Click a blue square to see a commentary note by Sir Francis Bacon. Click a green square to see the Latin text. Click a red square to see a textual note.  


The Queene fortifieth the Port Townes. | She taketh care for her Navy. | Shee furnisheth the French King with money. | Shee increaseth the Farme of the Customs. | Shee forbiddeth bitternesse in contributions. | Shee provideth for the Estates in the Netherlands. | Shee restraineth Pirates. | Shee obtaineth a peace for the Moldavian and Polonians. | She provideth for France. | Parma invadeth France. | The Spaniards winne port Townes in Britanie. | By what colour of right. | Ayde demanded against them. | Queene Elizabeths carefullnesse for Britanie. | And also for France, contrary to the advise of some. | Her Proverb. | The Death of the Earle of Warwicke. | And Sir Francis Walsingham. | And Thomas Randolph. | And Sir James Croft. | And the Earle of Shrewsbury. | And the Lord Wentworth. | Tir-Oen strangleth Gavilocke. | O-Rork rebelleth. | Is driven into Scotland, and delivered into England.

UEENE Elizabeth, who had alwaies made peace the summe of her cogitations, and therefore had never cast away the cares of warre lest shee should be surprized at unawares by the Spaniard, in the very beginning of the Spring maketh leavyes of men in England and the South part of Ireland; there shee fortifieth Duncanon at the mouth of the River Suire, and Milford Haven in Wales,with new workes; for the safe-guarding of her Navy shee assigneth 8970 pounds of English money or Sterling yeerly; and though in the yeere 1587 for the leavying of an Army in Germany under the command of the Baron Dolma for the King of Navarre shee had lent 101560 French Crownes by Sir Horatio Pallavicine, and the last yeere 71165 more, upon bonds given by Beavoir, Buhy, and Buzenval, and had spent 20000 in sending over the auxiliary forces under the Lord Willoughbey, neverthelesse this yeere upon security given by the Vicount Turain shee lent first 33333 Crownes more for the leavying of an Army in Germany under the conduct of the Prince of Anhols, and afterward as much upon security given by Beavoir and Incarvill. Moreover, every two months shee payed to the Garisons in Flushing and Briell 125000 florens, and to 3000 horse and foot serving in the Netherlands, 26000 more; shee sent forth many ships every way, shee was at great charges against the attempts of the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard in Scotland, and also shee repayed beyond expectation the money borrowed not long since of her Subjects. Insomuch as very many admired whence this wealth came to supply these turnes, seeing shee was in no mans debt (as almost all other Princes were), and was able to defend her selfe and hers without forraigne helps, which not one of her neighbour Kings could doe.
2. But the truth is, shee being providently frugall, scarcely spent any thing but for the maintainance of her Royal honour, the defence of her Kingdom, or the relieving of her neighbours. And Burghley Lord Treasurer looked narrowly into those which had the charge of Customes and Imposts, by whose avarice many things were under-hand imbezeled, and through their negligences much was not exacted; especially after such time as the Queene being not long before informed by one Caermarden a diligent and subtill fellow, of the mysteries of the Farmers of her Customes, had caused Sir Thomas Smith Customer (as they call him) who had bought or farmed her Customes for 14000 pounds a yeere of English money, to pay from thence forth 42000 pounds, contributing no small summe of money in recompence for so gainfull a bargaine so many yeeres, and afterwards to pay 50000 pounds for the same, although the Lord Treasurer, Leicester, and Walsingham laboured to the contrary, opposed themselves against Caermarden, commanded the Gentlemen of the Privy Chamber not to let him in, yea and expostulated with the Queene as if this would tend to the disgrace of her and her Councell, if she should harken to the accusations of so silly an Informer. But shee answered that it was the duty of a Prince to hold the highest in equall right with the lowest; that such as accuse Magistrates and Councellors rashly are to bee punished, they which accuse them justly, to be heard; that she was Queene of the lowest as well as of the greatest, neither would shee stoppe her eares against them, nor endure that the Farmers of the Customes should like Horse-leeches sucke themselves fat with the goods of the Common-wealth whilest the poore Treasury waxeth leane, nor that the Treasury should abound with the spoyles of poore men. Certainly, shee ever detested extortions and all bitternesse in exacting extraordinary contributions, which the former Kings sweened with the flattring names of The peoples liberality, benevolence, and friendly grant, and other such like. The taxing of living creatures by the powle [poll], propounded in Edward the 6th his raighe, shee would not suffer to be once named. Besides, the people alwaies gave Subsidies cheerefully, and through the taxation by cesement [census] seemed greater then in old time, yet was there no rough manner of taxing used, insomuch as those Subsidies were rather voluntary without inquiry or any constraint, and alwaies lesse then the Estates of the Realme thought them. Yea, shee commanded it to be referred to the Estates of the Realme that the rich might pay more, and the poorer sort might bee spared. Which was done once in the raigne of Richard the 2nd, but it failed of successe. For casting up the accompts they found that the subsidies would bee very small,if men of meane estates, whereof there was the greatest number (whom wee call The Pound men) should play lesse then they were wont.
3. Also to maintaine amity with her neighbours abroad, shee refused to take into her Protection Gronninghen a most wealthy City of Frisland, which would neither brooke the Spaniards, nor bee under the Estates, lest shee should give offence to the Estates. And though shee were displeased with the Zelanders for that they had begun to call in the French King for their patron, without the knowledge of the Estates of Holland (whereof the French King gave her notice), yet shee reconciled them to the Hollanders; and some in those Provinces shee blamed by publique writings, misliking their doings, who under colour of obedience and good-will towards her sowed dissentions, and opposed themselves against the Estates; and so much the more sharply shee reproved them, for that shee had understood that Richardot had laboured that a toleration and liberty of conscience might bee granted to all the Netherlanders which had fled from the other Provinces, so as they would returne home. Which if it were granted, shee fore-saw would turne to the damage of the Estates, forasmuch as that kind of men inhabited the Townes of Holland which stood formerly in a manner voyd, enriched them, and contributed very much to the warres. The shippes of the Venetians and Florentines taken by the English, shee commanded at the request of the Great Duke of Tuscany to bee restored, and by strict Proclamation commanded her subjects that they should not offer violence to the Italians, Venetians, French, Danes, Netherlanders, or those of the Hanse Townes. Yet did they grievously afflict the Spaniards, whilest some infested the Atlantike Sea neere the Azores, whither the shippes of both Indies must of necessity come, making prize of very many shippes; the Castle in the Isle of Vaiall being razed to the razed to the ground by the Earle of Cumberland, and 58 peeces of Ordnance taken away; others most couragiously brake through the midst of the Gallyes in the straight of Gadiz, doing great damage, and spread a terrour all over the Seas farre and wide.
