habet nox humida rorem
Crescere nec duris possunt in cotibus erbae.
Importuna fames / Labor improbus / aeris ardor
Confecere gregem macie[.] vix debile corpus
Spiritus eger agit : vacua cute porrigit ossa
Clunis et exilis cava contrahit ilia venter.
Hic aries qui fronte lupos cornuque petebat [30]
Nunc ove debilior pavidoque fugacior agno est.
Hec mihi / sed mea tunc nimium me vota ferebant
Prescia non dubio predixerat omine cornix.
Vix egressus eram limen quom vocibus illa
Ter quater expressis tecti de culmine nobis
Infaustum garribat iter casusque sinistros. [fol. 118v]
Heu[,] heu[,] grex qui prolis eras et lactis habundans
Dum patrie licuit pingues decerpere campos[.]
Gramina dum queris : succi plus perdis eundo
Quam pastu referas. miserum tabescit in horas. [40]
Paupertate pecus[,] pre sollicitudine pastor.
[FAUSTULUS]
O nostre regionis opes[,] o florida prata
O campi virides[,] o pascua leta feraxque
Et numquam sine fruge solum. currentia passim
Flumina labuntur / rivi per rura / per ortos.
Hinc pecus[,] hinc tellus pinguis[;] sub sydere cancri
Arva virent[,] texte lento de vimine sepes
Poma ferunt[,] redolent incluse sepibus erbe[:]
Hysopi[,] mentheque[,] come roris marini[,]
Acer Thimum / serpilla / rose / crinesque marathri[.] [50]
Hinc coryli[,] crispeque nuces[,] et amigdala crescunt[,]
Cornaque[,] et ex humili nascentia stirpite fraga[.]
[CANDIDUS]
O[,] nemorum dulces umbre mollesque susurri
Quos tecum memini gelidis carpsisse[traxisse] sub umbris
Turturis ad gemitus argute ad carmina prognes.
Aura strepens nemorum foliis veniebat ab euro[.]
Rivus agens tenues sonitu[cursu] applaudebat arenas[.]
Illic multa cave formam testudinis arbor
Fecerat et densis arcebat frondibus aestum[,]
Terraque sub ramis semper frigebat opacis. [60]
FAUSTULUS
Vivere tum foelix poteras diuque beatus[;]
Sed quia non fueras sortem perpessus iniquam[,]
Prospera nescivit tecum fortuna manere[.] [fol. 119]
Quando iterum veniet[,] si forsitan unquam[,]
Sicut capreolis vites serpentibus herent
Atque suas crebris retinent complexibus ulmos[,]
Sic illam tu stringe manu nec desere coeptam [i. e., captam?].
CANDIDUS
Delitias patrii quoties reminiscimur agri
Ferre tot erumpnas animo non possumus aequo[.]
Sed quo mente feror? casu afflictatus amaro [70]
Unde magis crucier foelicia tempora volvo[?]
Maius adest. florent vites humilesque geniste[;]
Iam spicata seges[ceres][,] malus iam punica multo
Flore rubet[,] redolent sepes albente sabuco[.]
Hii vero nec dum incipiunt pubescere montes[.]
Quod si vere solum torpet : quid frigora brume
Solstitiumque feret? gelidas quom terra pruinis
Albicat et rapido quom coelum incantuit estu?
Sunt tamen hic armenta quibus cutis uvida / cervix
Non signata iugis / gemino frons ardua cornu [80]
Luxuriansque toris pectus[;] nisi pabula carpant :
Non fuerit tanta gravidum pinguedine tergus.
FAUSTULUS
Hec armenta quibus caput a tellure levatur
Cuncta vorant[:] erbas primum[,] mox ore supino
Arboreas frondes[,] tenereque cacumina silve[.]
Hoc imbelle pecus quod humi nascentia tantum
Gramina decerpit : vacuis ieiunat in arvis.
CANDIDUS [fol. 119v]
Quid verbis opus est? cunctis animantibus una est
Condicio : semper maiora minoribus obsunt [obstant][.]
Agna lupo[,] mites aquilae sunt preda columbe[,] [90]
Innocuos delphin venatur in aequore pisces.
Unde fit? hec certe res prodigiosa videtur.
Hec loca[,] si procul hinc videas e rupibus altis[,]
Pingue solum et multo vestitum gramine dicas.
Quo magis approprias [appropriant] : tanto magis omnia sordent.
FAUSTULUS
Hoc est Roma viris : avibus quod noctua. visco
Capta perit. si quae laqueos evadere possunt :
Attonite fugiunt. et nota pericula vitant.
CANDIDUS
Ecce[!] procul coluber tortos in pulvere gressus
Flectit et exertis sitiens ferit aera linguis[.] [100]
FAUSTULUS
Candide que moneo memori sub pectore serva[.]
Quando rubos inter graderis[,] defende galero
Lumina. Nam dure pretendunt lumina [spicula] sentes.
Nec depone pedum[,] multaque armare memento
Cote sinum[,] ne te subito novus opprimat hostis[.]
Et perone pedem vesti : spineta colubris
Plena ferunt gelidam furtivo vulnere mortem[,]
Et nunc longa dies aestu facit acre venenum.
