Click a green square to see the Latin text. Click a red square to see a textual note. Click on a blue square to see a commentary note.


OW I am come to Scotland, and willingly, I assure you, will I enter into it, but withall lightly passe over it. For I remember well that said saw, In places not wel knowne, lesse while we must stay, as also the admonition of that Grecian, ξένος ὢν ἀπράγμων ἴσθι, that is, Art thou a stranger? Be no Medler. And verily I should play an unadvised part if I would insist long in that wherein I am but little conversant. But yet, seeing Scotland also joieth in the name of Britaine, let it be lawfull for me (reserving the due honour to the Scotish) according to my purpose, having boldly undertaken to illustrate Britan, to proceed with their good favour, leave and license, and by withdrawing aside in some sort the curtaine of obscure antiquity, to point out with my finger, if I shalbe able, some places of ancient note and memorie. Certes, I assure my selfe that I shall bee easily pardoned in this point, the people them selves are so courtuous and well meaning, and the happinesse of these daies so rare and admirable, since that by a divine and heavenly opportunity it is now fallen into our laps, which wee hardly ever hoped, and our Ancestours so often and so earnestly wished: namely, that Britaine, for so many ages disjoigned [disjointed] in it selfe and unsociable, should all throughout like one uniforme City, under one most sacred and happie Monarch, the founder of perpetuall peace, by a blessed Union bee conjoyned in one entire bodie. Who beeing through the propitious goodnesse of Almighty God elected, borne, and preserved to the good of both nations, as hee is a Prince of singular wisedome and providence, and, fatherly affected to all his subjects, doth so cut off all causes and occasions of feare, of hope, of revenge, complaint, and quarell, that the dismale Discord which hath set these nations (otherwise invincible) so long at debate might be stifled and crushed for ever, and sweet Concord triumph joyously with endlesse comfort, when (as one sometime sung this tenour), iam cuncti gens una sumus, that is, Wee all one nation are this day, whereunto as a Chorus both nations resound, et simus in aevum, that is, God grant wee may so bee for aye.
2. But before my penne commeth to Scotland, thus much I thinke it good to advertise the reader aforehand, that I leave the first originall of the Scottish nation to their owne Historians; also the primitive derivation of their name to the learned among them, banishing al conjectures whatsoever of others, which either hasty credulity or carelesse negligence hath forged, as well in the late foregoing age as in these our daies. and according to the same order which I kept before in England, I will premise some few lines touching the Division of Scotland, the States of the Kingdome, and the Tribunalls or Courts of Justice; then will I breifly touch the situations and Commodities of the soile in every severall Region: what places there bee of greater fame and name, and what families, more notable and noble than the rest, have most flourished with the title and honour of Earles and Barons of the Parliament, so farre forth as hitherto I could finde by reading or enquiry. And that so circumspectly with such an honest desire and sincere affection to truth, that I hope I shal not give offence to the malicious, and with so compendious brevity that I will not prevent their curious diligence, who are in hand to set out these matters with a fuller pensill, and to polish the same with more lively and lasting collours.


HE North part of the Iland of Britaine was of old time inhabited throughout by the Picts, who were divided into two Nations, the Dicalidonii and Vecturiones, of whom I have spoken alreadie out of Ammianus Marcellinus. But when the Scots became Lords and Rulers over all this part, it was shared into seven partes among seven Princes, as wee find in a little ancient pamphlet touching the Division of Scotland, in these words and old names:

The first part conteined Enegus and Maern.
The second Atheodl and Goverin.
The third Stradhern with Meneted.
The fourth was Forthever.
The fift, Mar with Buchen.
The sixth, Muref and Ros.
The seaventh Cathanes, which Mound, a mountaine in
the midest divideth, running on forward from the
West sea to the East.

2. Then afterwardes the same author reporteth, according to the relation of Andrew Bishop of Cathanes, that the whole kingdome was divided likewise into seaven territories:

The first from Frith in the British tongue, called by the
Romans World, and now Scotwade, to the river Tae.
The second to Hilef, according as the sea fetcheth a
compasse, to a mountaine in the North-east part of
Strivelin named Athran.
The third from Hilef to Dee.
The fourth from Dee to the river Spe.
The fifth from Spe to the mountaine Brunalban.
The sixth Mures and Ros,
The seventh, the kingdom of Argathel, as it were the
border and skirt of the Scots. Who were so called of
Gathelgas their captaine.

3. Also, according to the habitation of the people, Scotland is now divided into Highlandmen and Lawlend-men. These, being more civil, use the English language and apparaill: the other, which are rude and unruly, speake Irish and go apparailed Irishlike, as I have already said. Out of this division I exclude the Borderers, because by reason of peace shining now upon them on every side, by a blessed and happy Union they are to bee ranged and reckoned in the very heart and midest of the British Empire, as who beginne to bee weary of warres and to acquaint them selves with the delightfull benefits of peace.
4. Moreover, according to the situation and position of the places the whole kingdome is divided into two partes, the South on this side the river Tay, and the North beyond Tay, besides a number of Islands lying round about. In the South part these countries are more remarkeable than the rest:

Teifidale Arran
Merch Cluydesdale
Lauden Lennox
Liddesdale Stirling
Eskedale Fife
Annandale Strathern
Niddesdale Menteith
Galloway Argile
Carrick Cantire
Kyle Lorn

In the North part are reckoned these Countries:

Loquabrea Buquhan
Braidalbin Murray
Perth Rosse
Athol Sutherland
Anguish Cathanes
Mern Strathnavern

5. These are subdivided againe according to their civill government into counties, which they cal Shiriffdomes, Seneschalsies, commonly Stewarties, and Baliwickes or Bailleries:

Edenburgh Clackmannan
Lynlthquo Kinros
Selkirk Fife
Roxburgh Kincardin
Peblis Forfair
Berwick Aberdene
Lanark Bamff
Renfrew Elgin
Dunfreis Forres
Wighton Narne
Aire Innerness
Bute Lorn
Argyle &and Tarbet Cromartie
Dunbarton Orknay and
Perth Shetland

Seneschalsies or Stewarties:

Menteith Kircudbricht
Strathern Annandall

Bailywickes or Baileries

Kile Carick
Cunningham Haddington, a

6. As touching the administration of that divine citie and commonwealth which we terme the Church, like as the Bishops in all the world beside had no certaine dioeceses before that Dionisius Bishop of Rome about the yeere 268 did set out dioeceses for Bishops, so the Bishops of Scotland executed their Episcopall functions in what place soever they came, indifferently and without distinction, untill the time of King Malcolme the Third, that is, about the yeere of our redemption 1070, at which time the dioeceses were confined within their bounds and limits. Afterwards, in processe of time this Hierarchie or Ecclesiasticall government was established in Scotland. Two Archbishops, one of Saint Andrews, the other of Glasco, whereof the former is counted Primate of all Scotland. Under whom there be eight Bishoprickes:

Dunkeld Brechin
Aberdon Rosse
Murray Cathanes
Dunblan Orkney

Under the Archbishop of Glasco there be onely three:

Candidae Casae or Galloway  
Lismoriensis or Argile  
The Iles  


HE Republicke or Common-wealth of the Scots, like as that of the Englishmen, consisteth of a King, the Nobility or Gentry, and Commons.
The King, that I may use the words of their owne Records, is directus totius dominus, that is, The Direct Lord of the whole Domaine or Dominion, and hath roiall authority and jurisdiction over all the States and degrees, as well Ecclesiasticall as Lay or Temporall.
Next unto the King is his eldest sonne, who is called Prince of Scotland, and by a peculiar right, Duke of Rothsay and Seneschall or Steward of Scotland. But all the rest of the Kings children are named simply Princes.
2. Among the Nobles, the greatest and most honorable were in old time the Thanes, that is, those who (if my judgement be ought) were ennobled onely by the office which they administred. For the word in the ancient English Saxon tongue signifieth The Kings Minister. Of these, they of the superior place were called Abthans, the inferior, Under Thanes. But these names by little and little grew out of use, ever since that King Malcolm the Third conferred the titles of Earles and Barons, after the maner receaved from the English, upon Noble men of good desert. Since when, in processe of time, new titles of honors were much taken up, and Scotland as wel as England hath had Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vicounts and Barons. As for the title of Duke, the first that brought it into Scotland was King Robert the Third about the yeere of Salvation 1400, like as the Honorable titles of Marquesse and Vicount were first brought in by our most gracious Soveraigne King James the Sixth. These are counted Nobles of the higher degree, and have both place and voice in the Parliaments, and by a speciall name are called Lords, like as also the Bishops.
3. Among the Nobles of a lower degree, in the first place are ranged Knights, who verily are doubbed with greater solemnity than in any other place throughout all Europe, by taking of an oth, and are proclaimed by the publicke voice of an Heralt. Of a second sort are they who are tearmed Lairds and Barons, among whom none were reckoned in old time but such as held immediatly from the King lands in Chef and had ius furcarum, that is, powre to hang &c. In the third place are all such as being descended from worshipfull houses, and not signall with any especiall dignitie, be tearmed Gentlemen. All the rest, as Citizens, Merchants, Artisans, &c., are reputed among the Commons.


HE supreme Court, as well for dignity as authority, is accounted the Assembly of the States of the Kingdome, which is called by the very same name as it in is in England, a Parliament, and hath the very same power as absolute. It consisteth of three States, of Lords Spirituall, namely Bishops, Abbots, and Priors, and of Lords Temporall, to wit Dukes, Marquesses, Earles, Vicounts, and Barons, and Commissioners for Cities and Burghs. Unto whom were adjoined not long since for every County also two commissioners. It is appointed and solemnly called by the King at his pleasure, at a certaine set time, before it bee holden. When these States abovesaid are assembled, and the causes of their assembly delivered by the King or the Chancellour, the Lords Spirituall choose out apart by themselves eight of the Lords Temporall. Sembably the Lords Temporall make choise of as many out of the Lords Spirituall. Then the same all jointly together nominate eight of the Commissioners for the Counties, and as many of the Commissioners for the free Bouroughs regall, which make up in all the number of 32. And then these Lords of the Articles (so they are termed) together with the Chancellor, Treasurer, Keeper of the Privy Seale, Kings Secretarie &c. doe admit or reject everie bill proposed unto the States, after they have beene first imparted unto the KIng. Being allowed by the whole assembly of the States, they are throughly weighed and examined, and such of them as passe by the greater number of voices are exhibited unto the King, who by touching them with his Scepter pronounceth that he either ratifieth and approveth them, or disableth and maketh the same void. But if any thing disliketh the King, it is rased [erased] out before.
2. The Second Court, or next unto the Parliament, is the Colledge of Justice, or as they call it, The Session, which King James the Fifth 1532 instituted after the forme of the Parliament of Paris, consisting of a President, 14 Senatours, seven of the Cleargie, and as many of the Laity (unto whom was adjoined afterward the Chancellor, who hath the chiefe place, and five other Senatours), three principall Scribes or Clerkes, and as many Advocates as the Senatours shall thinke good. These sit and minister Justice, not according to the rigor of law, but with reason and equity, every day (save onely on the Lords day and Monday) from the first of November to the fifteenth of March, and from Trinity Sunday unto the first Calends of August. All the space betweene, as being the times of sowing and harvest, is vacation and intermission of all suits and law matters. They give judgement according to the Parliament Statuts and Municipall lawes, and where they are defective, they have recourse to the Imperiall civill law.
3. There are besides in every Country inferior civill Judicatories or Courts kept, wherein the Sheriffe of the shire, or his deputy, decideth the controversies of the inhabitants about violent Ejections, intrusions, dammages, debts &c. From which Courts and judges, in regard of hard and unequall dealing, or else of alliance and partiality, they appeale sometime to the Session. These Sheriffes are all for the most part hereditary. For the Kings of Scots, like as of England also, to oblige more surely unto them the better sort of Gentlemen by their benefits and favours, made in old time these Sheriffes heritable and perpetuall. But the English Kings, soone perceiving the inconveniences thereby ensuing, of purpose changed this order and appointed them from yeere to yeere. There be civill Courts also in every regality, holden by their Bailives, to whom the Kings have graciously granted roialties, as also in free Borroughs, by the Magistrates thereof.
There are likewise Judicatories, which they call Commissariats, the highest whereof is kept at Edenburgh, in which, before foure Judges, actions are pleaded concerning Willes and Testaments, the right of Ecclesiasticall benefices, Tithes, Divorces, and such other Ecclesiasticall causes. In every other severall part almost throughout the Kingdome, there sitteth but one judge alone in a place about these matters.
4. In Criminall causes the Kings chiefe Justice holdeth his Court for the most part at Edenburgh (which office the Earles of Argile have executed now for some yeeres). And he doth depute two or three Lawyers who have the hearing and deciding of Capitall actions concerning life and death, or of such as inferre losse of lims or of all goods. In this Court the Defendant is permitted, yea in case of high treason, to entertaine a Counsellor or advocate to pleade his cause.
Moreover, in Criminall matters there are sometimes, by vertue of the Kings commission and authority, Justices appointed for the deciding of this or that particular cause.
5. Also, the Sheriffes in their territories, and Magistrates in some Burghs, may sit in judgement of Manslaughter (in case the man-sleere be taken within 24 houres after the deede committed), and, being found guilty by a Jury, put him to death. But if that time be once overpast, the cause is referred and put over to the Kings Justice or his Deputies. The same priviledge also some of the Nobility and gentry enjoy against theeves taken within their owne jurisdictions. There be likewise that have such Roialties as that in Criminall causes they may exercise a jurisdiction within their owne limits, and in some cases recall those that dwell within their owne limits and liberties from the Kings Justice, howbeit with a caution and proviso interposed, that they judge according to Law.
Thus much briefly have I put downe, as one that hath but sleightly looked into these matters, yet by the information of the judicious Knight Sir Alexander Hay, his Majesties Secretarie for that Kingdome, who hath therein given me good light. But as touching Scotland, what a noble Country it is, and what men it breedeth (as sometimes the Geographer wrote of Britaine) there will within a while more certaine and more evident matter be delivered, since that most high and mighty Prince hath set it open now for us, which had so long time beene shut from us. Meane while I will come unto the description of Places, the project that I intended especially.