4. The glory of Queene Elizabeth was now spread abroad, and her favour extended farre, who obtained of the Emperor of the Turkes quietnesse to the Vaivode of Moldavia, who had beene miserably turmoiled by the Turkes, and a peace to the Polonians, who were threatned with a difficult warre. Which the Polonian and his Chancellor acknowledged by most thankefull Letters. In the meane time, to confirme amity with the King of Scots, shee sent Edward Somerset Earle of Worcester to congratulate his marriage, and returne out of Denmarke, and to signifie unto him that he, together with the French King, were chosen into the society of the Order of St. George, but withall, to put him in minde to suppresse betimes the Popish faction growing strong in Scotland. The King received him very graciously, and to maintaine the amity with England, and declare his singular affection to publike peace, sent Colonell Stewart into Germany that some course might bee taken with the King of Denmarke and the Embassadours of the Princes, for renewing the peace betweene English, Spaine, and France.
5. When France flamed (as I have said) with a most dangerous fire raised by the Leaguers and the Spaniard, for the quenching whereof Queene Elizabeth diligently observed al opportunities, and held many consultations how shee might relieve them; whether the English old souldiers in the Low-Countries should joyne themselves with the German forces which were comming; whether shee should send a strong Army into the Netherlands to stay the Prince of Parma who was now casting to come into France; but especially how the Spaniards might bee kept from the coast of France, who (she heard) were practising to reduce New Haven into their power by corruption, and send a Fleet into little Britaine [Brittany].
6. Behold, in the midst of these consultations the Prince of Parma, entring with a strong Army into France (for so the Spaniard had commanded him, being easily perswaded thereunto by the importunity of the Leaguers, under the glorious shew of maintaining the Catholike Religion, and of Charity towards his neighbour), after that the King had gotten a notable victory over them at Yvory, the Prince over-runneth Picardy, victualleth Paris
, then in rebellion and most miserably famished, winneth Carboil and Leigny that victuals might bee carryed into Paris, and leadeth backe his forces, with greater commendations for his military skill in drawing of trenches with his mens hands after the Roman manner, and in wisely protracting to fight, then for his military discipline in restraining his souldiers, who sacrilegiously violated Churches.
7. On the other side, about the Autumnall Aequinox other companies of Spaniards arrived at Blawes in Britaine, under the conduct of Don John d’Aquila, beleged Henebon a little strong Towne upon the Sea, and wonne it by the help of Philip Emanuell Duke of Mercaure of the house of Loraine, who had called them in when the Leaguers hoped to cantonize, divide France amongst them, and hee himselfe had in minde invaded the Dukedome of Britaine, or at least a part thereof, by the helpe of the Spaniard, and in right of his Wife, which was the sole daughter of Sebastian Martigues, whose Mother Caroletta of Britaine was heire of John Brasse Duke of Estampes. This opportunity the Spaniard had gladly laid hold on, who thought that Britaine did of right belong unto his daughter, forasmuch as it was as a feminine fee, and shee was borne of the eldest daughter of Henry the 2nd King of France, which eldest daughter ought (her Unkles dying without issue) to succeed in the Kingdome of France, unless the Law Salique did withstand it. And though hee was not ignorant that Britaine was in the raigne of Francis the first united for ever to the Kingdome of France, yet did hee not beleeve, as the French Lawyers pronounce, that all whatsoever is once annexed to the Crowne of France doth inseperably grow unto it.
8. Against these Spaniards, as soone as ever they arrived, Henry Borbon Prince of Dumbar, the Duke of Montpensiers sonne, whom with La Noue the King had made Governour of Britaine, craved an auxiliary power out of England. But the Queene and Councell thought it not fit to send forces upon request of a subject, the King neither knowing nor asking it, who was then engaged in businesse else-where, and those most difficult. Yet shee bent her minde and cogitations more attentively to the State of Britaine. That the Spaniard should bring under his subjection so rich a Country, so neere neighbouring, and so commodious to invade or annoy England, Holland, or Zeland, she could not endure. And this (shee said) concerned her more then heretofore it did Edward the 3rd, who with so great charges defended the cause of John Montfort, lest the French should possesse themselves of Britaine. Some there were which advised her to spare her money, to take care of her owne estate, rather than other mens, and to put no trust in the French; that they had beene treacherous to their owne Kings; that they had lately murdered one of them a most devout follower of the Popish Religion; and other being a professor of the Reformed Religion, they now prosecuted with hatefull armes and Popish curses; that within our fathers remembrance they had unjustly drawne from the German Empire Metz, Towl, Verdon; and out of their in-bred hatred they did at that day no lesse prosecute the English their friends, then they did heretofore being their enemies; and had so often deceived them in money matters that such Creditors as they meane to deceived they call by a By-word, Les Anglois. Moreover, that by corrupt counsailes, and the fates driving them forward, they did so rent that most flourishing Kingdome that it seemed to the neighbours rather to bee pitied than feared, whilest as a body over-strong it is burdened with its owne strength, or out of a shittle [fickle] braine, if it have not an enemy abroad, it seeketh one at home. For to that grosse dulnesse are they come (a thing incredible to the subsequent age) that they have invited troupes of Spaniards into France, and received them into their Townes. But the Queene, much affecting the safety and honour of the French, rejected these men as injurious in their censures of that most noble and powerfull Nation; yea, when others both French and English suggested unto her that while the Leaguers and the Spaniard began as it were to share France betwixt them as a prey, and to Cantonize it, shee would also seize upon the maritime Countries of Picardy and Normandy, putting her in minde that Charles of Burgundy the warryer was wont to say, That the neighbouring nations would bee in happy case, when France should be subject, not to one scepter, but to twenty petty Kings, shee heaard it most discontentedly, and rejected it with much stomack, saying, Whensoever the last day of the Kingdome of France commeth, it will undoubtedly be the Eeve of the destruction of England.