Mille lupi / totidem vulpes in vallibus istis.
Nec solum in tenebris sed aperta in luce vagantur [110]
Insidiasque parant[;] et quod mirabile dictu est :
Se in formas hominum vertunt humanaque sumunt [fol. 120]
Ora[.] sed his longe graviora pericula dicam[:]
Ipse : homines (huius tanta est violentia coeli)
Saepe lupi effigiem moresque assumere vidi
Inque suum servire gregem multaque madere
Cede sui pecoris[;] factum vicinia ridet
Nec scelus exhorret : nec talibus obviat ausis[.]
Saepe canes tantam in rabiem vertuntur : ut ipsos
Vincant cede lupos / et qui tutela fuerunt [120]
Hostiles ineunt [induant (sic)] animos et ovilia mactant[.]
Saepe etiam morbosa estas et pestifer annus
Ingruit : et passim languens pecus omne per arva [agros]
Sternitur[;] extincte dum balat ad ubera matris
Agnus obit : moritur sub duro vomere Taurus.
Et gemit in nuda moriens tellure iuvencus[.]
Nec modus est morbo. non est medicina veneno.
Sed vicina domus vicino a limine mortem
Accipit : infecte spargunt contagia caulae[.]
CANDIDUS
Heu[,] heu[,] quo preceps miserum me insania traxit[?] [130]
Credere fallaci gravis est dementia fame[.]
Romuleos colles / tiberim romanaque tecta[,]
Auratasque trabes[,] solidoque ex aere columpnas[,]
Atque peregrino vivos in marmore vultus
Audieram et studio mens est accensa videndi
Ducendique bonis in tot prestantibus evum[.]
Propterea sedem pecori ratus esse quietam[,]
Accessi cum parte gregis[.] tentoria demens
Integrumque larem cum pastoralibus armis
Trans iuga summa tuli[;] sed iam sperata negantur [140] [fol. 120v]
Pabula[,] circumstant recitata[ memorata] pericula : cogor
In veteres remeare casas et coepta fateri
Consiliis exorta malis iterumque per aestus
Et montana pati duros per saxa labores[.]
Heu pecus infoelix / o [heu] / levo sidere pastor
Huc avecte : fuit multo praestantius istud
Ignorasse solum : patrioque in limine tutos
Consumpsisse dies. placidis quievisse [sedisse] sub antris[,]
Atque padi circum ripas athesisve [atesisque] per agros
Aut ubi per virides campos et pascua laeta [150]
Mincius it. vel qua vitreo natat abdua cursu [tergo]
Et gregis et propriae curam tenuisse salutis.
FAUSTULUS
Te tua credulitas[,] et me mea fallit in horas[.]
Vidi ego suppreme qui prosperitatis habebant
Culmina dum laudata petunt : cecidisse. nec unquam
Emersisse malis : quos experientia cautos
Reddidit : explorant / et non laudata sequuntur
Pascua : laude carent que sunt meliora[.] fuerunt
Que celebrem famam retinent. sic luna vetusque
Adria nomen habuent clarum. nam saepius istas [160]
Carminibus nobis laudabat tytyrus urbes
Tuque etiam meminisse potes[;] sed nomina praeter
Nil superest. Patriae minor est modo gloria meae[,]
Res melior. famae tenet immortalis honorem
Roma : sed utilitas iam pridem antiqua recessit[.]
Ipsi prisca quibus maduerunt pascua fontes
Nunc umore carent[,] Tiberis non irrigat agros[,] [fol. 121]
Nulla pluit nubes : est interceptus aquarum
Cursus. et exusto gemit arida gramine tellus.
Tempus aqueductus veteres contrivit / et arcus [170]
Longa dies minuit. procul hinc[,] procul ite capelle[.]
Hic ieiuna fames. et languida regnat egestas.
Hic tamen [(]ut fama est : et nos quoque vidimus ipsi[)]
Pastor adest : quadam ducens ex alite nomen[,]
Lanigeri pecoris dives [custos] / Ditissimus agri[,]
Carmine qui priscos vates atque orphea vincat
Orphea qui traxit sylvas et saxa canendo[.]
Hic alios omni tantum virtute latinos
Exuperat / quantum Tyberim padus[,] Anser anatem[,] [180]
Lenta salix iuncum[,] tribulos rosa[,] populus algam[.]
Credimus hunc illi similem cui Tytyrus olim
Bissenos fumare dies altaria fecit[.]
Hic ovium custos ipso vigilantior argo
Daphnide nec [non] solum sed eo [illo] qui dicitur olim
Admeti pavisse boves per thessala rura
Doctior : innumeras solymi curare magistri
Dignus oves. dignus magno succedere patri
Qui fuit Assyrii pecoris post retia pastor.
Ipse [iste] potest servare gregem / depellere morbos /
Humectare solum / dare pascua / solvere fontes / [190]
Conciliare Iovem / fures arcere luposque.
Si favet iste : mane. Quod si negat iste favorem :
Candide : coge pecus melioraque pascua quere.