PON the Ottadini or Northumberland, bordered as next neighbours, the Γάδενοι, that is, Gadeni, who also by the inversion or turning of one letter upside downe are called in some Copies of Ptolomee Ladeni, seated in that country which lieth betweene the mouth of the river Twede and Edenburgh Frith

, and is at this day divided into many pety countries: the chiefe whereof are Teifidale, Twedale, Merch, and Lothien, in Latine Lodeneium, under which one generall name alone the writers of the middle time comprised all the rest.


EFIDALE, that is to say the Vale by the river Tefie or Teviat, lying next unto England among the edges of high craggy hilles, is inhabited by a warlicke nation, which by reason of so many encounters in foregoing ages betweene Scotish and English are alwaies most ready for service and sudden invasions. The first place among these that we meete with is Jedburgh, a Bourrough well inhabited and frequented, standing neere unto the confluence of Teifie and Jed, whereof it tooke the name. Also Mailros, a very ancient Monastery, wherein at the beginning of our Church were cloistered Monkes of that ancient order and institution that gave themselves to praier, and with their hand labour earned there living: which holy King David restored and replenished with Cistertian Monkes. And more Eastward, where Twede and Teifie joine in one stream, Rosburg sheweth it selfe, called also Roxburg, and in old time Marchidun, because it was a towne in the Marches, where stands a Castle that for naturall situation and towrd fortifications was in times past exceeding strong. Which beeing surprised and held by the English, while James the Second King of Scots encircled it with a siege, hee was by a peece of a great ordinance that brake slaine untimely in the very floure of his youth, a Prince much missed and lamented of his subjects. As for the castle, it was yeelded, and beeing then for the most part of it laied even with the ground, is now in manner quite vanished and not to bee seene. The Territory adjoyning, called of it the Sherifdom of Roxburgh, hath one hereditarie Sheriffe, out of the familie of the Douglasses, who is usually called the Sherif of Treviot Dale. And now hath Roxburg also a Baron, Robert Kerr, through the favour of King James the Sixth, out of the family of the Kerrs, a famous house and spred into a number of branches as any one in that tract, out of which the Fernhersts and others inured in martiall feats have beene of great name.
2. Twede aforesaid runneth through the middest of a Dale taking name of it, replenished with sheepe that beare wooll of great request. A very goodly river this is, which, springing more inwardly Eastward, after it hath passed, as it were, in a streight chanell by Drimlar Castle, by Peblis a mercate towne which hath for the Sherif thereof Baron Zester, like as Selkirk hard by hath another out of the familie of Murray of Fallohill, enterteineth Lauder a riveret, at which appeereth Lauder, together with Thirlestan; where stands a very faire house of Sir John Mettellan late Chancellor of Scotland, who for his singular wisdome King James the Sixth created Baron of Thirlestan. Then Twede beneath Roxburg, augmented with the river of Teviot resorting unto him, watereth the Sherifdom of Berwick throughout, a great part whereof is possessed by the Humes (wherein the cheife man of that familie exerciseth now the jurisdiction of a Sherif), and so passeth under Berwick the strongest towne of Britain (whereof I have spoken already), where he is exceeding ful of Salmons, and so disembogeth [discharges] it selfe into the sea.


ERCH, which is next, and so named because it is a march country, lieth wholy upon the German sea. In this, first Hume Castle sheweth it selfe, the ancient possession of the Lords of Home or Hume, who, beeing descended from the familie of the Earles of Merch, are growne to be a noble and faire spred familie: out of which Alexander Hume, who before was the first Baron of Scotland Sherif of Berwick, was of late advanced by James King of Great Britaine to the title of Earle Hume. Neere unto which lieth Kelso, famous sometime for the monastery which, with thirteene others, King David the First of that name built out of the ground for the propagation of Gods glory, but to the great empairing of the crowne land.
2. Then is to be seene Coldingham, which Bede calleth the City Coldana and the city of Coludum, happily Colania mentioned by Ptolomee, a place consecrated many ages since unto professed Virgins or Nunnes, whose chastity is recorded in ancient bookes. For that they together with Ebba their prioresse cut off their owne noses and lips, choosing rather to preserve their virginity from the Danes than their beauty and favour, and yet for all that, the Danes burnt their monasterie and them withall. Hard by is Fast-castle, a castle of the Lords Humes, so called for their firmenesse and strength thereof, at the Promontorie of the said Saint Ebbe, who, beeing the daughter of Edilfrid King of Northumberland, when her father was taken prisoner, got hold of a boat in Humber and, passing along the raging Ocean, landed heere in safty, became renowned for her sanctimonie and left her name unto the place. But this Merch is mentioned in the Historiographers a great deale more for the Earles thereof than for any places therein: who for martiall proesse were highly renowned, and descended from Gospatricke Earle of Northumberland, whom after he was fled from William Conqueror of England, Malcolm Canmore, that is, With the great Head, King of Scotland, entertained, enriched him with the castle of Dunbar, and honored with the Earldome of Merch. Whose posterity, besids other goodly and faire lands in Scotland, held (as appeereth plainly in an old Inquisition) the Baronie of Bengeley in Northumberland, that they should be Inborrow and Utborrow betweene England and Scotland. What the meaning should be of these tearmes let others guesse; what my conjecture is I have said already. In the reigne of King James the First, George de Dunbar Earle of Merch, by authority of Parliament, for his fathers rebellion lost the Propriety and possession both of the Earldome of Merch and the Seignorie of Dunbar. And whenas he proved by good evidences and writings brought forth that his father had beene pardoned for that fault by the Regents of the Kingdome, he was answred againe that it was not in the Regents powre to pardon an offence against the State, and that it was expressely provided by the lawes that children should undergoe punishment for their fathers transgressions, to the end that, being thus heires to their fathers rashnes, as they are to their goods and lands, they should not at any time in the haughty pride of their owne powre plot any treason against Prince or country. This title of Earle of March, among other honorable titles, was given afterward to Alexander Duke of Albanie, and by him forfaited. And in our remembrance this title of honor was revived againe in Robert, the third brother of Matthew Earle of Lennox, who being a Bishop of Caithanes made Earle of Lennox, resigned up that title soone after unto his nephew, then created Duke of Lennox, and he himself in lieu thereof received of the King the name and stile of the Earle of Merch.


OTHIEN, which is also called Lauden, named in times past of the Picts Pictland, shooteth out along from Merch unto the Scottish sea, or the Forth, having many hille sin it and little wood, but for fruitfull cornfields, for courtesie also and civility of manners commended above all other countries of Scotland. About the yeere of our salvation 873 Eadgar King of England (betweene whom and Kenneth the Third, King of Scots, there was a great knot of alliance against the Danes, common enimies to them both) resigned up his right unto him in this Lothien, as Matthew the Flour-gatherer witnesseth, and to winne his heart the more unto him, He gave unto him many mansions in the way, wherein both he and his successours in their comming unto the Kings of England and in returne homeward might be lodged, which unto the time of King Henrie the Second continued in the hands of the King of Scotland. In this Lothien, the first place that offereth it selfe unto our sight upon the sea side is Dunbar, a passing strong castle in old time,and the seat of the Earles of Merch aforesaid, who thereupon were called Earles of Dunbar: a Peece many a time wonne by English, and as often recovered by the Scotish. But in the yeere 1567, by authority of the States in Parliament, it was demolished, because it should not be an hold and place of refuge for rebels. But James King of Great Britaine conferred the title and honor of Earle of Dunbar upon Sir George Hume for his approved fidelity, whom he had created before Baron Hume of Barwicke, to him, his heires, and Assignes. Hard by, Tine a little river, after it hath runne a short race, falleth into the sea, neere unto the spring-head whereof standeth Zeister, which hath his Baron out of the family of the Haies Earles of Aroll, who also is by inheritance Sherife of the little territorie of Twedall or Peblis. By the same riveret, some few miles higher, is seated Hadington or Hadina in a wide and broad plaine: which towne the English fortified with a deepe and large ditch, with a mure or rampier also without, foure square, and with foure bulwarks at the corners, and with as many other at the inner wall, and Sir James Wilford an English man valiantly defended it against Dessie the Frenchman, who with tenne thousand French and Dutch together fiercely assaulted it, untill that by reason of the plague, which grew hote among the garison-souldiers, Henrie Earle of Rutland comming with a roiall armie raised the siege, removed the French, and having laid the munitions levell, conducted the English home. And now of late King James the Sixth hath ranged Sir John Ramsey among the Nobles of Scotland, with title and honour of Vicount Hadington, for his faithfull valour, as whose RIGHT HAND was the DEFENDER OF PRINCE AND COUNTRY in that most wicked conspiracie of the Gourees against the Kings person. Touching this Hadington, thus hath Maister John Jonston versified:

Before it lies a spatious plaine, the Tine his streame hard by,
In bosome of that river shrill this towne enclos’d doth lie.
Which, having suffered grievous smart of fire and sword by turnes,
Grones under these misfortunes much, and for her losses mournes.
But now at length self-harmes have made it wise, and by Gods lore
Directed, helpe it hath from heaven, which steedeth it much more

Within a little of Hadington standeth Athenstanford, so called of Athelstane a chiefe leader of the English, slaine there with his men about the yeere 815. But that he should be that warlicke Athelstane which was King of the West-Saxons, both the account of the times and his owne death doe manifestly controule [controvert] it.
2. Above the mouth of this Tine, in the very bending of the shore, standeth Tantallon Castle, from which Archibald Douglasse Earle of Angus wrought James the Fifth, King of Scots, much teen and trouble. Heere by retyring backe of the shores on both sides is roome made for a most noble arme of the sea, and the same well furnished with Ilands, which by reason of many rivers encountring it by the way, and the tides of the surging sea together, spreadeth exceeding broad. Ptolomee calleth it Boderia, Tacitus Bodotria, of the depth, as I guesse, the Scots, the Forth and Frith, we, Edinburgh Frith, others, the Fresian sea and the Scotish Sea, and the Eulogium, Morwiridh. Upon this, after you be past Tantallon, are seated, first, North-Berwicke, a famous place sometime for an house there of religious Virgins, and then Dyrlton, which belonged in times past to the notable family of the Haliburtons, and now to Sir Thomas Ereskin Captain of the gard, whom James King of Great Britain for his happy valour in preserving him against the traiterous attempts of Gowrye first created Baron of Dirlton, and afterward advanced him to the honorable title of Vicount Felton, making him the first Vicount that ever was in Scotland. Against these places there lieth in the sea, not farre from the shore, the Iland Bas, which riseth up, as it were, all one craggy rocke, and the same upright and steep on every side; yet hath it a Blockhouse belonging to it, a fountaine also and pastures, but it is so holowed with the waves working upon it that it is almost pierced through. What a multitude of sea foules, and especially of those geese which they call Scoutes and Soland geese, flock hither at their times (for by report their number is such that in a cleere day they take away the sunnes light), what a sort of fishes they brIng (for, as the speech goeth, a hundred garizon souldiours that here lay for defense of the place fed upon no other meat but the fresh fish that they brought in), what a quantity of stickes and little twigges they get togither for the building of their nests, so that by their means the inhabitants are abundantly provided of fewell for their fire, what a mighty gaine groweth by their fethers and oyle, the report thereof is so incredible that no man scarcely would beleeve it but that he had seene it.
3. Then, as the shore draweth backe, Seton sheweth it selfe: which seemeth to have taken that name of the situation by the sea side, and to have imparted the same unto a right noble house of the Setons branched out of an English family, and from the daughter of King Robert Brus; out of which the Marquesse Huntley, Robert Earle of Wentoun, Alexander Earle of Dunfirmling, advanced to honors by King James the Sixth, are propagated.
After this, the river Eske dischargeth it selfe into this Frith when it hath runne by Borthwic (which hath Barons surnamed according to that name, and those deriving their pedigree out of Hungarie) by Newbottle, that is, The new building, sometimes a faire monasterie, now the Baronie of Sir Marke Ker; by Dalkeith, a very pleasant habitation of the late Earles of Morton; and Musselborow hard by, under which in the yeere of our Lord 1547, when Sir Edward Seimor Duke of Somerset, with an armie roiall had entred Scotland to claime and chaleng the keeping of a covenant made concerning a marriage betweene Marie Queene of Scotland and Edward the Sixth King of England, there hapned the heaviest day that ever fell to the adventurous youth of the most noble families in all Scotland, who there lost their lives. Here I must not overpasse in silence this inscription, which John Napier, a learned man, hath in this Commentaries upon the Apocalyps recorded to have beene heere digged up, and which the right learned knight Sir Peter Young, teacher and trainer to King James the Sixth in his youth, hath in this wise more truely copied forth:

V. SS. L. V. M.

Who this Apollo Grannus might bee, and whence hee should have this name, no one to my knowledge of our grave Senate of Antiquaries hitherto could ever tell. But if I might bee allowed from out of the lowest bench to speake what I thinke, I would say that Apollo Granus amongst the Romans was the same that Ἀπόλλων Ἀκερσεκόμης, that is, Apollo with long haire amongst the Greeks; for Isidor calleth the long haire of the Gothes grannos. But here I may seeme to wander out of my way, and therefore will returne to it.
4. Lower yet, and neere unto the Scotish Forth, is seated Edenburough, which the Irish Scots call Dun Eaden, that is, The towne Eaden, or Eden Hill, and which, no doubt, is the very same that Ptolomee named Στρατόπεδον Πτέρωτον, that is, The Winged Castle. For adain in the British tongue signifieth a wing, and Edenborrow (a word compounded out of the British and Saxon language) is nothing else but The Burgh with wings. From Wings therefore wee must fetch the reason of the name, and fetched it may be, if you thinke good, either from the Companies of Horsemen, which are called Wings, or else from those Wings in Architecture, which the great Master builders terme pteromata, that is, as Vitruvius sheweth, two Walles so rising up in height as that they resemble a shew of Wings. Which for that a certaine City of Cyprus wanted, it was called in old time (as wee read in the Geographers) Aptera, that is, Without Wings. But if any man beleeve that the name was derived from Ebrauk a Britaine, or from Heth a Pict, good leave hath he for me, I will not confront them with this my conjecture. This City in regard of the high situation, of the holsome aire and plentifull soile, and many Noble mens towred houses built round about it, watered also with cleere springing fountaines, reaching from East to West a mile out in length, and carrying halfe as much in bredth, is worthily counted the cheife citie of the whole Kingdome; strongly walled, adourned with houses as well publike as private, well peopled and frequented by reason of the opportunity from the sea which the neighbour haven at Leith affourdeth. And as it is the seat of the Kings, so it is the oracle also or closet of the Lawes, and the very Pallace of Justice. For the high Courts of Parliament are heere for the most part holden for the enacting or repealing of lawes; also the Session, and the Court of the Kings Justice, and of the Commissariat, whereof I have spoken already, are here settled and kept. On the East side, hard unto the Monasterie of Saint Crosse or Holy Ruide, is the Kings palace, which King David the First built. OVer which, within a parke stored with game, riseth an hill with two heads, called of Arthur the Britaine Arthurs Chaire. On the West side, a most steepe rocke mounteth up aloft to a stately height every way, save onely where it looketh toward the City: on which is placed a Castle with many a towre in it, so strong that it is counted imprenalbe [impregnable], which the Britans called Castle Myned Agned, the Scots, the Maidens Castle and the Virgins Castle, of certaine young maidens of the Picts roiall bloud who were kept there in old time, and which may seeme in truth to be that Castrum Alatum or Castle with a Wing abovesaid.
5. How Edenborrow in the alternative fortune of warres was subject one while to the Scots, and another while to the English, who inhabited this East part of Scotland untill it became wholy under the Scots dominion about the yeere of our salvation 960, what time the English Empire, sore shaken with the Danish wars, lay, as it were, gasping and dying. How also, as an old booke Of the division of Scotland in the librarie of the right honourable Lord Burghleie, late high Treasurer of England, sheweth, Whiles Indulph reigned the towne of Eden was voided and abandoned to the Scots unto this present day, as what variable changes of reciprocall fortune it hath felt from time to time, the Historiographers doe relate, and out of them yee are to bee enformed. Meanwhile, read if you please these verses of that most worthy man Maister John Jonston in praise of Edenborrow:

Under the rising of an Hill, Westward there shootes one way
A castle high; on th’ other side, the Kings house gorgeous gay.
Betweene them both the city stands, tall buildings shew it well,
For arms, for courage much renown’d, much people therein dwell.
The Scots head city large and faire, the kingdomes greatest part,
Nay, even the Nations kingdome whole well neere, by just desart.
Rare arts and riches: what ones minde can wish is therein found,
Or else it will not gotten be throughout all Scottish ground.
A civill people here a man may see, a Senate grave,
Gods holy lawes with purest light of preachers here yee have.
In parts remote of Northren clime would any person weene
That ever these or suchlike things might possibly be seene?
Say, Travailer, now after that thou forraine towne hast knowne,
Beholding this, beleevest thou these eies that are thine owne?

6. A mile from hence lieth Leth, a most commodious haven, hard upon the river Leth, which when Dessey the Frenchman for the security of Edenburrow had fortified, by reason of many men repairing thither, within a short time from a meane village it grew to bee a bigge towne. Againe, when Francis the Second King of France had taken to wife Marie Queene of Scots, the French men who in hope and conceit had already devoured Scotland, and beganne now to gape for England, in the yeere 1560 strengthened it with more fortifications. But Elizabeth Queene of England, sollicited by the Nobles of Scotland that embraced the reformed religion, to side with them, by her puissance and wisdome effected that both they returned into France, and these their fortifications were laied levell with the ground, and Scotland ever since hath beene freed of the French. Where this Forth groweth more and more narrow, it had in the midest of it the citie Caer-Guidi, as Bede noteth, which now may seeme to be the Island named Inch-Keith. Whether this were that Victoria which Ptolomee mentioneth I will not stand to proove, although a man may beleeve that the Romans turned this Guidth into Victoria as well as the Isle Guith or Wight into Victesis or Vecta; certes, seeing both these Islands bee dissevered from the shore, the same reason of the name will hold well in both languages. For Ninius hath taught us that guith in the British tongue betokeneth a separation. More within upon the same Forth is situate Abercorn, in Bedes time a famous Monasterie, which now by the gracious favour of King James the Sixth giveth unto James Hamilton the title of the Earle of Abercorn. And fast beside it standeth Blacknesse Castle, and beneath it Southward the ancient city Lindum, whereof Ptolomee maketh mention, which the better learned as yet call Linlithquo, commonly Lithquo, beautified and set out with a very faire house of the Kings, a goodly Church, and a fishfull lake. Of which Lake it may seeme to have assumed that name, for lin, as I have already shewed, in the British tongue soundeth as much as a Lake. A Sheriffe it had in times past by inheritance out of the familie of the Hamiltons of Peyle, and now in our daies it hath for the first Earle Sir Alexander Levingston, whom King James the Sixth raised from the dignity of a Baron, wherein his Ancestours had flourished a long time, to the honour of an Earl, like as within a while after hee promoted Mark Ker, Baron of Newbottle aforesaid, to the title of Earle of Lothien.


ENEATH the Gadeni, toward the South and West, where now are the small territories of Lidesdale, Eusdale, Eskdale, Annandale, and Nidisdale, so called of little rivers running through them, which all loose themselves in Solway Frith, dwelt in ancient times the Selgovae, the reliques of whose name seeme unto me, whether unto others I know not, to remaine in that name Solway.
2. In Lidesdale there riseth a lost Armitage [hermitage], so called because it was in times past dedicated to a solitarie life; now it is a very strong Castle which belonged to the Hepburns, who draw their originall from a certaine Englishman, a prisoner whom the Earle of March, for delivering him out of a daunger, greatly enriched. These were Earles of Bothwell, and a long time by the right of inheritance Admiralls of Scotland. But by a sister of James Earle of Bothwell the last of the Hepburns, married unto John Prior of Coldingham, base sonne to King James the Fifth (who begat too too many bastards), the title and inheritance both came unto his sonne. Hard by is Brankesey, the habitation of the warlike familie of Baclugh surnamed Scot, beside many little piles or forts of militarie men every where. In Eusdale, I would deeme, by the affinity of the name, that old Uzellum mentioned by Ptolomee stood by the river Euse.
In Eskdale, some are of opinion that the Horesti dwelt, into whose borders Julius Agricola, when hee had subdued the Britans inhabiting this tract, brought the Roman Armue, especially if wee read Horesci in steed of Horesti. For Ar-Esc in the British tongue betokeneth a place by the river Eske. As for Aesica in Eskdale, I have spoken of it before in England, and there is no cause wherefore I should iterate the same.


NTO this on the West side adjoyneth Annandale, that is, The vale by the river Annan, into which the accesse by land is very difficult. The places of greater note herein are these, a castle by Lough-Maban, three partes whereof are environed with water and strongly walled, and the towne Annandale at the very mouth almost of the river Annan. Which lost all the glory and beauty it had by the English warre in the reigne of Edward the Sixth. In this territorie, the Johnstons are men of greatest name: a kinred even bred to warre, betweene whom and the Maxwels there hath beene professed an open enmity over long, even to deadly feude and bloudshed. Which Maxwels by right from their ancestours have the rule of this Senelschasie, for so it is accounted. This vale Eadgar King of Scotes, after hee was restored to his kingdome by auxiliarie forces out of England, gave in consideration and reward for good service unto Robert Bruse or Brus Lord of Cliveland in Yorke-shire: who with the good favour of the KIng bestowed it upon Robert his younger sonne when him selfe would not serve the King of Scots in his warres. From him flowered the Bruses Lords of Annandale, of whom Robert Brus married Isabel the daughter of William King of Scots by the daughter of Robert Avenall. His sonne likewise, Robert the third of that name, wedded the daughter of David Earle of Huntington and of Garioth, whose sonne Robert, surnamed The Noble, when the issue of Alexander the Third, King of Scots, failed, chalenged in his mothers right the Kingdome of Scotland, before Edward the First King of England as the direct and superiour Lord of the Kingdome of Scotland (so the English give it out), or an honorable Arbitratour (for so say the Scots), as beeing neerer in proximitie in degree and bloud to King Alexander the Third and Margaret, daughter to the King of Norway, although hee were the sonne by a second sister: who, soone after resigning up his owne right, granted and gave over to his sonne Robert Brus Earle of Carrick, and to his heires (I speake out of the very originall) all the right and claime which hee had or might have to the Kingdome of Scotland. But the action and suite went with John Balliol, who suited for his right as descended of the eldest sister, although in a degree farther of. And sentence was given in these words: For that the person more remote in the second degree descending in the first line is to bee preferred before a neerer in a second line in the succession of an inheritance that can not be parted. Howbeit, the said Robert, sonne to the Earle of Carrick, by his owne vertue at length recovered the Kingdome unto himself and established it to his posterity. A Prince who, as he flourished notably in regard of the glorious ornaments of his noble actes, so hee triumphed as happily with invincible fortitude and courage over fortune, that so often crossed him.


LOSE unto Annandale on the West side lieth Nidisdale, sufficiently furnished with corne-fields and pastures; so named of the river Nid, which in Ptolomee is wrongly written Nobius for Nodius or Nidius: of which name there bee other rivers in Britaine full of shallow fourdes and muddy shelves, like as this Nid is also. It springeth out of the Lake Logh-Cure, by which flourished Corda a towne of the Selgovae. Hee taketh his course first by Sauqhuer a castle of the Creightons, who a long time kept a great port, as enjoying the dignity of the Barons of Sauqhuer and the authority besides of hereditarie Sheriffes of Nidisdale; then by Morton, which gave title of Earle to some of the familie of Douglas, out of which others of that surname have their mansion and abiding at Drumlanrig by the same river, nere unto the mouth whereof standeth Dunfreys betweene two hills, the most flourishing towne of this tract, which hath to shew also an old castle in it, famous for the making of wollen clothes, and remarkable for the murder of John Commin, the mightiest man for manred [retainers] and retinew in all Scotland: whom Robert Brus for feare he should fore-close his way to the kingdome ranne quite through with his sword in the church, and soone obteined his pardon from the Pope for committing that murder in a sacred place. Neerer unto the mouth, Solway a little village reteineth still somewhat of the old name of Selgovae. Upon the very mouth is situate Caer laverock, which Ptolomee I suppose called Carbantorigum, accounted an inprenable fort when King Edward the First accompanied with the floure of English nobility besieged and hardly wonne it; but now it is a weake dwelling house of the Barons of Maxwell, who, beeing men of an ancient and noble lineage, were a long time Wardens of these West marches, and of late advanced by marriage with the daughter one of the heires of the Earle of Morton, whereby John Lord Maxwell was declared Earle of Morton; as alse [sic] by the daughter and heire of Hereis Lord Toricles, whom John a younger sonne tooke to wife, and obtained by her the title of Baron Hereis. Moreover, in this vale by the Lake side lieth Glencarn, whence the Cuninghams, of whom I am to write more in place convenient, bare a long time the title of Earle. This Nidisdale together with Annandale nourisheth a warlike kind of men, who have beene infamous for robberies and depredations: for they dwell upon Solway Frith, a fourdable arme of the sea at low waters, through which they made many times outrodes into England for to fetch in booties, and in which the inhabitants thereabout on both sides with pleasant pastime and delightfull sight on horseback with speares hunt Salmons, whereof there is aboundance.
2. What manner of Cattaile-stealers these bee that inhabite these vales in the marches of both Kingdomes, John Lesley, himselfe a Scottish-man and Bishop of Rosse, will tell you in these wordes: They goe forth in the night by troopes out of their owne borders, through desert by-waies and many winding crankes. All the day time they refresh their horses and recreate their owne strength in lurking places appointed before hand, untill they be come thither at length in the dark night, where they would be. When they have laid hold of a bootie, back again they returne home likewise by night, through blinde waies onely, and fetching many a compasse about. The more skilfull any leader or guide is to pass through those wild desarts, crooked turnings, and steep downe-falls, in the thickest mists and deepest darknesse, hee is held in greater reputation, as one of an excelling wit. And so craftie and wily these are that seldome or never they forgo their bootie and suffer it to be taken out of their hands, unlesse it happen otherwhiles that they be caught by their adversaries following continually after, and tracing them directly by their footing, according as quick-senting Slugh-hounds doe lead them. But say they be taken, so faire spoken they are and eloquent, so manie sugred words they have at will sweetly to plead for them, that they are able to move the Judges and adversaries both, be they never so austere and severe, if not to mercie, yet to admiration, and some commiseration withall.