9. Whilest these things began to be debated, Ambrose Dudley Earle of Warwicke, the sonne of John Duke of Northumberland, of the Order of Saint George, an excellent good man, departed this life without issue. And not long after, Sir Francis Walsingham the Queenes Secretary, Chancellour of the Dutchy of Lancaster and the Order of the Garter, dyed of a carnosity growing intra testium tunicas [testicular cancer], or rather through violence of medecines. A man exceedingly wise and industrious, having discharged very honourable Embassies, a most sharpe maintainer of the purer Religion, a most diligent searcher of hidden secrets, who knew excellently well how to winne mens mindes unto him, and to apply them to his owne uses; insomuch, as in subtilty and officious services hee surpassed the Queenes expectation, and the Papists accused him as a cunning workeman in complotting his businesses, and alluring men into dangers whilest hee diligently searched out their hidden practises against Religion, his Prince and Country, and that to his so great charges that he weakened his private estate; and being surcharged with debt, he was buried by darke in Paul’s Church at London without any funeral solemnity. He left one onely daughter, which to her her first husband Sir Philip Sidney bare a daughter, married to Roger Earle of Rutland; and to her second husband Robert Earle of Essex a sonne and daughters; and to her third husband the Earle of Clan Richard an Irishman she bare children of both Sexes.
10. After Walsingham survived scarce one or two moneths Thomas Randolph, who was very inward with him. This man, often mentioned already had a brother, namely, Edward, that warriour who died in Ireland a Conquerour in the yeere 1567. In his young dayes hee studied the Civill Law in Christ-Church at Oxford, and was Principall of Broad-gates. Afterwards he performed sundry Embassies, thrice to the Lords of Scotland being in commotion, thrice to Mary Queene of Scots after her returne out of France, seven times to James the 6th King of Scots, thrice to John Basilides Emperor of Russia, once to Charles the 9th King of France, and againe to Henry the 3rd. This manifold paynes for his Prince and Countrey the Queene rewarded with the Office of Chamberlaine of the Exchequer (which in old time was a place full of honour), with the Office of chiefe Poast-master, and some small Farmes. Neither did he desire more, though hee had many children, of such continent moderation was he in coveting. And out of his pious feeling of conscience (which perhaps may doe good to mention) he seriously admonished Walsingham a little before his death by letters which I have seene, how worthy, yea, how necessary a thing it was that they should at length bid farewell to the snares he of a Secretary, and himselfe of an Embassadour, and should both of them set their minds upon their heavenly Countrey, and by repenting aske mercy of God.
11. After him followed Sir James Croft, who in the reygne of Edward the 6th defended Hadington in Scotland against the French, and governed Ireland a while. Under Queene Mary he was condemned of treason, and absolved under Queene Elizabeth, and being made Governour of Barwick and the East march, and Controller of the Queenes houshold, and a Commissioner at the treaty of Bourburg, overcame the Court envy (wherewith notwitstanding he was grievously shaken), waxed old, and dyed in the good favour of his Prince, and sound reputation amongst all men.
12. With the end of the yeere ended the course of his life George Talbot Earle of Shrewesbury, the sonne of Francis, and the seventh Earle of this family. Who being young was in the reigne of Queene Mary first sent forth in the Scottish warre with 3000 men by his father then Generall of the Army, and rescued the Earle of Northumberland being danger at Lonic; and then had the command of a troope of 500 Launces in the marches. By Queene Elizabeth hee was set to have the custody of the Queene of Scots, and after the death of the Duke of Norfolke, was raised to the honour of Earle Marshall of England. In such doubtfull times hee maintained his fidelity 15 yeeres against open treacheries, Court calumniations, and his second Wives vexations, in such sort that hee left no lesse commendations for his fidelity and wisedome, then for his fortitude. By his first Wife Gertrude the daughter of Thomas Earle of Rutland, hee begat these Children:

Francis, who was taken way by an untimely death.
Gilbert, his successor in his inheritance and honour, who married Mary
Cavendish his stepmothers daugher
Edward, who tooke to wife the daugher and one of the heires of the Lord
Henry, and Thomas.
Catharine, which married Henry the sonne of the Earl of Penbroke, and
dyed without issue.
Mary, married to George Savill, and
Grace, married to Henry Cavendish

By this latter wife Elizabeth the daughter of John Hardwicke, and widdow of William Cavendish, hee had no children. And wee must not omit Thomas Lord Wentworth, who accompanied these to another life. He was the last English Governour of Callis [Calais]; to whom succeeded Henry his second sonne, the eldest being dead before his father.
13. In Ireland the last year Hugh Gavilock, so called, because hee was so long kept in fetter, the base sonne of Shan O-Neale, had accused Hugh Earle of Tir-Oen to have had secret conference with certaine Spaniards shipwracked upon Ireland in the yeere 1588. The Earle, preventing his accusation, tooke him by a plot, and commanded him to be strangled, and whereas the cruell theeves, out of a certaine observance towards the house of O-Neale, refused to offer violence unto him, it is said he set his hand to the poast himselfe to breake his wind-pipe. Heereupon he was now called into England, and upon submission obtained his pardon of the Queene, and with solemne protestations before the Queene at the honour of Greenwich, as Noblemen use to doe, hee undertooke most religiously that he would keepe peace with Turlogh Leinigh and all his neighbours (giving hostages in that behalfe), and not assume unto himselfe the title of O-Neal, nor any authority over the Noblemen his neighbours; that he would reduce the Countrey of Tir-Oen into the forme of a County; that he would not exact of the people under him the Irish paiments called bonaghti; that he would not from thenceforth put any man to death but by Law; that hee would not barre from the English garrisons any graine or victuals at Blackwater, or the river More; that hee would not receive into his territory any Monks, Friers, Nunnes, and rebells; that he would doe his best to bring the Inhabitants of Tir-Oen to more civility, and other such like things; yet with this condition, that Turlogh Leinigh and the bordering Lords should in like manner binde their fidelity to keep peace with him, lest whilest hee was quiet, hee might bee exposed to the injuries of turbulent men. Being sent backe into Ireland, he assuredly confirmed before Sir William Fitz-Williams Lord Deputy and the Councellors of that Realme, that hee would doe the same things. And certainly for a while hee omitted nothing which could be expected from a most obedient Subject, and bare a shew of many shadowed tokens of vertue. A strong body he had, able to endure labour, watching, and hunger; his industry was great, his minde great, and able for the greatest businesses; much knowledge hee had in Military skill, and a minde most profound to dissemble, insomuch as some did then fore-tell that he was borne to the very great good or hurt of Ireland. A little before the Lord Deputy had taken Hugh Roe-Mac-Mahon in his house, a great Lord in the territory of Monaghan, whom hee himselfe had preferred before the rest of that family which strived for the Principality, and subjected him to a tryall of common souldiers and base men (as the Irish doe complaine), for that hee had with banners displayed exacted of his people contributions due according to the barbarous manner of the Country, and being condemned, hanged him up, dividing his most large lands and livings betwixt the English and certaine of the Mac-Mahons, appointing them a certaine yeerely rent that they might hold them according to the Lawes of England; and this to the end that hee might weaken that family, strong and powerfull of tenants and adherents, and blot out the tyranny of Mac-Mahon together with the title. For by this title , those of that family wax insolent, which by right or wrong take upon them the domination. Hereupon Brien O-Rorc, a great Lord in the neighbour Country of Brenn, fearing lest the same might befall him, tooke armes against the Queene; but being hunted and put <to> flight by Sir Richard Bingham Governour of Connacht (the Lord Governour taking in indignation that hee was prevented of this glory), hee fled into Scotland, whom the King very willingly delivered into the Queenes hands when shee required him, protesting that hee accompted all the Queenes enemies as his owne. Which hee performed indeed. For both hee neglected with a deafe eare the Popish Noblemen in Scotland, the Earle of Westmorland, and other seditious Englishmen in the Netherlands, who incensed him against the Queene; and made James and Donald Mac-Conels give security that they should not trouble the English in Ireland out of the Hebrides and Scotland. 