See the translation

Fratris Baptiste mantuani Carmelite ad clarissimum ac regalis magnificentie virum dominum Bernardum Bembum Venetorum ad Innocentum VIII summum pontificem Oratorem : Egloga

Candidus auctor est : Batrachus partes eorum tuetur qui integritatem antique vite conantur observarare : Myrmix vero defensor est eorum / qui maiori cum licentia vivunt. Bembus arbiter est :

Cand: Maxima pastores agitat discordia[,] Bembe[,] [fol. 171]
Pascere qui Solymos colles et pinguia letae
Littora Phoenicis [i.e., Phoenices][,] galilaeaque rura colebant.
Batrachus hinc[,] Myrmix illinc certare parati
Iudice te paucis (si non audire recusas
Et nisi te revocant maiora negocia) dicent.
Tu pacare nos[,] Tu scis componere lites :
Te quoque pierios fama est potasse liquores :
Et videsse deas / quibus est custodia sacri
Fontes : et Eurotae campos et phocidis arva : [10]
Et lauro cinxisse comas : Phebique tulisse
Munera[,] vocales citharas et eburnea plectra[.]
Bemb: Dicite[,] quandoquidem tepidos admovit ad ignes
Nos hyberna dies : Dum non sinit ire per agros
Bruma gregem : flatu Boreas dum sevit acuto[,]
Dum riget omne solum : tectis dum plurima pendet
Stiria. dum torpent undis glacialibus amnes.
Ocia damnantur quae nulla negocia tractant[.]
Myr: Pastores genus infelix : aestate vagamur
Pro grege solliciti : sed cum nos frigidus imber [20]
Continet in stabulis / lites et iugria surgunt.
Batr: Qui veteres audent ritus mutare : suoque
Arbitrio nullis ducunt sub legibus aevum[,]
| Hi[,] fateor[,] rixas et bella domestica gignunt.
Bemb: De veteri ritu / de consuetudine patrum [fol. 171v]
Lis igitur vobis? Patres meresque [i.e., moresque] paternos
Batrache dic. et cur nostrum venistis in orbem.
Nonne ferax propriaque madens uligine tellus?
Nonne Laurus illic? gelidisque e fontibus amnes?
Batr: Bembe[,] genus nostrum generisque exordia paucis [30]
Accipe. Nos genuit primum Helios [i.e., Helias] : Helion[,] inquam[,]}
Qui postquam patrios implevit ovilibus agros[,]
Dicitur ardenti translatum in aetera curru.
Hic ovium primus custos : hic tradidit artem
Qua curare greges : qua noxia pabula fas est
Discere : et occultos imbres ventosque latentes
Quique salutaris foret / et qui pestifer annus
Signa dedit : Summo Carmeli in vertice montis
Fons vetreis [i.e.,vitreas] emanat aquas : Modo currit in austrum[,]
Sed prius (extat adhuc vetus alveus) ibat ad eurum[.] [40]
Hi cursus fecere alios : liquere priores[.]
Myr: Quid tibi sive novo currat seu tramite prisco
Dummodo per campos fluat uberioribus undis?
Et quid de caeli querimur regione? per austrum
Solis iter[,] melior vitis quae respicit austrum :
Et legitur melior libycis de vitibus uva[.]
Batr: Pastor es. et cura pecoris malesane relicta
Sermonem de vite facis : quasi legibus hisdem
Grex et vitis eant : quod sit discrimen in undis [fol. 172]
Graminibusque miser nescis : Precepta parentum [50]
Temnis : et errorem vis tali ambage tueri.
Bembe[,] mihi tecum sermo est : Dum viximus una
Dum commune pecus nobis fuit : hei mihi quantum
Dedecus : heu quot sunt pecudes incommoda passae[!]
Nec mersare gregem fluvio : nec velera certis
Temporibus (sicut mos est) tondere licebat.
Nudabant spineta pecus : nudata secabat
Terga rubi : Scabie cutis aspera : Tabidus humor
Pestis : et in totum serpebant ulcera corpus.
His animadversis egre tot damna ferentes [60]
Venimus ad fontem : rivumque a vertice summo
Scrutari mihi cura fuit : Tu[,] provide Myrmix[,]
Interea nidos avium vel dorcada parvam
Venabare : tue que dona darentur Asile.