ROM Nidisdale as you goe on Westward, the Novantes inhabited in the vales all that tract which runneth out far and wide toward the West between the sea and Dunbritain Frith or Clydsforth, yet so indented and hollowed with nowkes and creekes that here and there it is drawne into a narrow roome, and then againe in the very utmost skirt it openeth and spreadeth it selfe broad at more liberty; whereupon some have called it the Chersonesus, that is, The Biland [Promontory] of the Novantes. But at this day their country conteineth Galloway, Carick, Kyle and Cunningham.
2. Galloway, in the Latin writers of the middle time Gaelwallia and Gallovidia, so called of the Irish who in times past dwelt there, and terme themselves short in their own language Gael, is a country rising up every where with hills, that are better for feeding of cattaile than bearing of corne. The inhabitants practise fishing as well within the sea lying round about them as in little rivers and the Loches or meeres in every place standing full of water at the foote of the hills: out of which in September they take in Weeles and Weere-nets an incredible number of most sweete and savery eeles, whereby they make no lesse gaine than other do by their little nagges, which for being well limmed, fast knit, and strongly made for to endure travaile, are much in request and bought from hence. Among these, the first place that offereth it selfe by the river Dea, mentioned in Ptolomee, which keeping the name still ful and whole they call Dee, is Kircenbright the most commodious port of this coast, and the second Stewartie of Scotland, which belongeth also to the Maxwels; then Cordines, a fort set upon a craggy and high rock by the river Fleet, and fensed with strong walles. Neere unto it the river Ken, corruptlie read in Ptolomee Jena, runneth into the sea; after it is Wigton an haven towne, with a narrow entrance unto it, betweene the two rivers Blaidnoo and Cream, which also is counted a Sheriffdome, over which Agnew is Sherif. In times past it had for Earle Archibald Douglasse, renowned in the French warre, and at this day, by the favour of King James the Sixth, John Lord Fleming, who deriveth his pedigree from the ancient Earles of Wigton.
3. Neere unto this Ptolomee placed the City Leucopibia, which I know not, to say truth, where to seeke. Yet the place requireth that it should bee that Episcopall seat of Ninian, which Bede calleth Candida Casa, and the English and Scotish in the very same sense Whit-heene. What say you, then, if Ptolomee after his manner translated that name in Greeke Λευκ᾿ Οἰκιδία, that is White houses (in steed whereof the transcribers have thrust upon us Leucopibia), which the Britans tearmed Candida Casa? In this place, Ninia or Ninian the Britan, an holy man, the first that instructed the South-Picts in Christian faith, in the reigne of the Emperor Theodosius the Younger, had his seat and built a Church consecrated to the memorie of Saint Martin, after a maner unusuall among the Britans, as Bede saith, who wrote that the English in his time held this country, and when the number of the faithfull Christians multiplied, an Episcopall See was erected at this Candida Casa. A little higher there is a Biland having the sea insinuating it selfe on both sides with two Bayes, that by a narrow necke is adjoined to the firme land, and this is properly called Chersonesus and Promontorium Novantum, commonly the Mull of Galloway.
Beyond this Northward, there is a Bay taking a great compasse and full of Ilands, into which very many rivers on every side doe outlade [empty] themselves But first of all, from the very cape or top of the Promontory, is Abravanus, which, being set a little out of his owne place, is so called of Ptolomee for Aber-Ruanus, that is, The mouth of Ruan. For at this day that river is named Rian, and the lake out of which it floweth Logh-Rian, exceeding full of Herings and stone fishes.
4. This Galloway had in times past Princes and Lords over it, of whom the first recorded in Chronicles was Fergus, in the reigne of Henrie the First, King of England, who gave for his Armes A lion rampant Argent, crowned Or in a shield Azur, who after many troubles that he had sturred was driven to this exigent by King Malcolm, that he gave his sonne Ucthred to the King for an hostage, and himselfe weary of this world tooke the habit of a Chanon at Holy Rood house in Edenburgh. As for Ucthred, Gilbert his younger brother tooke him prisoner in battaile, and when hee had cut out his tongue and plucked his eies forth of his head, he cruelly bereaved him both of life and inheritance. But within some few yeres, when Gilbert was dead, Uchtreds sonne recovered his fathers inheritance, who of a sister of William Morvill Constable of Scotland, begat Alan, Lord of Galloway and Constable of Scotland. This Alan, by Margaret the eldest daughter of David Earle of Huntingdon, had Pervolgilda wife to John Balliol, and the mother of John Balliol King of Scotland, who contended with Robert Brus for the Kingdome of Scotland, and by a former wife, as it seemeth, he had Helen married to Roger Quincy, Earle of Winchester, who thereby was Constable of Scotland, like as William Ferrars of Groby the Nephew of the said Roger by a daughter and one of the heires. But these Englishmen soone lost their inheritance in Scotland, as also the dignity of Constable: which the Commins Earles of Bucquan, descended likewise from a daughter of Roger Quincy, obtained, untill it was translated unto the Earles of Arroll. But the title of the Lords of Galloway fell afterward to the family of the Douglasses.


OW followeth Carrict upon Dunbritain Frith, faire to be seene with fresh pastures, supplied both by land and sea with commodities aboundantly. In this province Ptolomee placed Rerigonium a Creeke, and Rerigonium a towne. For which Berigonium is read in a very ancient copie of Ptolomee printed at Rome in the yeere 1480, so that we cannot but verily thinke that it was that which now is called Bargeney. A Lord it hath out of the family of the Kennedies, which came forth of Ireland in the reigne of Robert Brus, and is in this tract of high birth spred into many branches and of great powre. The chiefe of which Linage is Earle of Cassil. For this is the name of a Castle wherein he dwelleth by the river Dun, upon the banke whereof he hath also another Castle named Dunnur, and he is the haereditarie Bailive of this Country. For this Carrict, together with Kyle and Cuningham, are counted the three Bailleries of Scotland, because they that governe these with an ordinary powre and jurisdiction are called Ballives, by a tearme that came up in the middle times, and among the Greekes, Sicilians and Frenchmen signifieth a Conservatour or Protector. But in the age aforegoing, Carrict had Earles. For, to say nothing of Gilberts of Galloway [sic] sonne. unto whom King William gave all Carrict to be possessed for ever, we read that Adam of Kilconath was about the yeere 1270 Earle of Carrict, and died serving in the Holy-land: whose onely daughter Martha fell extremely in love with Robert Brus, a beautifull young Gentleman, as she saw him hunting, thereupon made him her husband, advanced him with the title of Earle and with possessions, unto whom she bare Robert Brus that most renowned King of Scots, from whom the Royall line of the Kings is descended. But the title of Earle of Carrict, being left for a time to the yonger sonnes of the family of Brus, afterwards among other honors encreased the stile of the Princes of Scotland.


ORE inward, from Clidds-forth, followeth Kyle, plentifull in all things, and as well inhabited. In Bedes Auctarium it is called Campus Cyel, that is, The Feild Cyel, and Coil, where it is recorded that Eadbert King of Northumberland annexed this with other territories unto his owne Kingdome. In Ptolomees time there was knowen a place heere named Vidogara, haply Aire, which is a Sherifdome, hath a townelet also of merchandise, and a well known port, by a little river of the same name. Touching which, I can thinke of no better thing to write than these verses sent unto me from Maister John Jonston:

A Citie small, but yet great minds in valiant bodies rest.
For noblenesse of Gentlemen, matching the very best.
Out of the fields what aire it draws is right pure, fresh and kind,
The soile is milde, and upon it there breaths a gentle wind.
Hence I suppose Aeria first, not Aera, cald it was.
For what have Elements to doe with matters hard as Brasse?
But to compare low things with high, if that I may be bold,
Then haply well it should have been nam’d Aurea of old.

Besides the river Aire there be other two riverets that water this litle territorie, having many villages skattering along their bankes: namely, Longar, neere unto which the Craufords, and Cesnocke, by which the Cambels (families in this tract of good worship) dwell: upon the banke whereof standeth Uchiltre Castle the seat of the Stewarts, that are of the bloud roiall, as who issued from the Dukes of Albanie, and thereupon are the Barons of Ulchiltrey, out of which house was that noble Robert Stewart who kept continually with the Prince of Condie as an inseparable companion, and was with him slaine in France in battaile. The government of Kyle belongeth by a heritable right to Cambells of Louden, as Bailife thereof.


UNNINGHAM, adjoining to Kyle on the East side and the North, butteth upon the same Forth so close that it restraineth the breadth thereof, which hetherto lay out and spred at large. The name, if one interpret it, is as much as the Kings Habitation, by which a man may guesse how commodious and pleasant it is. This territorie is watered with Irwin, that divideth it from Kile: at the spring-head well neere whereof, Kilmarnocke sheweth it selfe, the dwelling place of the Barons Boides: of whom in the reigne of James the First, Thomas by a prosperous gale of court favour was advanced to the authoritie of Regent or Vice Roy, Robert his sonne to the dignity of Earle of Aran and marriage with the Kings sister. But soone after, when the said gale came about and blew contrary, they were judged enemies to the State. Robert also had his wife taken from him and given unto James Hamilton, their goods were confiscate, fortune made a game of them, and when they had lost all, they died in exile. Howbeit, their posterity recovered the ancient honor of Barons, and honorably enjoy it at this day. At the mouth of the river Irwin standeth Irwin a Bourough, with an haven so barred up with shelves of sand, and so shallow withall, that it can beare none other vessels but small barkes and boates. Androssan also, a pile belonging to the Montgomeries, more above, standeth higher over the Creeke: this is a very ancient and famous family as any other, who have to shew for witnesse of their warlicke proesse Pununy, a fort built with the ransome money of Sir Henrie Percy surnamed Hot-Spurre, whom John Montgomerie with his owne hand tooke prisoner in the battaile at Otterburn, and led away captive. Not farre from Androssan is Largis, embrued with the bloud of the Norwegians by King Alexander the Third. From whence, as you follow the shore bending and giving in, you meet with Eglington a faire Castle, which was the possession of certaine Gentlemen highly descended of the same surname, from whom it came by marriage unto the Montgomeries, who thereby receaved the title of Earles of Eglington. But whence the said surname should come, a man can hardly tel. This I know, that out of Normandie it came into England, and that divers families there were of the same name, but that in Essex, from which Sir Thomas Montgomerie Knight of the order of the Garter descended in the reigne of Edward the Fourth, gave Armes a little different from these. This noble linage is faire and farre spread, and out of those of Gevan was that Gabriell de Lorges, called Earle of Montgomerie, Captaine of the gard of Scots (which Charles the Fifth King of France instituted for defence of his owne person and his successors, in testimonie of their fidelity and his love toward them), who in running at tilt slew Henrie the Second King of Fraunce, by occasion that a broken splint of his speare, where the helmet chanced to be open, entred at his eie and pierced into his brain; and afterwards in that civill warre wherein all France was in a broile, whiles he tooke part with the Protestants, he was apprehended and beheaded. But the Cunninghams in this tract are counted to be the greatest and more numerous family, the chiefe whereof, enjoying the honour of Earle of Glancarn, dwelleth at Kilmauris and fetcheth his descent out of England, and from an English gentleman, who together with others killed Thomas Archbishop of Canterburie; how true it is I know not, but they ground haply upon a probable conjecture taken from an Archbishops pall which the Cunninghams give in their coat of Armes.