The Queenes love to the French King. | To whom she granteth ayd. | Upon conditions. | A Proclamation against the French Leaguers. | Norrys sent into Britaine. | La Noue slain. | Williams beareth himself manfully. | The Fench king demandeth more ayde. | Which Essex commandeth. | He goeth to the King. | He knighteth many. | He loseth his brother. | He is called into Champain. | Promises not kept by the French King. | Hackets blasphemous madnesse. | His visions. | His companions. | A conspiracy against the Counsellors. | His hatred against the Queene. | He sendeth forth his prophets. | Who doe proclaim him. | They are taken. | He is condemned. | The blasphemer is hanged. | The ecclesiasticall jurisdiction shot at. | Defended. | The Revenge taken. | Spanish ships taken. | A voyage into East India. | George Ryman cast away. | Lancaster escapeth great dangers. | Candish his voyage to the straight of Magellan. | A Proclamation that nothing be carried into Spaine. | Another against Seminaries. | The death of Hatton Lord Chancellour, 20 September. | Puckering Lord Keeper of the Great Seale. | O-Rork is arraigned. | An University constituted at Dublin. | Troubles in Scotland. | Bothwell setteth upon the Kings Court.

MONGST all these troubles, no thought more exercised the Queenes minde then her care for Britaine in France, and how shee might relieve the French King, who was now sinking. In the beginning of the yeere therefore, shee flatteringly expostulated with him by Edmund Yorke, for his three months silence; shee put him in minde how much it concerned him to provide for the defence of Britaine betimes, exhorting him by any means to impeach the Prince of Parma, who now againe cast in minde to invade France, that hee might not joyne his forces with the Spaniards in Britaine; whom to expell she promised aydes both by sea and land, if he would assigne a Port and place for retreit, and joyne competent Forces. The King, commending the Queenes care, gave her thanke in choice words; and promising much, required 3000 men for the British warre, and certaine companies into Picardy, to bee sent over out of hand. Hee named Cherburgh, Granvill, or Brest, Port Townes for a place for them to retire unto, but especially Blawet, wonne by the Spaniards, as the most commodious (whether hee jested or no, I know not), and gave commission to Beavoir de Nocte his Embassador Legier in England to make the Contract; who contracted with Burghley Lord Treasurer, Charles Howard Lord Admiral, and Hunsdon Lord Chamberlaine Commissioners for the Queene: That 3000 English should bee sent over into Picardy and Britaine with provision for warre; that the King should repay unto the Queene within a yeere in the City of London, their pay, the charges of transporting, and the price of the provision for warre, or sooner if the enemy should be removed. The Queene entred the more willingly into this Contract, for that shee was advertised that the Spaniards were received into Paris, the head City of France, and that the Citizens acknowledged the King of Spaine to bee their Lord and King, vouchsafing their lawfull King no other Title then the Bearnais; that thereby the Spaniard conceaved hope to reduce France under his power; and this hee spared not to speake before the Ianin Commissioner for the Leaguers in Spaine; also that Gregory the 13th Bishop of Rome had in that respect leavied Forces against the French King in Italy and Switzerland, under the command of the Duke de Mont-martin; and had sent forth a Bull of excommunication against him, which notwithstanding the Parliament of Paris (which was now at Tours) condemned, and fastening it to the Gallous by the hand of the Hangman, commanded to be consumed with fire.
2. Hereupon there was set forth a Proclamation that no man should carry victuals or provision for warre out of England into the Ports of France possessed by the Leaguers, or traffique with them, upon paine of High treason; and this the King of Scots had done before already. Sir Henry Palmer, being sent forth with certaine shippes of warre, tooke 13 of their shippes in their return from Nova-Francia. Sir Roger Williams also with 600 men passed over shortly after to Diepe (which Towne the enemy lying neere at hand threatned) with expresse charge to stay in those parts. And after a few dayes Sir John Norris with the rest set sayle into Britaine; which Forces were commanded next under him by his brother Henry and Antony Shirley. Thereafter they had joyned with the Kings Forces, and in vaine attempted Lamballe, which was defended by the Leaguers (where Francis la Noue that famous Warriour died of a hurt received), tooke Chastillion, and rather restrained then removed the Leaguers and Spaniards.
3. Sir Roger Williams with his Forces, and with Monsieur le Chatre Governour of Diepe, breaking through a Barricado at Cinquessaunce, put the Leaguers to flight which under the command of Tremblecourt and Lounde infested the wayes, and was highly commended for his valour by the King in his letters to the Queene. Whereupon hee, gathering more courage, forgot his charge and accompanied the King to the Suburbs of Paris, and by a short letter challenged the Spaniards to send 200 Pikes and 100 Muskettiers to encounter with so many English in the field. Scarce was hee returned to Diepe, when presently being sent for by the King, hee poasted with his troupes, contrary to that hee had in charge, to Noyon, where being prodigall of other mens bloud, he hazarded many English in the assault, without acquainting the Queene, who therefore was offended with him.