Alveus excelsa labens de rupe Lacunam
Fecerat : et ripis gyrum facientibus undam
Saltus obumbrabat[,] Silveque annosa vetuste
Brachia frondoso prohibebant tegmine solem.
Mille venenorum species in gurgite vidi :
Mille secus ripas in opaco margine : mille [70]
Per nemus ad silvas sinuoso serpere gressu[.]
Obstipui[,] et rapido rediens ad ovilia cursu
Incipio paleas furca versare tricorni[.] [fol. 172v]
Ecce[!] caput tollit Coluber : linguaque minaci
Sibilat[,] inflantur fauces : Nepa livida tendit
Cornua : ventrosus profert vestigia bufo.
Vipera per stipulam gradiens strepit / [‘]o / loca[’,] dixi[,]
[‘]Non pecori tantum / verum et pastoribus ipsis
Noxia[’] : mox grege diviso de gregibus illis
Pascua quesitum tristis meliora recessi : [80]
Perque iter antiquum fontis nova flumina duxi
In campos : ubi prima suos Aurora colores
Explicat : et croceos [P]hoebi nascentis ad ortus[.]
Hic mihi phoecunde pecudes / hic pabula loeta [i.e., laeta] :
Et sine labe liquor : dulces sine crimine lymphe[.]
Hec loca primevi patres coluere : supersunt
Signa case veteris[,] puteus cariosaque ligna
Fixa solo seiuncta pedum discrimine septem
Et focus et lacera quae cingitur area sepe[.]
Myr: Cura viris levibus rerum solet esse novarum[;] [90]
Propterea certe nova pascua quaeris / et amnes
Fingis inauditos / et vis novus auctor haberi[.]
Batr: Hec novitas[,] Myrmix[,] est instaurata vetustas
Quam tua currupit veritas : et nota tuorum
Segnities. Igitur siquis labentia tecta
Erigat : et sterilem qui mansuefecerit agrum
Iudice te damnandus erit? Non ponitur arbor [fol. 173]
Altera / sed veteri inseritur bona virgula trunco[;]
Segne prius lignum nostro fit fertile cultu[.]
Myr: Quamvis pingue tuo pecori sit gramen : et unda [100]
Defecata : tamen multe cum matribus agne
Interiere : Lupi et paste meminere volucres.
Batr: He[,] fateor[,] que dira tue Contagia pestis
Aspiciunt : etiam procul aspicientibus obsunt.
Propterea magis atque magis discedere semper
Est animus nobis : ipsumque ascendere montem
Atque viam cursumque tuo restringere zino [zelo?] .
Ut loca consumptum pecus in meliora reducas.
Myr: De grege multa meo soli tibi cognita narras :
Cur mihi / qui pasco cuium pecus / ista tueri [110]
Non licuit? solis ne domus mea cognita vobis?
Batr: Aethiopes una quoniam nigredine sordent[,]
Ille color nulli vitio datur : omnibus idem
Vultus : et alterius siquis reprenderet ora[,]
Et sua damnaret : pecori pecorisque magistro
Fex eadem : scabies eadem : cutis et color idem.
Bemb: Parcite[;] iam satis lis est intellecta : diesque
Inclinata cadet [i.e., cadit]. litem sententia claudat.
Myr: Batrache, me audaci tociens sermone lacessis[!]
Bemb: Parcite : Iam satis est : et me patientius audi[.] [120]
Ferte per antiquos primum vestigia gressus : [fol. 173v]
Et veteres servate vias : Laudata parentum
Pascua / laudati fontes : pinguissimus illis
Caseus / et lane que vellera serica vincunt[.]
Illis semper erat (seu nix seu stringent aestus[)]
Lac niveum : semper spumabant Cymbia : semper
Et foetura recens et plena sub ube re mulctra.
Cura vigil[,] solers studium defendere multum
Res divina magis pecudes et minima possunt.
Crebrius antiqui superos in vota vocabant [130]
Sacraque reddebant maioribus Orgia donis[.]
Propterea grex omnis erat foecundus : ubique
Graminibus laetis Tellus innoxia : fontes
Undique securi. quod si submittere vultis
Iudicio lites diuturnaque prelia nostro[,]
Observate primum leges. revocate vagantes
per valles per saxa greges[,] per lustra ferarum[.]
Figite in Antiquis iterum magalia Campis[.]