ITHIN the sight of Cunningham, among many sundry other Ilands, Glotta, the Isle mentioned by Antonine the Emperour, beareth up his head in the very Forth and saltwater of the river Glota or Cluyd, called at this day Arran, of a Castle bearing the same name. Inwardly it mounteth up altogether with high rising hils, at the botome and foote whereof along the shore it is wel inhabited. The first Earle heereof that I can read of was Robert Boide, whose wife and Earldome together, when Boide was banished the realme James Lord Hamilton, as I said erewhile, obtained, and his posterity enjoyed the same Earldome, saving that of late Sir James Steward, appointed guardian to James Hamilton Earle of Arran when he was so defective in understanding that he could not manage his estate, tooke this title in the right of being Guardian.
2. Neere unto this standeth Buthe, so called of a little religious Cell which Brendanus founded (for so its a little Cell tearmed in the Scotish tongue). In this Iland is Rothsay Castle, which giveth the title of Dukedome unto the King of Scots eldest sonne, who is borne Prince of Scotland, Duke of Rothsay, and Seneschall of Scotland, since time that King Robert the Third invested Robert his eldest sonne Duke of Rothsay, the first in Scotland that ever was created Duke. With which title also Queene Mary honored Henry Lord Darley, before she tooke him to be her husband. Then shew themselves Hellan, sometimes called Hellan Leneow, that is, as John Fordon interpreteth it, The Saints Island, and Hellan Tinoc, that is, The Swines Iland, with a great number of other Ilands of lesse note and reckoning in the same Forth.


EYOND the Novantes, more inward by the river Glotta or Cluyd, and farther stil even to the very East sea, dwelt in times past the Damnii in those countries, if I have any judgement (for in things so farre remote from our remembrance, and in so thicke a most of obscurity, who can speake of certanty?), which are now called Cluydsdale, The Baronie of Renfraw, Lennox, Strivelinshire, Menteth and Fife.
2. Neere unto the head of Cluyd in Crawfoord Moor, among the wild wasts, certaine husbandmen of the country, after great store of violent raine, hapned to find certaine small peeces of scrapings of gold, which have this long time given great hope of much richesse, but most of all in our daies, since that Sir Beamis Bulmer undertook with great endevour to find out heere a mine of gold. Certes, there is Azur gotten forth every day without any paines in manner at all. Now the Castle of Crawford, together with the title of the Earle of Crawford, was by Robert the Second, King of Scots, given unto Sir James Lindesey, who by a single combat performed with Baron Welles an Englishman wonne high commendation for his valour. These Lindeseies have deserved passing well of their country and are of ancient nobility, ever since that Sir William Lindesey married one of the heires of William of Lancastre Lord of Kandale in England, whose neice in the third degree of lineall descent was married into the most honorable family of Coucy in France. Cluyd, after he hath from his spring head with much strugling got out Northward, by Baron Somervills house, receiveth unto him from out of the West the river Duglasse or Douglasse, so called of a blackish or greenish water hat it hath: which river communicateth his name both to the vale through which he runneth called Douglasdale, and also to Douglasse castle therein: which name that castle likewise hath imparted unto the family of the Douglasses. Which I assure you is very ancient, but most famous ever since that Sir James Douglasse stucke very close at all times as a most fast friend unto King Robert Brus, and was ready alwaies with singular courage, resolution, and wisdome to assist him claiming the Kingdome and most troublesome and dangerous times: and whom the said King Robert charged at his death to carry his heart to Jerusalem, that he might be discharged of his vow, made to goe to the Holy-land. In memoriall whereof the Douglasses have inserted in their Coate of Armes a mans Heart. From which time this family grew up to that powre and greatnesse, and namely after that King David the Second had created William Earle of Douglasse, that they after a sort awed the Kings themselves. For at one time, well neere, there were six Earles of them, namely of this Douglasse, of Anguis, of Ormond, of Wigton, of Murray, and of Morton: among whom the Earle of Wigton through his martiall prowesse and desert obtained at the hands of Charles the Seventh King of France the title of Duke of Tourain, and left the same to two Earles of Douglass his heires after him.
3. Above the confluents of Douglasse and Cluyd is Lanric the haereditarie Sherifdome of the Hamiltons, who for their name are beholden unto Hamilton castle, which standeth somewhat higher upon Cluids banke in a fruitfull and passing pleasant place. but they referre their originall, as they have a tradition, to a certaine Englishman surnamed Hampton, who, having taken part with Robert Brus, received from him faire lands in this tract. Much increase of their welth and estate came by the bounteous hand of King James the Third, who bestowed in marriage upon Sir James Hamilton his owne eldest sister, whom he had taken perforce from the Lord Boide her husband together with the Earldome of Arran; but of honors and dignities, by the States of the Kingdome, who after the death of King James the Fifth ordained James Hamilton, grand sonne to the former James, Regent of Scotland, whom Henrie also the Second, King of France, advanced to be the Duke of Casteau Herald in Poictou, as also by King James the Sixth, who honoured his sonne John with the title of Marquesse of Hamilton, which honourable title was then first brought into Scotland.
4. The river Glotta or Cluyd runneth from Hamilton by Bothwell, which glorieth in the Earles thereof, namely John Ramsay, whose greatnesse with King James the Third was excessive, but pernicious both to himselfe and the King;and the Hepburns, whom I have already spoken of, and so streight forward with a ready streame through Glascow, in ancient times past a Bishops seat, but discontinued a great while, untill that King William restored it up againe. But now it is an Archbishops See and an University, which Bishop Turnbull, after he had in a pious and religious intent built in a colledge, in the yeere 1554 first founded. For pleasant site, and apple trees and other like fruit trees much commended, having also a very faire bridge supported with eight Arches. Of which towne John Jonston thus versified:

The sumptuous port of Bishops great hath not adourn’d thee so,
Nor mitre rich, that hath beene cause of thine accursed woe,
As Cluyds Muses grace thee now, O Glascow towne. For why?
They make thee beare thy head aloft up to the starry skie.
Cluyd the beauty of the world, for fishfull streame renown’d,
Refresheth all the neighbour fields that ly about it ground.
But Glasgow beauty is to Cluyd, and grace to countries nie,
And by the streames that flow from thence, all places fructifie.

5. Along the hithermore banke of Cluid lieth the Baronie of Reinfraw, so called of the principall towne, which may seeme to be Randuara in Ptolomee, by the river Cathcart, that hath the Baron of Cathcart dwelling upon it, carrying the same surname and of ancient nobility. Neere unto which (for this little province can shew a goodly breed of nobility) their border Cruikston, the seat in times past of the Lords of Darley, from whom by right of marriage it came to the Earles of Lennox, whence Henrie the father of King James the Sixth was called Lord Darley. Halkead, the habitation of the Barons of Ros, descended originally from English bloud, as who fetch their pedigree from that Robert Ros of Warke who long since left England and came under the alleageance of the King of Scots. Paslay, sometimes a famous Monasterie founded by Alexander the second of that name, high Steward of Scotland, which for a gorgeous Church and rich furniture was inferiour to few. But now by the beneficiall favour of King James the Sixth it yeeldeth both dwelling place and title of Baron to Lord Claud Hamilton, a younger sonne of Duke Chasteu Herald. And Sempill, the Lord whereof Baron Sempill, by ancient right, is Sherife of this Baronie. But the title of Baron of Rainfrew by a peculiar priviledge doth appertaine unto the Prince of Scotland.


LONG the other banke of Cluyd above Glasgow runneth forth Levinia or Lennox Northward, among a number of hilles close couched one by another, having that name of the river Levin, which Ptolomee calleth Lelanonius, and runneth into Cluyd out of Logh Lomund, which spreadeth it selfe heere under the mountaines twenty miles long and eight miles broad, passing well stored with variety of fish, but most especially with a peculiar fish that is to be found no where else (they call it Pollac), as also with Ilands, concerning with many fables have beene forged, and those rife among the comon people. As touching an Iland heere that floatheth and waveth to and fro, I list not to make question thereof. What should let [hinder] but that a lighter body, and spungeous withall in maner of a pumish stone, may swimme above the water? And Plinie writeth how in the Lake Vadimon there be Ilands full of grasse, and covered over with rushes and reeds that float up and downe. But I leave it unto them that dwell neerer unto this place, and better knowe the nature of this Lake, whether this old Distichon of our Necham be true or no:

With rivers Scotland is enrich’d, and Lomund there a Lake
So cold of nature is, that stickes it quickly stones doth make.

2. Round about the edge of this Lake there be fishers cottages, but nothing else memorable, unlesse it be Kilmoronoc, a proper fine house of the Earles of Cassiles on the East side of it, which hath a most pleasant prospect into the said Lake. But at the confluence where Leven emptieth it selfe out of the Lake into Cluyd standeth the old City called Al-Cluyd. Bede noted that it signified (In whose language I know not) as much as The rock Cluyd. True it is that Ar-Cluyd signifieth in the British tongue upon Clyde, or upon the rocke, and cluid in ancient English sounded the same that a Rock. The succeeding posterity called this place Dunbritton, that is The Britans towne (and corruptly by a certaine transposition of letters, Dunbarton), because the Britans held it longest against the Scots, Picts and Saxons. For it is the strongest of all the castles in Scotland by naturall situation, towring up on a rough, craggy and two headed rocke, at the very meeting of the rivers in a greene plaine. In one of the tops or heads abovesaid, there standeth up a lofty watch towre or keepe; on the other, which is the lower, there are sundry strong bulwarks. Betweene these two tops on the North side it hath one onely ascent, by which hardly one by one can passe up, and that with a labour by grees or steps cut out aslope travers the rock. In steed of diches, on the West side serveth the river Levin, on the South, Cluid, and on the East a boggy flat which at every tide is wholy covered over with waters, and on the North side the very upright steepenesse of the place is a most sufficient defense. Certaine remaines of the Britans, presuming of the natural strength of this place and their owne man-hood, who, as Gildas writeth, gat themselves a place of refuge in high mountaines and hills, steepe and naturally fensed, as it were, with rampiers and ditches, in most thicke woods and forrests, in rockes also of the sea, stood out and defended themselves here after the Romans departure for three hundred yeeres, in the midst of their enemies. For in Bedes time, as himselfe writeth, it was the best fortified city of the Britans. But in the yeere 756 Eadbert King of Northumberland and Oeng King of the Picts with their joint forces enclosed it round about by siege, and brought it to such a desperate extremity that it was rendred unto them by composition. Of this place, the territorie round about it is called the Sherifdome of Dunbarton, and hath had the Earles of Lennox this long time for their Sheriffes, by birthright and inheritance.
3. As touching the Earles of Lennox themselves to omit those of more ancient and obscure times, there was one Duncane Earle of Lennox in the reigne of Robert the Second, who died and left none but daughters behind him. Of whom one was married to Alan Steward, descended from Robert, a younger sonne of Walter the second of that name HIgh Steward of Scotland, and brother likewise to Alexander Steward the second, from whom the Noblest and Roiall race of Scotland hath beene propagated. The surname Steward was given unto that most noble familie in regard of the honourable office of the Stewardshippe of the kingdome, as who had the charge of the Kings Revenewes. The said Alan had issue John Earle of Lennox, and Robert, Captaine of that company of Scotishmen at Armes which Charles the Sixth King of France first instituted in lieu of some recompence unto the Scottish nation, which by their valour had deserved passing well of the Kingdom of France; who also by the same Prince, for his vertue sake, was endowed with the Seignorie of Aubigny in Auvergne. John had a sonne named Mathew Earle of Lennox, who wedded the daughter of James Hamilton by Marion daughter to King James the Second, on whom he begat John Earle of Lennox. He, taking armes to deliver King James the Fifth out of the hands of the Douglasses and the Hamiltons, was slaine by the Earle of Arran his unkle on the mothers side. This John was father to Mathew Earle of Lennox, who having susteined sundry troubles in France and Scotland, found fortune more friendly to him in England through the favour of King Henry the Eight, considering that hee bestowed upon him in marriage his Neice, with faire lands. By the meanes of this happie marriage were brought into the world Henrie and Charles. Henry, by Mary Queene of Scots, had issue James the Sixth, King of Britaine by the propitious grace of the eternal God, borne in a most auspicate and lucky houre to knit and unite in one body of an Empire the whole Island of Britaine, divided as wel in it self, as it was heretofore from the rest of the world, and (as wee hope and pray) to lay a most sure foundation of an everlasting security for our heires and the posterity. As for Charles, he had issue one onely daughter Arbella, who above her sex hath so embraced the studies of the best literature that therein shee hath profited and proceeded with singular commendation, and is comparable with the excellent Ladies of old time. When Charles was dead, after that the Earledome of Lennox, whereof he stood enfeoffed, was revoked by Parliamentary authority in the yeere of our Lord 1579, and his unkle by the fathers side Robert Bishop of Cathanes had some while enjoied this title (in lieu wherof hee received at the Kings hands the honour of the Earle of March), King James the Sixth conferred the honorable title of Duke of Lennox upon Esme Steward sonne to John Lord D’Aubigny yonger brother to Mathew aforesaid Earle of Lennox, which Lodowic Esme his sonne at this day honorably enjoieth. For since the time of Charles the Sixth there were of this line Lords of Aubigny in France, the said Robert before named, and Bernard or Eberard under Charles the Eight and Lewis the Twelfth, who is commended with great praise unto posterity by Paulus Jovius for his noble acts most valerously exploited in the warre of Naples, a most firme and trusty companion of King Henry the Seventh when he entred into England. Who used for his Emprese or devise a Lion between buckles with this Mot [motto], DISTANTIA IUNGIT, for that by his means the Kingdomes of France and Scotland, severed and disjoined so farre in distance, were by a streighter league of friendship conjoined, like as Robert Steward Lord D’Aubigny of the same race, who was Marshall of France under King Lewis the Eleventh, for the same cause used the roiall Armes of France with buckles Ore in a border Gueules, which the Earles and Dukes of Lennox have ever since borne quarterly with the Armes of Steward.