4. In those dayes, the French King gave the Queene to understand by Anthony Raux that he was determined to take in Roan and New-haven, before the Prince of Parma should march with his colours into France; and in that respect, hee prayed the Queene to send 4000 English into Normandy and give them two months pay, and if they stayed longer, hee would pay them, and promised most religiously that presently upon their landing hee would joyne his Forces with them; and in the meane time hee would tarry in Picardy, lest they of Roan should have any suspition of his purpose. The Queene who desired nothing more than to remove the enemy farther from the sea-coast, willingly assented,. Hereupon an agreement was made upon the same conditions, with a clause that it should be confirmed (as the French speake) and published by authority of the supreme Parliament. Within a few daies those Forces were leavied, and arrived at Diepe under the command of Robert Earle of Essex, a most Noble young man, and in very great grace with the Queene. Hee was accompanied with very many Gentlemen of most noble Houses; and Sir Thomas Leighton and Sir Henry Killegrew, men of great experience, were commanded to assist him with their counsaile. Hee, arriving in France, found that the King was farre off at Noyon; preparation in Normandy against the enemies hee saw none, neither could hee understand from any man what hee should doe with his men, insomuch as hee grew angry that hee and his men were not used according to their worth, and wondered that the King forgat his promises. Afterwards Sir Roger Williams came poasting to him, and prayed him in the Kings name to come unto him quickly to Noyon that they might consult together about the matter of the warre. Whither, when after a very difficult and dangerous journey hee was come, the King declared unto him that hee mut needs goe into Champagyne to joyne his Forces with the German Army. Hee promised to sent Marshall Biron and the Duke of Montpensier with all speed to besiege Roan. The Earle with difficulty returned to his men, who lay encamped at Arques; and to the end to winne the love of Military men, and increase their courage, hee knighted many, not without offence of many others which flourished with that dignity at home, as if hee had prostituted that Title, which had hitherto beene of glorious esteeme amongst the English, and which the Queene had bestowed sparingly and not but upon men of great note. Biron and Montpensier appear not; Montpensier going into Champayne to bee present at the marriage of Vicount Tureine with the Duke of Bulliouns daughter, and Marshall Biron turning asyde to the small Castle of Petrepont, which hee besiedge a while in vaine. Hereupon the French King sent back Raux into England, to shew the causes why he besieged not Roan. For the Queene by Sir Henry Umpton her Embassador Legier mainly urged the siege thereof, and the Parliamentary publication of the Contract; but Umpton could neither obtaine the one nor the other, and at length hardly procured a bare confirmation of the Contract. Essex in the meane time lay idle in the Campe, and not without great anguish of mind, who was wholly inflamed with heat to bee doing somewhat. Comming one time somewhat neere to Roan, hee lost his Brother Walter, who was shot. The Queene blamed him by her letters, for that without acquainting her hee had gone unto the King, and had inconsiderately come too neere Roan. But hee with a little flattery soone appeased her, and in the meane time marching with his Forces to Gorney, gave Biron remarkable assistance in winning the same.
5. The King in the meane <time> sent letters to the Queene by Beavoir, intreating her that Essex might march with the English out of Normandy into Champayne, as if hee not so much as once thought of the besieging of Roan. Which shee tooke in such ill part that shee expostulated the matter with him that Roan was not yet besieged, that two months now were spent since the Contract, and yet there came no pay, that shee and hers had beene now long time deluded, who were first neglected, afterwards hurried hither and thither, and every where exposed to dangers, promises had not beene kept, not without some note of ungratefull lightenesse, and all her cost was quite lost. That shee was therefore resolved to call home her men out of Normandy, unlesse hee would keepe his promises, and enter into a course for discharging of pay hereafter. Hee with flattering letters pacified her by an excuse of necessity through tumultuous multitude of businesses every where. In the beginning of November, when the Prince of Parma was now ready to march, hee began slowly to besiege Roan, sent Essex into England to gather more ayde; hee returning after a few dayes, upon the Eve of the Nativity of Christ, hee set upon the Fort of Saint Catharines, in foure places at once, and in three of them exposed the English to the slaughter. And at the same time by Morney of Plessis hee craved a new supply of English to be presently sent over to resist the Prince of Parma, who was ready to come. Neither did the Queene deny him, but lightly taxed the Kings carelesse procrastination in the besieging of Roan and preventing of Parma. Shee wished that the English might bee more favorably dealt withall, and not they alone objected to all extreme dangers. But these things and such like I leave to the French Historiographers, who hitherto either have beene ignorant of them, or dissembled them. And to our Writers of Ecclesiasticall matters would I more willingly leave the fanaticall madnesse, or rather blasphemous impiety, of William Hacket, that brake forth at this time, which it even irketh mee to remember. But lest by my silence I should seeme to have favored the mans wickednesse and deluded the truth, take it here in a few words untill our Historians shall write the same more fully.
6. This Hacket was a man of vulgar sort, borne at Oundle in the County of Northampton, unlearned, insolent, fierce, and so eager upon revenge that he bit off his honest Schoolemasters nose as he embraced him under colour of renewing their love, and like a dogge (as they say) eat it downe before the poore deformed mans face, while hee prayed him to restore it to him that it might be sewed to whilest the hurt was yet greene [fresh]. And so averse was he from all piety, that the heavenly doctrine which hee heard in Sermons hee repeated amongst his drinking companions at their cuppes to be derided. Afterwards when he had riotously wasted his estate which he had with his wife, a widow, he suddenly took upon him the person of one of admirable sanctity, spent all his time in hearing of Sermons, learning the Scriptures, and by counterfeiting I know not what revelations to be made unto him from heaven, and an extraordinary calling, he insinuated himselfe into certaine Divines, which with burning zeale laboured to bring into England the Presbyteriall Discipline of the Church of Geneva; amonst whom was Wigginton a silly brainsicke Minister (if any were), and contemner of Magistrates. By this Wiggintons meanes he became familiar with Edmund Coppinger a Gentleman of a good house, who had perswaded first himselfe, and then Arthington a great follower of that Discipline, that hee also was extraordinarily called of God to the good of the Church, and that a meanes was revealed to him from heaven to draw the Queene and Councell to a better minde, to wit, to admit the Discipline of Geneva, he himselfe being already taught by some Ministers that God daily raiseth up extraordinary labourers in his Church. And this (rejoycing as it were in spirit) he joyfully imparted to Hacket, who by a counterfeit holinesse, uncessantly and most fervently praying ex tempore, fasting upon the Lords day, often boasting that he had beene buffeted by Satan; and by counterfeiting revelations, and often conferences with God, which with most vehement and direfull vowes by the salvation and damnation of his soule, hee sware to be most true, found such credite with these two, that they beleeved and affirmed him to be the most beloved of God, and greater then Moses and Saint John. And he himselfe openly pretended that he was the Prophet of Gods vengeance wheresoever mercy is rejected, prophecying that from thenceforth there should be no more Popes, and that England should this yeere be most grievously afflicted with famine, pestilence, and warre, except the Discipline of the Lord (for such were his words) and Reformation were admitted. To bring in this therefore, they conspired (as was found by their owne letters) to accuse the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Lord Chancelor of treason, who opposed themselves against innovators, to kill them and some others, if they should give sentence in the Starre-Chamber against the Ministers which were innovators, to stirre up the multitude to a rebellion by printed rimes, wherein amongst other things was affirmed that it was lawfull for a true Christian, though a Countrey peasant, to informe Kings how to sway the Scepter, and to depose the Queene her selfe unlesse she would advance a reformation. That Hacket boyled with cruell hatred against the Queene appeareth even by this, That he had often given out that she had forfeited her title to the Crowne, and had furiously defaced her Armes and Picture drawne in a table [painting], striking his dagger thorow her brest. And no marvell; for now hee had perswaded himselfe that he was ordained of God to bee King of Europe, and could not brooke a consort; and he perswaded Coppinger and Arthington that they were inspired not onely with a Propheticall, but even with an Angelicall spirit. Who now being full of the spirit, as they thought, performed all obedience to him as their King, ordained by God, labouring to rayse a rebellion. In the moneth of July therefore they came unto a Nobleman, to whom they offered the highest command under the Queene, and dedicated unto him Hackets life described together with Arthingtons prophecy. But hee, being occupied about something else, rejected the men. Not long after, they signified to Wigginton that Christ had appeared unto them the night before, not in that body wherewith hee dwelleth in the heavens, but with a principall spirit, wherewith he inhabited in Hacket more fully then in any other, and that Hacket was that very Angell which was to come before the last day with his Fanne and Sheephooke to separate the Goates from the Sheepe; and that hee should tread downe Satan under his feet, and quite subvert the kingdome of Antichrist. From Wigginton they betook themselves to Hacket, neere to whom lying in his bed they cast themselves prostrate on the ground, and powred forth most fervent prayers. Hacket arising, joyned himselfe with them, praying fervently with many words that the spirit would direct them to Gods glory, and then went to bed againe.