Notes

spacerNOTE 1  Of the glosses (all apparently by Mantuan), the note on Giorgio Tifernate provides no new information about Mantuan’s teacher or about Giorgio Merula. Antimachus is unknown, unless he is related to the Mantuan humanist Marcantonio Antimaco [1473 – 1551]. Hadrianus Ciniber, likewise unknown to history, perhaps left his stamp on Hadrianus, the inquisitive novice in Mantuan’s De vita beata.

spacerNOTE 2  Stage two in the evolution of Bale’s hand, according to Leslie Fairfield op. cit., 159–60, the entries dating from some time just before 1523.

spacerNOTE 3  The existence of Mantuan’s ninth eclogue in this manuscript was first recorded by Paul Oscar Kristeller in Iter Italicum: A Finding List of Uncatalogued or Incompletely Catalogued Manuscripts of the Renaissance in Italian and Other Libraries (Leiden: Brill, 1963 – ), II.134. With minor variants, copies of this eclogue, all in italic hand, are also contained (as Kristeller notes in ibid., II, 54, 55, 168, 436) in the following:

MS. C 61, fols. 56v – 59v Biblioteca Comunale Augusta, Perugia.
MS. F 5, fols. 1v – 5v Biblioteca Comunale Augusta, Perugia.
MS. J IX 13, fols. 64 – 67v, Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati, Siena.
MS. Ottob. lat. 2280, fols. 173v – 178, Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana, Rome. MS. Lat. Misc. c. 62., fols. 76v – 79v, Bodleian Library, Oxford.

spacerNOTE 4 Likewise first recorded by Kristeller in Iter Italicum, II.436.

spacerNOTE 5 Cf. Bale, lines 59–f. and IV.221f.; Bale 61 and IV.110; Bale 62 and IV.117; Bale 62f. and IV.119 – 21; Bale 64f, and IV.118; Bale 69f. and IV.150–51; Bale 82f and IV.177f.; Bale 101 – 3 and IV.236 – 38; Bale 104 – 6 and IV.239 – 41.

spacerNOTE 6 H. W. Garrod discusses the common practice of rededicating works in “Erasmus and his English Patrons,” The Library, 5th ser., 11 (1949), 2.

spacerNOTE 7 E.g., MS. X.17, MS. X.9; MS. X.31.

spacerNOTE 8  E.g., verba...gramenque nocent (Bale 72); mittit in incertum tristes sine lege sagittas (Bale 37); perone pedem vesti (MS. IX.106); est animus nobis... ascendere mortem (MS. X.106).