PON Lennox North-eastward bordereth the territory of Sterling, so named of the principall towne therein, for fruitfull soile and numbers of gentlemen in it second to no province of Scotland. Heere is that narrow land or streight by which Dunbritton Frith and Edenborrough Frith (that I may use the termes of this age), piercing farre into the land out of the West and East Seas, are divided asunder, that they meete not the one with the other. Which thing Julius Agricola, who marched hitherto and beyond, first observed, and fortified this space betweene with garrisons, so as all the part of Britaine in this side was then in possession of the Romans, and the enemies removed and driven, as it were, into another Island, in so much as Tacitus judged right truely there was no other bound or Limite of Britaine to bee sought for. Neither verily in the time ensuing did either the Valour of Armies or the Glorie of the Roman name, which scarcely could be staied, set out the marches of the Empire in this part of the world farther, although with inrodes they other whiles molested and endammaged them. But after this glorious Expedition of Agricola, when himself was called back, Britaine, as saith Tacitus, became for-let [neglected], neither was the possession kept stil thus farre. For the Caledonian Britans drave the Romans backe as farre as to the river Tine, in so much as Hadrian, who came into Britaine in person about the fortieth yeere after and reformed many things in it, went no farther forward, but gave commandement that the God Terminus, which was wont to give ground unto none, should retire back-ward out off this place, like as in the East on this side Euphrates. Hence it is that Saint Augustin wrote in this wise, God Terminus, who gave not place to Jupiter, yeelded unto the will of Hadrianus, yeelded to the rashnesse of Julian, yeelded to the necessity of Jovian. In so much as Hadrian had enough to doe for to make a wall of turfe betweene the rivers Tine and Esk, well near an hundred miles Southward on this side Edenborrough Frith. But Antoninus Pius, who beeing adopted by Hadrian bare his name, stiled thereupon Titus Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Pius, under the conduct of Lollius Urbicus, whom he had sent hither Lieutenant, repelled the Northern enemies backe againe beyond Bodotria or Edenborrough Forth, and that by raising another wall of turfe, namely beside that of Hadrianus, as Capitolinus writeth. Which wall, that is was reared in this very place whereof I now speake, and not by Severus (as it is commonly thought) I will produce no other witnesses than two ancient inscriptions digged up here, of which the one, fastened in the wall of an house at Cader, sheweth how the Second Legion Augusta set up the wall for the space of three miles and more; the other, now in the house of the Earle Marshall at Dunotyr, which implieth that a band of the Twentieth Legion Victrix raised the said wal three miles long. But see here the very inscriptions themselves as Servatius Riheley, a Gentleman of Silesia who curiously travailed these countries, copied them out for mee:


2. At Cadir where this latter inscription is extant, there is another stone also erected by the Second Legion Augusta, where, within a Laurell garland supported by two little images resembling victorie, are these letters:


And in a village called Miniacruch, out of a Ministers house there was remooved this inscription into a Gentlemans house, which is there new built out of the ground:

D. M.

But when the Northern nations in the reigne of Commodus, having passed once over this wall, had made much wast and spoile in the Country, the Emperour Severus, as I have already said, repaired this wall of Hadrian. Howbeit afterwards the Romans brought eftsoones the country lying betweene under their subjection. For Ninius hath recorded that Carausius under Diocletian strengthened this wall another time, and fortified it with seven castles, Lastly, the Romans fensed this place (when Theodosius the Younger was Emperour) under the conduct of Gallio of Ravenna, Now, saith Bede, they made a turfe wall, rearing it not so much with stone as with turfes (as having no cunning artificer for so great a peece of worke), and the same to no use, betweene two Friths or Armes of the sea, for many miles in length, that, where the fense of water was wanting, there by the helpe of a wall they might defend their border from the invasion of enemies. Of which worke, that is to say a very broade and high wall, a man may see to this day most certaine and evident remaines. This wall beganne, as the Scots in these daies give out, at the river Aven, that goeth into Edenborrow Forth, and, having passed over the riveret Carron, reacheth into Dunbritton. But Bede, as I said ere while, affirmeth that it beginneth in a place called Pen Vaell, that is, in the Picts language, as much as The head of the wall, in the Britans tongue Pen-Gual, in English Penwalton, in Scottish Cevall, all which names no doubt are derived from vallum in Latin. And he saith that place is almost two miles from Aberecurvig or Abercurving. And it endeth, as the common sort thinke, at Kirk-Patrick, the native soile (as some writeth) of Saint Patrick the Irishmens Apostle, neere unto Cluyd, according to Bede at Alcluid, after Ninius, at the City Pen Alcloyt, which may seeme all one. Now, this wall is commonly called Grahams dyke, either of Graham a warlike Scot, whose valour was especially seene when the breach was made through it, or else of the hill Grampie at the foote whereof it stood. The author of Rota Temporum calleth it the wall of Aber-corneth, that is, of the mouth of the river Corneth, where in Bedes time, there was a famous monasterie standing, as hee hath recorded, upon English ground, but neere unto that frith or arme of the sea which in those daies served the Lands of the English and the Picts. Hard by the wall of turfe, what way as the river Carron crosseth this Shirifdome of Sterling, toward the left hand are seene two mounts cast up by mans hand, which they call Duni Pacis, that is, Knolles of peace, and almost two miles lower there is an ancient round building, foure and twenty cubits high and thirteene broad, open in the top, framed of rough stone without lime, having the upper part of every stone so tenanted into the nether [lower] as that the whole worke, rising still narrow, by a mutuall interlacing and clasping upholdeth it selfe. Some call this the Temple of God Terminus, others Arthurs-Oven, who father every stately and sumptuous thing upon Arthur. Others againe, Julius Hoff, and suppose it to have beene built by Julius Caesar. But I would thinke rather that Julius Agricola built it, who fortified this frontier part, were it not that Ninius had already enformed us that it was erected by Carausius for a Triumphall arch For hee, as Ninnius writeth, built upon the banke of Caron a round house of polished stone, erecting a Triumphall Arch in memoriall of a victorie. Hee reedified also the wall and strengthened it with seven Castles. In the midest space betweene Duni Pacis and this building, on the right-hand banke of Caron, there is yet to be discerned a confused face of a little ancient City, where the vulgar people beleeveth there was some times a roade for ships, who call it Camelot, by a name that is rife in King Arthurs booke; and they contend, but al in vaine, to have it that Camalodunum which Tacitus mentioneth. But it would seeme rather by the name of the river Carron running underneath to have been Corta Damnorum, which Ptolomee mentioneth in this tract. And now take with you that which George Buchanan that excellent Poet wrote of the limite of the Roman Empires at Carron:

’Gainst warlike Scots with axes arm’d, a mighty frontier wall
The Romans rais’d. And limit there, which Terminus they call,
Nere Carron streame, now past all hope more British ground to gaine
Markes out the Roman Empires end, whence they to turn were faine.

3. In this territorie of Sterling, on the East side there sheweth it selfe Castle Callendar, belonging to the Barons of Levingston. And the familie of the Barons Fleming dwelleth hard by at Cumbernald, which they received at the hands of King Robert Brus for their service valiantly and faithfully performed in defense of their country; whereby also they attained unto the hereditarie honour to be Chamberlains of Scotland. And even very lately the favour of King James the Sixth hath honoured this house with the title of Earle, what time as he created John Baron Fleming Earle of Wigton. In a place nere adjoyning standeth Elpheingston, which likewise hath his Barons, advanced to that dignity by King James the Fourth. And where Forth, full of his windings and crooked crankes, runneth downe with a rolling pace and hath a bridge over him, standeth Sterlin, commonly called Strivelin and Sterlin Borrough, where on the very brow of a steepe rocke there is mounted on high a passing strong castle of the Kings, which King James the Sixth hath beautified with new buildings, and whereof this long time the Lorss of Ereskin have beene Capitaines, unto whom the charge and tuition of the Princes of Scotland during their minority hath beene otherwiles committed. Whereas some there bee that would have the good and lawfull money of England, which is called Sterling money, to take the name from hence, they are much deceived: for that denomination came from the Germans, of their Easterly dwelling termed by Englishmen Easterlings, whom John King of England first sent for to reduce the silver to the due finenesse and purity, and such moneys in ancient writing are evermore found by the name of Esterling. But concerning Sterlin towne, the verses that John Jonston hath made shall supplie all the rest:

A regall pallace, stately set, beholds from mount aloft,
Towne wall, built hanging on the side of hill with double cost.
The sacred mother unto Kings, of Kings babes eke the nource,
Hence is it that she prises her selfe in Kings names and no worse.
But enterteineth every one, by name it skils not what,
A friend or foe, friend guest or no, shee reakneth nought of that.
In steed of gaine this turns to losse. Besides, how oft, alas,
Hath discord foule with Nobles bloud steind’ hence both ground and grasse?
In this alone unhappy shee. Else not, nor shall yee finde
Elsewhere the aire more mild and cleere, or soile of better kinde.

4. About two miles hence, the Banoc-bourn runneth between exceeding high banks on both side, and with a very swift streame in winter, toward the Forth: a bourne most famous for as glorious a victory as ever the Scots had, what time as Edward the Second King of England was put to flight, who was faine to make hard shift and in great hast and feare to take a boat and save his life; yea and the most puissant army which England had before sent out, was discomfited through the valiant prowesse of King Robert Brus, in so much as for two yeeres after the English came not into the field against the Scots. About Sterlin, Ptolomee seemeth to place Alauna, which is either neare the little river Alon, that here entreth into the Forth, or else by Alway an house of the Ereskins, who by inheritance are the Sheriffes of all this territory without the Burgh. But I have not yet read of any one dignified by the title of Earle of Sterlin.


HAT so ever part of Britain lieth Northward beyond Grahames Dyke, or the wall of Antoninus Pius before named, and beareth out on both seas, is called by Tacitus Caledonia, like as the people thereof, Britans inhabiting Caledonia. Ptolomee divideth them into many nations, as Caledonii, Epidii, Vacomagi, &c. Who were all of them afterward, for continuing their ancient maner and custome of peincting their bodies, named by the Romans and the Provinciall people Picts; divided by Ammianus Marcellinus into two nations, the Dicaledones and Vecturiones, touching whom I have spoken already before. Howbeit in the approved and best writers they goe all under the name of Caledonians, whom I would thinke to have beene so called of kalled a British word that signifieth hard, and the plurall number maketh kaledion, whence the name Caledonii may be derived, that is to say, hard, rough, uncivill, and a wilder kind of people, such as the Northren nations for the most part are, who by reason of the rigorous cold of the aire are more rough and fierce, and for their abundance of bloud more bold and adventurous. Moreover, beside the position of the climate, this is furthered by the nature and condition of the soile, which riseth up all throughout with rough and rugged mountainers; and mountainers, verily, all men know and confesse to be hardy, stoute, and strong. But whereas Varro alleageth out of Pacuvius that Caledonia breadeth and nourisheth men of exceeding bigge bodies, I would understand the place rather of Caledonia the region of Epirus, than this of ours, although ours also may justly challeng unto it selfe this commendation. Among this was the Wood Caledonia, termed by Lucius Florus Saltus Caledonius, that is, The forest of Caledonia, spreading out a mighty way, and impassable by reason of tall trees standing so thick, divided also by Grampe hil, now called Grantzbaine, that is, the Crooked bending mountaine. That Ulysses arrived in Caledonia (saith Solinus) appeareth plainely by a votive altar with an inscription in Greeke letters, but I would judge it to have beene rather erected to the honour of Ulysses than reared by Ulysses himselfe. Martiall the Poet likewise in this verse maketh mention of Caledonian beares:

Thus yeelded he his naked brest
To beare of Caledon forrest

Plutarch also hath written that Beares were brought out of Britaine to Rome, and had there in great admiration: whereas notwithstanding, Britaine for these many ages hath bred none. What Caledonian monster that should be whereof Claudian wrote thus,

With monster Caledonian Britaine all attired,

to tell you the truth, I know not, Certes, it nourished in times past a number of white wild buls with thicke manes in maner of Lions (but in these daies few), and those very cruell, fierce, and so hatefull of mankind that for a certaine time they abhorre whatsoever they had either handled or breathed upon; yea, they utterly skorne the forcible strength of dogges, albeit Rome in times past wondered so much at the fiercenesse of Scottish dogges that it was thought there they were brought thither within yron grates and cages. Well, this tearme and name Caledonii grew so rife with Roman writers that they used it for all Britaine, and for all woods of Britaine whatsoever. Heereupon Lucius Florus writeth that Caesar followed the Britans unto the Caledonian woods, and yet he never saw them in this life. Hence also Valerius Flaccus writeth thus to Vespasian the Emperour:

Caledonius postquam tua carbasa vexit

That is, the British Ocean. Hence likewise it is that Statius versified thus unto Crispinus sonne of Vectius Volanus Propretour of Britaine about the time of Vitellius:

How much renowned shall the fields of Caledonia bee,
When as some old inhabitant of that fierce land to thee
Shall in these tearmes report and say? Behold, thy father oft
Was wont in Judgement heere to sit, upon this banke aloft
To th’ armed troups to speake. It was he that walled this fort
That built thus strong, and it with ditch entrenched in this sort.
By him to Gods of warre these gift and arms were consecrate,
The titles (lo) are extant yet. Himselfe this brave brest plate
In time of battaile did put on, this cuirace finally
In fight he pluckt by force of armes from King of Britannie.