7. Soone after, Arthington admonished Coppinger to annoint the King with the holy Ghost, in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ; Coppinger with all lowlinesse kissing the floor thrice, and bending the knee with all reverence, came unto Hacket, who put him backe, saying, You need not annoynt me, for the holy Ghost hath annoynted mee already. Doe ye my commandements. Goe and tell thorow the City that Jesus Christ is come with his Fan in his hand to judge the world. If any aske where he is, shew him this place, and if they will not beleeve, let them come and kill me if they can. As it is most certain that God is in heaven, so is it no lesse true that Christ is now come to judge. Scarce had he spoken the word, but presently they rushed forth, crying through the streets that Christ was come, and the rest of the things which hee had commanded them; and often times redoubling with a loud voice, Repent, Repent, untill they were come to the principall street in the City.
8. Where by reason of the throng of people they climbed up upon a Cart, and partly by the helpe of their memories, partly out of a writing proclaymed that Hacket in a glorified body participated with Christ by his principall spirit, and was now at hand with his Fanne to propagate the Gospell throughout Europe, and to establish Discipline and the Common-wealth in England; and withall, they shewed the place were he lodged, that they were two Prophets, the one of Mercy, the other of Judgement, given to him as coadjutors in so great a worke. And these things they affirmed upon the salvation of their soules to be most true. They added also that Hacket was the highest and supreme Monarch, and that all the Kings of Europe did hold their Kingdomes of him as his vassals; that hee alone therefore was to be obeyed, and the Queene to bee deposed. Lastly, they cursed the Archbishop and the Chancellour to the pit of hell, as Opposers of the sincere Religion. When they could not for the great throng of people goe forward to the other parts of the City to proclaime these things, and were advised by their friends to withdraw themselves, they returned to Hackets lodging.
9. Shortly after being apprehended, they behaved themselves so contemptuously towards the Queenes Councell and the Magistrates, that they would not uncover their heads unto them, and answered most saucily, saying that they were above all Magistrates. Hacket being afterward indited of treason, confessed himself guilted, and by his blasphemous answers strook the auditors into horror and astonishment; peradventure craftily, to draw the Judges into an opinion that he was mad, whereas notwithstanding by his other gesture, and a certaine gravity, he gave no shew of a mad man. Being condemned, he was layd upon a hurdle, and drawne to the chiefe street of the City, incessantly roaring out with a dreadfull sound, Jehova Messias, Jehova Messias, behold the heaven open, behold the son of the most high descending downe to deliver me. At the gallowes, being admonished to acknowledge his sinne against God and the Queene, the execrable wretch cried out with a Stentors voyce, inveighing most contumeliously against the Queene, O heavenly God, Almighty Jehova, Alpha and Omega, Lord of Lords, King of Kings, God everlasting, Thou knowest that I am the true Jehova whom thou hast sent. Shew some miracle out of the cloud to convert these Infidels, and take me from mine enemies. But if not (I tremble to repeat it) I will set the heavens on fire, and plucke thee out of thy throne with these hands, and other speeches he used more unspeakable. Turning him to the hangman as he was putting the rope on him, Thou bastard (said he), Wilt thou hang Hacket thy King? Having the rope about his necke, he lift up his eyes to heaven, and grinning said, Doest thou repay me this for a kingdome bestowed? I come to revenge it.
10. These things as he was belching forth with a blasphemous mouth, his windepipe was broken with the halter, the multitude crying out to have the most impious villain presently cut downe, which according to the sentence of his judgement was done, and he was bowelled and quartered. Thus doth the enemy of mankind bewitch those whom he findeth to dissemble sanctity, and not willing to be wise to sobriety. Coppinger shortly after starved himselfe in prison by voluntary fasting. Arthington being reserved to penitence, seriously repented, setting forth a booke thereof.
11. And not these alone, but also others, which had hitherto in vaine impugned the Discipline in the Church of England by condemning the calling of Bishops, and contumeliously calumniating the Prelates, now having drawne to their party some Common Lawyers, strayned both their tongues and pennes against their jurisdiction, and the authority granted unto them by the Queene in Ecclesiasticall causes, as altogether unjust, declayming every where, even in bookes divulged that men were unworthily oppressed in the ecclesiasticall Courts contrary to the Lawes of the Land; that the Queene could not by Law grant any such authority, neither could others exercise it being granted. That those Courts could not exact of the party accused the oath ex officio, for as much as no man is bound to accuse himselfe; that this oath precipitateth men to the condemning of themselves with an ignominious confusion, or to a wilfull perjury with the destruction of their soules. Besides, that these Courts ought not to take cognizance of any other then Matrimoniall and Testamentary causes, according to this old writ, Mandamus vicecomiti, etc.: We command the Sherife of our Counties of S. N. etc., that they suffer not any in their Bailywicke to meet in any places, to make recognitions by oathes, except in Matrimoniall and Testamentary causes.