spacerNOTE 9  Cf., e.g., MS. IX, 48 - 52 and IX.66; MS. IX.132 – 34 and IX, 171; Bale 101 – 10 and IV.236–41.

spacerNOTE 10 Thus within ten lines in the extracts Mantuan slips from warning that the lover will languish in love (Bale 41) to the unwarranted assertion that women are the cause of all his hardships (Bale 51).

spacerNOTE 11 The prose gloss on Gregorio Tifernate (Bale, fol. 35v) doubtless accompanied the description of Umber (IV.95 – 103 in the 1498 printed text) that prefaces his attack on women. Much of the material—not only the language but the themes (e. g., Bale 61 – 67 and IV.110 – 21; Bale 80 – 84 and IV.177 – 84)—of Bale, lines 40 – 86 which, on the evidence of the printed text, would have described erotic love, seems therefore to have been transferred in revision to Umber’s speech.

spacerNOTE 12 For further discussion of Bale's excerpts, see my article on "Mantuan on Women and Erotic Love: A Newly Discovered Manuscript of the Unprinted Version of His Eclogues," Renaissance Studies, 3 (1989), 13 - 28.

spacerNOTE 13 See “Themes, Style, and Organization” in the Introduction and further P2 57f.

spacerNOTE 14 See also the headnotes of the manuscript versions of the ninth and tenth eclogues.

spacerNOTE 15 Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary, s. v. “cornu.

spacerNOTE 16 “...revocate vagantes / per valles per saxa greges[,] per lustra ferarum[.] / Figite in Antiquis iterum magalia Campis,” (lines 136 – 38).

spacerNOTE 17 By, e. g., Leonard Grant, Neo–Latin Literature and the Pastoral, 92.

spacerNOTE 18 Enrico Carrara, La poesia pastorale (Milan: F. Villardi, 1909), 40 – 67.

spacerNOTE 19 The Great Code: The Bible and Literature (New York: Harcourt, 1982), 29.

spacerNOTE 20 As B. D. Napier remarks, “in view of the very nature of the sheep—affectionate (II Sam. 12:3), unaggressive (Isa. 53:7, Jer. 11:19; John 10:3 –4), relatively defenseless (Mic. 5:8, Matt. 10:16), and in constant need of care and supervision (Num. 27:17, Ezek. 34:5, Matt. 9:36, 26:31)—and the corresponding relationship between the sheep and the shepherd, it is not at all surprising that in figurative–theological language the sheep and the shepherd are repeatedly, and often movingly, employed” in the Bible: Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, eds. George Arthur Buttrick et al. (New York: Abingdon, 1962), IV.316. Renato Poggioli’s assertion that there can be no heavenly paradises in successful pastoral (The Oaten Flute: Essays on Pastoral Poetry and the Pastoral Ideal [Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Press, 1975], 19) would doubtless have puzzled Mantuan—or Boccaccio and Milton, for that matter. Cf., e.g., Nicholas of Lyre on Ezekiel 34:13–14 (God’s promise to lead his flock into rich pasturelands) cited above: “That is, in the church militant through a gift of grace and in the church triumphant in the gift of glory. These things are described here by means of most fertile pasturelands and other physical objects because in the Old and New Testaments things of the spirit are often described by means of corporeal similtudes, so that (according to what Gregory writes in his thirty–seventh homily) ‘the mind might rise from things known to things unknown and, through what it knows, might learn to esteem highly and love what is unknown to it.’ (Id est in ecclesia militante per dona gratiae, et in triumphante per dona gloriae, quae designantur hic per pascua uberrima et caetera corporalia: quia spiritualia sub similitudinibus corporalium in scriptura veteris ac novi testamenti frequenter designantur, ut secundum quod Gregorius, Hom. XXXVII. Surget animus ex his quae novit ad ea quae non novit, ac per hoc quod novit, diligere discat, et incognita amare.)” (Biblia sacra cum glossa...ordinaria, Nicolai Lyrani Postilla et Moralitatibus... [Lyons: Gaspar Treschel, 1545], vol. IV, fol. 259).

spacerNOTE 21 Whence, e. g., Fontenelle’s attack on their earthiness and Alexander Pope’s condemnation of their use of religious allegory (see “See “Themes, Style, and Organization” in the Introduction).