2. But in these as in other things I may say,

Poeticall licence is boundlesse.

For neither Caesar nor Volanus so much as ever knew the Caledonians. In Plinies time, as himselfe witnesseth, thirty yeeres almost after Claudius the Romaines with all their warlicke expeditions had discovered no farther in Britaine than to the Vicinity of the Caledonian Wood. For Julius Agricola under Domitian was the first that entred Caledonia, whereof at that present Galgac was Prince (who is named Galuac ap Liennauc in the Booke of Triplicites under the three worthies of Britaine), a man of the ninth Legion, in exceeding heat of courage joined battaile with the Romans and most manfully defended his country so long, untill fortune rather than his owne valour failed him. For then, as he saith, These Northern Britans beyond whom there was no land, and beside whom none were free, were the utmost nation verily of this Iland, like as Catullus called the Britans the utmost of all the world in that verse unto Furius:

Great Caesars Monuments to see in his memoriall,
The Rhene in Gaull, and Britans grim, the farthest men of all.

In the daies of Severus, as we read in Xiphilinus, Argetecox a pety Prince reigned over this tract, whose wife being rated and reviled as an adulteresse by Julia the Empresse, frankly and boldly made this answere: We Britaine dames have to doe with the bravest and best men, and you Romaine Ladies with every lewd base companion secretely.


N this large country of the Caledonians, beyond the Territorie of Sterlin, whereof I wrote last, and two countries or Sherifdomes of lesse note, Clackmans, over which a Knight named de Carsse, and Kinrosse, over which the Earle of Morton are Sheriffes, Fife a most goodly Biland, wedged, as it were, betweene the two armes of the Sea, Forth and Tau, shooteth out farre into the East. This land yeeldeth plenty of corne and forage, yea and of pit coles. The sea, besides other fishes, affordeth Oisters and shelfish in great abundance, and the coasts are well bespred with prety townlets replenished with stout and lusty mariners. In the South-side heereof by Forth, first appeereth Westward Cul-ros, which giveth the title of a Baronie to Sir John Colvil; then standeth Dunfermling a famous monasterie in old time, both the building and buriall place of King Malcolm the Third. But now it giveth both name and honor of an Earle unto Sir Alexander Seton a most prudent Councellor, whom lately James King of Great Britain worthily raised from Baron of Fivy to be Earle of Dumfermling and Lord Chancellour of the realme of Scotland. Then Kingshorne standeth hard upon the Forth, from which place Sir Patricke Lion, Baron Glamys, lately received at the bountifull hand of King James the Sixth the title and honor of an Earle. After this, there is upon the shore Disert, situate on the rising of an hill, from whence there lieth an open Heath of the same name, where there is a good large place which they call The Cole-plot, that hath great plenty of an earthy Bitumen and partly burneth, to some damage of the inhabitants. Unto it adjoineth Ravins-Heuch, as one would say, The steepe hill of Ravens, the habitation of the Barons Sincleir. Above it, the river Leven hideth himselfe in the Forth: which river, running out of the Lake Levin, wherein standeth a Castle of the Douglasses now Earles of Morton, hath at the very mouth of it Wemmis Castle, the seat of a noble family bearing the same surname: which King James the Sixth hath of late honored with the dignity of a Baron. From hence the shore draweth backe with a crooked and winding tract unto Fife-nesse, that is, The Promontorie or Nose of Fife. Above it Saint Andrews, and Archiepiscopall Citie hath a faire prospect into the open maine sea. The more ancient name of the place, as old memoriales witnesse, was Regimund, that is, Saint Regulus mount, in which read thus, Oeng or Ung, King of the Picts, graunted unto God and Saint Andrew,. that it should be the chiefe and mother of all Churches in the Picts Kingdome. Afterward there was placed heere an Episcopall See, the Bishops whereof like as well the rest within the Kingdome of Scotland were consecrated by the Archbishop of Yorke, untill at the intercession of King James the Third, by reason of so many warres betweene the Scottish and Englishmen, Pope Sixtus the Fourth ordained the Bishop of Saint Andrews to bee Primate and Metropolitan of all Scotland; and Pope Innocentius the Eight bound him and his successours to the imitation and precedent of the Metropolitane of Canterburie in these words: That in matters concerning the Archiepiscopall state, they should observe and firmely hold the offices, droits and rights of Primacy, and such like Legacy, and the free exercise thereof, the honours, charges, and profits, and that they should endevour to performe inviolably the laudable customes of the famous Metropolitane Church of Canterburie, the Arch-Bishop whereof is legatus natus of the Kingdome of England &c. Howbeit, before that, Laurence Ludoris and Richard Corvel Doctors of the Civill Law publickly professed here good literature, laid the foundation of an University, which now for happy encrease of learned men, for three colledges, and the Kings Professours in them, is become highly renowned. In commendation whereof Maister Jonston, the Kings Professour there in Divinity, hath made these verses:


Seated it is hard by the sea et even and equall bounds
Of streates; how well enclosed besides with fat and fertile grounds!
Whilom, when prelats state was great and glorious withall,
There flourish’d heere in sumpteous port a See pontificall.
Now Schooles it shews and Colledges, both Gods and mans delight,
To Muses which be dedicate and built to stately height.
Heere Phaebus hath his shady grove, heere dwell the Sisters nine,
And chiefe of them the Lady bright, Uranie divine.
When I was returned from farre coasts of Germanie,
With welcome kind heere did me place in chaire of high degree.
Most happy towne, wist it what were the gifts of learning true,
The blessed Kingdome if withall of God in heaven it knew.
All plagues, good God, all nocive
[harmful] things to Muses, hence repell,
That in this Citie, Godlinesse and Peace may jointly dwell.

2. Hard by there looseth it selfe in the sea Eden or Ethan a little river, which, springing up neere unto Falkland (belonging in times past to the Earles of Fife, but now a retyring place of the Kings, very well seated for hunting pleasures and disports) runneth under a continued ridge of hilles, which devide this country in the mids, by Struthers (a place so called of a Reede plot) a Castle of the Barons Lindsey, and by Cupre a notable Bourough, where the Sheriffe sitteth to minister justice. Concerning which the same John Jonston hath thus versified:

By rich corn fields, by shady woods and pastures fresh among,
The river Eden glideth soft, with cristall streame along.
Hitheply may he thinke he hath a sight againe of France.
What? Drew this place from thence their wit and spirit hote trow
[think] yee?
Or rather had the same at first by native propretie?

3. Now, where the shore turneth inward a front Northward,. hard by the salt water of Tau, there flourished in old time two goodly Abbaies, Balmerinoch, built by Queene Ermengard, wife to King William daughter of VIcount Beaumont in France. But lately King James of Great Britaine advanced Sir James Elphinston to the honor of Baron Balmerinoch; and Lundoris, founded among the woods by David Earle of Huntington, and at this day the Baronie of Sir Patricke Lesley; betweene which standeth Banbrich, the habitation of the Earle of Rothes, strongly built castle wise. But as touching the townes of Fife planted along the sea side, have heere now if it please you these verses of Maister Jonston:

Who sees how thicke towns stand upon this coast will say anone
They are but one, and yet the same all joined in that one.
How many sands on crooked shore of Forth are cast by tides,
Or billowes at the seas returne beat hard upon bankes sides.
So many ships well nere you may heere see to saile or ride,
And in those townes so thicke almost as many folke abide.
In every house they ply their worke, no idle drones they are:
Busie at home with diligence, busie abroad with care.
What seas or lands are there to which a voiage for to make
In britle barkes will not their youth courageous undertake?
By valour be they growne to welth, yet valour meet with paines,
And perils too: some losses to have they had with their gaines.
These things have made them valiant, civill withall and courteous.
Losse, perill, painfull toile availe all such as be magnanimous.

4. The governour of this province, like as of all the rest in this Kingdome, was in times past a Thane, that is, in the old English tongue, The Kings MInister, as it is also at this day in the Danish language. But Malcolm Canmore made Macduffe, who before was Thane of Fife, the first hereditarie Earle of Fife, and in consideration of his good desert and singular service done unto him, granted that his posterity should have the honor to place the King when he is to be crowned in his chaire, to lead the Vantgard of the Kings armie, and if any of them should happen by casualty to kill either Gentleman or commoner, to buy it out with a peece of money. And not farre from Lundoris there is to be seene a Crosse of stone, which, standing for a limite betweene Fife and Strathern, had an inscription of barbarous verses, and a certain priviledge of Sanctuary, that if any Manslear allied to Mac-duffe Earle of Fife within the ninth degree, if he came unto this Crosse and gave nine kine with an heipher, should be quit of manslaughter. When his posterity lost this title, I could never yet find. But it appeereth out of the Records of the Kingdome that King David the Second gave unto William Ramsey this Earledome with all and every the immunities and law which is called Clan-Mac-Duffe, and received it is for certaine that the lineage of the Wemesies and Douglasse, yea and that great kinred Clan-Hatan, the chiefe whereof is Mac-Intoskech, descended from them. And the most learned John Skerne, Clerke of the Kings register of Scotland, hath taught me in his significations of words that Isabell daughter and heire to Duncane Earle of Fife, granted upon certaine conditions unto Robert the Third King of the Scots for the use and behoufe of Robert Stewart Earle of Menteith, the Earledome of Fife: who being afterwards Duke of Albanie and affecting the Kingdome with cruell ambition caused David the Kings eldest sonne to be most pitifully famished to death, which is highest extremity of all miserie. But his sonne Murdac suffred due punishment for the wickednesse both of his father and his owne sonnes, being put to death by King James the First for their violent oppressions, and a decree passed that the Earledome of Fife should be united unto the Crowne for ever. But the authority of the Sheriffe of Fife belongeth in right of inheritance to the Earles of Rothes.


S farre as to the river Tau, which boundeth Fife on the North-side, Julius Agricola, the best Properetour of Britaine, under Domitian, the worst Emperour, marched with victorious armes in the third yeere of his warlicke expeditions, having wasted and spoiled the nations thitherto. Neere the out-let of Tau, the notable river Ern intermingleth his waters with Tau: which river, beginning out of a Lake or Loch of the same name, bestoweth his owne name upon the country through which he runneth. For it is called Straith Ern, which in the ancient tongue of the Britans signifieth the Vale along Ern. The banke of this Ern is beautified with Drimein Castle, belonging to the family of the Barons of Dromund, advanced to highest honors ever since that King Robert Stewart the Third tooke to him a wife out of that linage. For the women of this race have for their singular beauty and well favoured sweete countenance wonne the prize from all others, insomuch as they have beene the Kings most amiable paramours.
2. Upon the same banke Tulibardin Castle sheweth it selfe aloft, but with greater joility, since that by the propitious favour of King James the Sixth, Sir John Murray Baron of Tulibardin was raised to the honor and estate of Earle of Tulibardin. Upon the other banke, more beneath, Duplin Castle, the habitation of the Barons Oliphant, reporteth yet what an overthrow (the like to which was never before) the Englishmen that came to aide King Edward Balliol gave there unto the Scots, in so much as the English writers in that time doe write that they wonne this victorie not by mans hand but by the power of God, and the Scotish writers relate how that out of the family of the Lindesies there were slaine in the field forreskore persons, and that the name of the Haies had bin quite extinguished, but that the chiefe of that house left his wife behind him great with child. Not farre from it standeth Innermeth, well knowen by reason of the Lords thereof, the Stewarts ‡out of the family of Lorn-Inch-Chafra, that is, in the old Scotish tongue, The Isle of Masses, hereby may be remembred, whenas it was a most famous Abbay of the order of Saint Augustin, founded by the Earle of Strathern about the yeere 1200.‡
3. When Ern hath joined his water with Tau in one streame, so that Tau is now become more spatious, he looketh up to Aberneth seated upon his banke, the roiall seat in old time of the Picts and a well peopled Citie, which, as we read in an ancient fragment, Nectane King of the Picts gave unto God and Saint Brigide untill the day of Dome, together with the bounds thereof, which lie from a stone in Abertrent unto a stone nigh to Carfull, that is, Loghfoll, and from thence as farre as to Ethan. But long after it became the possession of the Douglasses Earles of Anguse, who are called Lords of Abereneth, and there some of them lie enterred.
The first Earle of Strathern that I read of ‡was Malisse who in the time of King Henrie the Third of England married one of the heires of Robert Muschamp a potent Baron of England. Long afterward‡ Robert Stewart in the yeere 1380. Then David a younger sonne of King Robert the Second, whose onely daughter, given in marriage to Patrick Graham, begat Mailise or Melisse Graham, from whom King James the First tooke away the Earldome as escheated after that he understood out of the Records of the Kingdome that it was given unto his mothers grandfather and the heires males of his body. This territory, as also that of Menteith adjoining, the Barons Dromund governe hereditarily by Seneschals authority as their Stewarties.
4. Menteith hath the name of Teith, a river, which they also call Taich, and thereof this little province they tearme in Latin Taichia: upon the banke of which lieth the Bishopricke of Dunblan, which King David the First of that name erected. At Kirkbird, that is, Saint Brigids Church, the Earles of Menteith have their principall house or Honour, as also the Earles of Montrosse comming from the same stocke at Kin-Kardin not farre off. This Menteith reacheth, as I have heard, unto the mountaines that enclose the East-side of the Logh or Lake Lomund. The ancient Earls of Monteth were of the family of Cumen, which in times past, being the most spred and mightiest house of all Scotland, was ruinated with the over-weight and sway thereof, but the latter Earles were of the Grahams line, ever since that Sir Mailise Graham attained to the honor of an Earle.