12. On the contrary, the professors of the Ecclesiasticall Law maintayned the Queenes authority in Ecclesiasticall causes, as invested in the Queene by authority of Parliament. That to oppugne this, was nothing else but to runne against her Majesty, and to insult over her sacred prerogative with breach of the oath of Alleagiance. That the Ecclesiasticall Courts may take cognizance of other then Matrimoniall and Testamentary causes they proved by the Statute of Circumspecte agitis, and the Articles of the Clergy under Edward the first. That the Writ or Law alleaged was suspect, because it was of an uncertaine time and diverse reading. For else-where it is written, To make recognitions, or take oathes. Also that to make recognition doth not signifie to give Testimony, or to answere in Law, but to acknowledge and confesse a debt, or to hold pleas concerning Billes, Bonds, or Debts. That the oath ex officio in those Courts, as also in others, hath beene time out of minde exacted to discover Simony, Adultery, and other workes of darknesse, especially when (as the Lawyers speake) Insinuatio fuerit clamosa. And though no man bee bound to discover himselfe, yet being once discovered by a common fame, he is bound to shew whether he can defend his innocency and purge himselfe, for as much as penance imposed is not a punishment, but a medicine to cure sinners, deterre others from sinne, and take away scandall, according to that in the holy Scriptures, For thy soules sake be not confounded to speake truth; for there is a confusion leading unto sinne, and there is a confusion leading unto glory and grace. But why doe I stand upon these points, seeing there are learned discourses about this matter on both sides to be sold, written by Richard Cosins Doctor of Law, and John Morris, and Lancelot Andrews? The Queene well knowing that in this businesse her authority was shot at through the sides of the Bishops, tacitely brake the force of the adversaries, and maintained the Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction inviolate.
13. At this time Thomas Howard, the Duke of Norfolkes second sonne, had waited full six moneths with six of the Queenes shippes, and as many victuallers, for the Spanish Fleet which was to returne from America. Whilest he stayed at Flores amongst the Iles of Azores, the Mariners being most of them sicke (for souldiers he had none), Alphonso Bassano being sent forth with 53 shippes to conduct home the Fleet of America, came upon him at unawares in such sort that Howard in the Admirall [flagship], and the rest had much adoe to get out into the open sea. Sir Richard Grenvill in the viceadmirall called the Revenge, whilest he stayed to call backe his men out of the Iland, and out of a certaine magnanimity, unadvisedly forbad them to set sayle, was encompassed betwixt the Iland and the Spanish Fleet, which was divided into foure squadrons, whereof whilest he courageously thought to break through one, the Spanish Admirall, named the Saint Philip, on the one side with her huge bulke tooke away from him the benefit of the winde, on the other side three other shippes from other parts hardly set him; and the Spaniards, often bourding and entring the shippe, were either beaten backe into their owne shippes, or throwne into the sea, and continually changing fresh men, fought all night long, with much slaughter of their men. Now the Englishmens powder failed them, their pikes were broken, and all their stoutest men either slayne or hurt, their Masts and Trimmers overthrowne, their Cables cut, the shippe battered with 800 great shot, and Grenvill himselfe hurt, who whilest a plaster was applied, was shot againe in the head, and withall, the Chyrurgion slayne. When the day appeared, the hatches begored with blood, and strewed with slaine Carkasses and men halfe dead, presented a heavy spectacle to them that were left alive. After they had fought now fifteene houres, Greenvill being past all hope of life, commanded the ship to be sunke. The Master forbad it, and being with consent of most of them, rowed in a boate to the Admirall of the Spaniards, he yeelded upon composition for life and freedom from the Gallyes. Greenvill languishing, and ready now to breathe his last, was carried into the Spanish Admirall, and dyed within two dayes with great commendation for his valour, even amongst his enemies. The shippe was yeelded, but the keele thereof being shot thorow in many places, was shortly after sunke in a tempest which arose, together with 200 Spaniards put aboard her, and others. So as this Revenge (it seemeth) perished not unrevenged, and by this one new victory cost the Spaniards much blood. Howard, trusting more in his courage then his strength, longed to rush into the midst of the enemies. But the Master was so farre from assenting to it, that he would rather cast himselfe into the sea then put the Queenes shippe into most certaine danger; neither did the rest thinke good to undertake the fight with most assured perill, and without all hope to free their fellowes from so great a danger, saying that to oppose five shippes against fifty three was nothing else but inconsiderately, with the destruction of their owne men, to weaken the strength of England, and increase the glory of the enemy. Yet he and the rest, especially Sir Thomas Vavasor (who assisted the Revenge the space of two houres), fought manfully as long as the winde permitted them, and omitted nothing which they were able to doe untill night parted them.
14. The damage received by the losse of this one ship the English abundantly recompensed by taking many Spanish shippes, in one whereof (besides wealth and riches) were found about twenty thousand Papall Indulgences or Pardons appointed for America. For the Indians are constrained to buy such remissions of sinnes every yeere, to the great gaine of the Bishop of Rome and the Spaniard. George Riman also, a very stout Sea-man, and James Lancaster, made a voyage with thre shippes to East-India. The Cape of Good Hope they happily passed. At Cabo Corriente a Tempest carryed away the Admirall, which with Riman was drowned. Shortly after the Skye roared with horrible thunder, and in the other two shippes foure of the Saylors dyed, having their neckes wroung with force of lightening; and above 90 were stricken blind, others lamed, some as it were racked, who notwithstanding every one recovered beyond expectation, and undauntedly held on their voyage. At the Ilse of Comoro, whilest they tooke in fresh water, 30 of them with the Master were slaine by the Barbarians. At Zanzibar they wintered.
15. Towards the spring they tooke some shippes of the Mohametans of Pergo with wodden Anchors, and some others of the Portugals laden with Pepper and Rice. Afterward when they were come to Zeilan, and then to Nicubar an Iland plentifull of Cinnamon and Diamonds, and now had no more then 33 men left alive, and victuals failed them, they set sayle homewards; at the Isle of Saint Hellen having refreshed themselves a little, they were driven through the Ocean to Trinidada, were they found no comfort. At length they lighted on Charles Barbotier a Frenchman, who relieved them; with whom they began to deale not with that faithfulnesse which they ought, but such as miserable Sea-men are wont to use, but hee deluded their cunning. Afterwards, whilest Lancaster refreshed himselfe with some men in the Isle of Anglesey, the ship was carryed away by foule weather with seven most distressed men, and returned home very rich, and they that were left there behinde were no lesse distressed, but brought home by the courtesie of the Frenchmen, and were the first that taught the Englishmen the manner of trading in East India.
16. In the meane time, Thomas Cavendish, who having sayled round about the world, had returned home with glory in the yeere 1587, began a voyage this yeere with 5 shippes to the straight of Magellan, which when hee could not passe by reason of contrary winds, and being driven backe to the coasts of Brasill, hee there dyed an untimely death, charging John Davies in his last will and testament, as if hee had treacherously forsaken him.
17. The warre now growing hot, it was publiquely commanded upon paine of treason that no man should carry graine, munition, or provision for shipping into the Spaniards Dominions, the cause being added, for that hee having professed himselfe an enemy to England, had already before refused to confirme the ancient Leagues betwixt their Predecessors. And whereas English Priests at this time secretly crept into England daily, in greater number then before, from the Seminaries of Rome, France, and Spaine (for the Spaniard had lately founded a Seminary for the English at Valledolid), who laboured to disswade the subjects from their obedience to the Queene, and to entice them to the Spaniards party, it was commanded by Proclamation in the month of October that no man should harbour any man whatsoever, unlesse inquiry were first made who hee was, whether hee came to prayers in the Church, upon what meanes hee lived, where hee lived the last yeere before, and other such like things; that they which could not readily answer, should bee sent unto Commissioners in every shire, lest the Common-wealth should receive any damage. Which Proclamation as being very sharpe, drew forth contrary writings, full of virulency, set forth by the Papists against Burghley Lord Treasurer as the author thereof, wherein they praise Sir Christopher Hatton as a man more inclinable to their side, who was of opinion that in the cause of Religion neither searing nor cutting was to be used. But hee dyed the day before this Proclamation was published, of a Flux of his Urine [diabetes] and griefe of minde, for that the Queene had somewhat more bitterly exacted a great summe of money collected of tenths and first fruits, whereof he had the charge, which hee had hoped, in regard of the favour hee was in with her, shee would have forgiven him; neither could shee, having once cast him downe with a word, raise him up againe, though shee visited and comforted him. Borne hee was of a Family more ancient than wealthy in Northamptonshire. Being young, and of comely talnesse of body and countenance, hee got into such favour with the Queene that shee tooke him into her band of 50 Gentlemen Pensioners, and afterwards for his modest sweetnesse of manners, into the number of the Gentlemen of her Privy Chamber, made him Captiane of her Guard, Vice-Chamberlaine, and one of her Privy Councell, and lastly made him Lord Chancellor of England, and honoured him with the Order of Saint George. A man of pious nature, great pitty towards the poore, singular bounty to Students of learning (for which those of Oxford chose him Chancellor of that University), and who in the execution of that most weighty Office of Lord Chancellor of England could comfort himselfe with the conscience of a right will to doe equity. His Funerall was honourably performed at Pauls Church in London; and William Newport his Nephew by his sister, whom hee had adopted into the Name of the Hattons and made his Heire, made him a stately Monument. But the keeping of the great Seale was for certaine months in the hands of the Lord Treasurer, the Lord Hunsdon, the Lord Cobham, and the Lord Buckhurst, and afterwards was committed to John Puckering the Queenes Sergeant at Law, not with the Title of Chancellor, but Keeper of the great Seale.
18. Brien O-Rork, a great Lord of Brenny in Ireland, who marvelously favoured and affected the Spaniards, and was sent the last yeere (as I said) by the King of Scots into England, was now arraigned in Westminster Hall, for that hee had excited and harboured Alexander Mac-Conell and others against the Queene; had commanded the Queenes Picture painted in a table to bee hung at a horse tayle, and hurled about in scorne, and disgracefully cut in pieces; had entertained into his house certaine Spaniards which were shipwracked, contrary to the Lord Deputies Proclamation; had burnt downe to ashes the houses of the Queenes faithfull subjects by his incendiaries; had slaine many of them; and had offered Ireland into the possession of the King of Scots. He being made to understand these accusations by an interpreter (for he understood not English) and being a man barbarously insolent, refused to submit himselfe to the tryall of twelve men, unlesse hee might have longer time given, an Advocate might bee assigned him, the accusations sent out of Ireland might bee delivered into his hands, and the Queene her selfe would sit as Judge upon the Tribunall seat. When the Lord Chiefe Justice of England had answered by an Interpreter that if hee would not submit himselfe de facto to the tryal of 12 men, yet were they to Judge by Law according to the heads of the Inditement, hee made no other reply, but If they thought it good, let it bee so. Sentence of death being pronounced upon him, after a few dayes hee suffered a Traitors death at Tiburne with a most obstinate minde, scoffing at Meilery Creah Archbishop of Cassils, who began in the Irish speach to comfort him as a a man of ambiguous faith and depraved life, for that hee had broken his vow, abjuring the rule of Franciscans.
19. This yeere the Queene by a laudable institution founded a Colledge at Dublin the chiefe City of Ireland, dedicated to the holy and inseparable Trinity, and to good letters, in the place where in old time had beene the Monastery of all Saints, and endowed it with Academicall privileges of teaching and conferring scholasticall titles and honours of learning, called Degrees (which the Bishop of Rome about the yeere 1320 had granted ot this City), to the end shee might propagate civility both of Religion and Humanity throughout the Iland, and the Inhabitants might bee eased of a great charge in sending their Children to places farre off. Which Colledge certainly beginneth now to flourish both in number of Students and happy increase of lerned men. A little before that time, Hugh O-Donell, whom Sir John Perot Lord Deputy had by a wile allured into a ship, and shut him up in the Castle of Dublin, lest hee, being a man of a turbulent spirit, should raise any commotions, escaped home out of prison and gave the Lord Deputy to understand by letters that his Father had conveighed unto him the authority of O-Donell, that is the Dinasty of Tir-Connell, and from that time hee began to rebell in Ireland, as Bothwell did in Scotland. Of whom (though I would not wilingly intermeddle in Scottish matters) some things are to bee spoken, forasmuch as they are so interwoven with English matters, that thereby some light might arise to the ensuing discourse, which otherwise must of necessity bee involved in much obscurity.
20. Bothwell ,who being accused to have consulted with Witches, had escaped out of prison, was inflamed with implacable hatred against Maitland Lord Chancellour, whom hee suspected to bee the chiefe Author of his accusation, and to the end to seize both him and the King into his power, about the end of December, brake into the Kigns Court at Edinburgh, with certaine Conspirators, Scottish and English Borderers; assaied to breake open the Queenes Chamber with a Hammer, to set fire on the Kigns Chamber, and to assaile the Lord Chancellors house both at once. But by the concurse of the Citizens he was repulsed and fled. Some of his Lackyes were hanged. The Hammer was fastened to the Queenes Chamber doore in memory of the fact.

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