EYOND the Lake Lomund and the West part of Lennox, there spreadeth it self nere unto Dunbriton Forth the large country called Argathelia and Argadia in Latin, but commonly Argile, more truely Argathel and Ar-Gwithil, that is, Neere unto the Irish, or, as old writings have it, The Edge or border of Ireland, for it lieth toward Ireland. The country runneth out in length and breadth, all mangled with fishfull pooles, and in some places with rising mountaines very commodious for feeding of cattaile, in which also there range up and downe wild kine and red Deere. But along the shore it is more unpleasant in sight, what with rockes, and what with blackish baraine mountaines. In this part, as Bede writeth, Britaine received after the Britans and Picts a third nation of Scots in that country where the Picts inhabited: who comming out of Ireland Reuda, either through friendshippe or by dint of sword planted heere their seat amongst them, which they still hold. Of which their leader they are to this very daie called Dalreudini. For in their language dal signifieth a part. And a little after: Ireland (saith hee) is the proper Country of the Scots. For beeing departed out of it they added unto the Britans and Picts a third nation in Britaine. And there is a verie great Bay or arme of the sea that in old time severed the Nation of the Britans from the Picts, which from the West breaketh a great way into the land, where standeth the strongest City of all the Britans even to this day, cald Alchith. In the North part of which Bay the Scots aforesaid, when they came, gotte themselves a place to inhabite. Of that name Dalreudin, no remaines at all, to my knowledge, are now extant, neither finde wee any thing thereof in writers, unlesse it bee the same that Dalreita. For in an old pamphlet touching the division of Albanie wee read of one Kinnadie (who for certaine was a King of Scots and subdued the Picts) these very words: Kinnadie two yeeres before hee came in to Pictavia (for so it calleth the Country of the Picts) entred upon the Kingdome of Dalreita. Also, in an historie of later time there is mention made of Dalrea in some place of this tract, where King Robert Brus fought a field unfortunately.
2. That Justice should be ministred unto this Province by Justices Itinerant at Perth whensoever it pleased the King, King James the Fourth by authority of the States of the Kingdom enacted a law. But the Earles themselves have in some cases their roialties, as beeing men of very great command and authority, followed with a mighty traine of reteiners and dependents, who derive their race from the ancient Princes and potentates of Argile by an infinite descent of Ancestours, and from their castle Cambell tooke their surname. But the honour and title of Earle was given unto them by King James the Second, who, as it is recorded, invested Colin Lord Cambell Earle of Argile, in regard of his owne vertue and the worth of his familie. Whose heires and successours, standing in the gracious favor of the Kings, have beene Lords of Lorne and a good while Generall Justices of the Kingdome of Scotland, or, as they use to speake, Justices ordeined in Generall, and Great Maisters of the Kings roiall household.


OGH Fin, a lake breeding such store of herings at a certaine due season as it is wonderfull, severeth Argile from a Promontorie, which for thirtie miles together growing still toward a sharpe pointe, thrusteth it selfe forth with so great a desire toward Ireland (betwixt which and it there is a narrow sea scarce thirteene miles over) as if it would conjoine it selfe. Ptolomee termeth the Promontorie Epidiorum, betweene which name and the Islands Ebeudae lying over against it there is, in my conceit, some affinity. At this day it is called in the Irish tongue (which they speake in all this tract) Can-tyre, that is, The lands Head. Inhabited by the Mac-Conells, a familie that heere swaieth much, howbeit at the pleasure and dispose of the Earles of Argile, yea and other whiles they make out their light pinnaces and gallies for Ireland to raise booties and pillage, who also hold in possession those little provinces of Ireland which they call Gilnes and Rowts. This Promontorie lieth annexed to Knapdale by so thinne a necke (as beeing scarce a mile broade and the same all sandie) that the mariners finde it the nerer way to convey their smal vessels over it by land. Which I hope a man may sooner beleeve than that the Argonauts laid their great ship Argos upon their shoulders, and so carried it along with them five hundred miles from Aemonia unto the shores of Thessalia.


OMEWHAT higher toward the North lieth Lorn, bearing the best kinde of barly in great plenty, and divided with Leave a vast and huge lake: by which standeth Berogomum a castle, in which sometime was kept the Court of Justice or Session, and not farre from it Dunslafag, that is, Stephens Mount, the Kings house in times past, above which Logh Aber a Lake, insinuating it selfe from out of the Western sea, windeth it selfe so farre within land that it had conflowed together with Nesse, another Lake running into the East sea, but that certaine mountaines betweene kept them with a verie little partition asunder. The chiefest place of name in this tract is Tarbar in Logh Kinkeran, where King James the Fourth ordeined a Justice and Sheriffe to administer justice unto the inhabitants of the out Islands. These countries and those beyond them, in the yeere of our Lords Incarnation 605, the Picts held, whom Bede called the Northern Picts where hee reporteth that in the said yeere Columbane a Priest and Abbat, famous for his Monkish profession and life, came out of Ireland into Britaine to instruct these in Christian religion that by meanes of the high rough ridges of the mountaines were sequestered from the Southern countries of the Picts, and that they, in lieu of a reward, allowed unto him the Island Hii over against them, now called I-Comb-Kill, of which more in place convenient. The Lords of Lorna in the age aforegoing were the Stewarts, but now, by reason of a femall their heire, the Earles of Argile, who use this title in their honourable style.


ORE inwardly, where the inhabitable, lofty, and rugged ridges of the Mountaine Grampius beginne a little to slope and settle downward, is situate Braid-albin, that is, The heighest part of Scotland. For they that are the true and right Scots in deed call Scotland in their mother tongue Albin, like as that part where it mounteth up highest Drum Albin, that is, The Ridge of Scotland. But in an old booke it is read Brun Albin, where wee find this written: Fergus filius Eric &c., that is, Fergus the sonne of Eric was the first of the seede or line of Chonare that entred upon the Kingdome of Albanie, from Brun-Albain unto the Irish sea and Inch-Gall. And after him the Kings descended from the seede or race of Fergus reigned in Brun-Albaine or Brunhere unto Alpin the sonne of Rochall. But this Albanie is better knowne for the Dukes thereof than for any good guifts that the soile yeeldeth. The first Duke of Albanie that I read of was Robert Earle of Fife, whom his brother King Robert the Third of that name advanced to that honour, yet hee (ungratefull person that he was), pricked on with a spirit of Ambition, famished to death his sonne David, that was heire to the crown. But the punishment due for for this wicked fact, which himselfe by the long-sufferance of God felt not, his son Mordac the second Duke of Albanie suffered most greivously, being condemned for treason and beheaded, when hee had seene his two sonnes the daie before executed in the same manner. The third Duke of Albanie was Alexander, second sonne to King James the Second, who beeing Regent of the Kingdome, Earle of March, Marr, and Garioth, Lord of Annandale and of Mann, was by his owne brother King James the Third outlawed, and after hee had beene turmoiled with many troubles, in the end, as hee stood by to behold a Justs and Tourneaments in Paris, chanced to bee wounded with a peece of a shattered launce, and so died. His sonne John, the fourth Duke of Albanie, Regent likewise and made Tutor to King James he Fifth, taking contentment in the pleasant delights of the French Court, after hee had wedded there the daughter and one of the heires of John Earle of Auvergne and Lauragveze, died there without issue. Whom in a respected reverence to the bloud roiall of the Scots, Francis the First, King of France, gave thus much honour unto, as that he allowed him place betweene the Archbishop of Langres and the Duke of Alenson, Peeres of France. After his death, there was no Duke of Albanie untill that Queene Marie in our memorie conferred this title upon Henry Lord Darley, whom within some few daies after shee made her husband, like as King James the Sixth granted the same unto his owne second sonne Charles, being an Infant, who is now Duke of Yorke.
2. There inhabite these regions a kinde of people, rude, warlicke, ready to fight, querulous, and mischeevous. They be commonly termed High-landmen, who being in deed the right progeny of the ancient Scots, speake Irish and call themselves Albinich. Their bodies be firmely made and well compact, able withall and strong, nimble of foote, high minded, inbread and nuzeld [practiced] in warlick exercises or robberies rather, and upon a deadly fued and hatred most forward and desperate to take revenge. They goe attired Irish-like in stript or streaked mantles of divers collours, wearing thicke and long glibbes [locks] of haire, living by hunting, fishing, fowling, and stealing. In the warre, their armour is an head-peece or Morion [helmet] of iron, and an habergeon or coate of maile. Their weopons bee bowes, barbed or hooked arrowes, and broade backswordes: and beeing divided by certaine families or kinreds which they terme Clannes, they commit such cruell outrages, what with robbing, spoiling and killing, that their savage cruelty hath forced a law to bee enacted whereby it is lawfull that if any person out of any one Clanne or kinred of theirs hath trespassed ought and done harme, whosoever of that Clanne or linage chance to bee taken, hee shall either make amends for the harmes, or else suffer death for it, ‡whenas the whole Clan commonly beareth feud for any hurt received by any one member thereof, by execution of lawes, order of justice, or otherwise.‡


UT of the very bosome of Mountaines of Albanie, Tau the greatest river of all Scotland issueth, and first runneth amaine through the fields, untill that, spreading broad into a like full of Islands, he restreineth and keepeth in his course. Then, gathering himselfe narrow within his bankes into a chanell, and watering Perth, a large, plentiful and rich country, he taketh in unto him Armund a small river comming out of Athol.
2. This Athol, that I may digresse a little out of my way, is infamous for witches and wicked women. The country, otherwise fertile enough, hath valleies bespred with forests, namely where that Wood Caledonia, dreadful to see to for the sundry turnings and windings in and out therein, for the hideous horror of darke shade, for the Burrowes and dennes of wilde bulles with thicke manes (whereof I made mention heretofore), extended it selfe in old time farre and wide every way in these parts. As for the places herein, they are of no great account, but the Earles thereof are very memorable. Thomas, a younger sonne of Rolland of Galloway, was in his wives right Earle of Athol, whose sonne Patricke was by the Bissets his concurrents [rivals] murdered in feude at Handington in his bedchamber, and forthwith the whole house wherein hee lodged burnt, that it might bee supposed he perished by casualty of fire. In the Earldome, there succeeded David Hastings, who had married the aunt by the mothers side of Patricke: whose sonne that David surnamed Of Strathbogy may seeme to bee, who a little after in the reigne of Henry the Third King of England, beeing Earle of Athol, married one of the daughters and heires of Richard base sonne to John King of England, and had with her a very goodly inheritance in England. Shee bare unto him two sonnes, John Earle of Athol, who, beeing of a variable disposition and untrusty, was hanged up aloft on a gallowes fiftie foote hight, and David, Earle of Athol, unto whom by marriage with one of the daughters and heires of John Comin of Bazenoth, by one of the heires of Aumar de Valence Earle of Penbroch, there fell great lands and possessions. His sonne David, who under King Edward the Second was otherwhiles amongst English Earles summoned to the Parliaments in England, and under King Edward Balliol made Lord Lieutenant Generall of Scotland, was vanquished by the valourous prowesse of Andrew de Murray and slaine in battaile within the Forest of Kelblen in the yeere of our Lord 1335. And his sonne David left two yong daughters onely, Elizabeth wedded unto Sir Thomas Percie, from whom the Barons of Borrough are descended, and Philip married to Sir Thomas Halsham an English Knight. Then fell the title of Athol unto that Walter Stewart sonne to King Robert the Second, who cruellie murdered James the First, King of Scotland, and for this execrable cruelty suffered most condigne punishement accordingly, in so much as Aeneas Sylvius Embassadour at that time in Scotland from Pope Eugenius the Fourth, gave out this speech, That hee could not tell whether hee should give them greater commendations that revenged the Kings death, or band them with sharper censure of condemnation that disteined themselves with so hanious a paricide.After some few yeeres passed betweene, this honour was granted unto John Stewart of the family of Lorne, the sonne of James surnamed The Black Knight, by Joan the widow of King James the First, daughter to John Earle of Somerset and Neice to John of Gant Duke of Lancaster, whose posterity at this day enjoy the same.
3. Tau, bearing now a bigger streame by receiving Almund unto him, holdeth on his course to Dunkelden, adorned by King David with an Episcopall See. Most writers, grounding upon the signification of that word, suppose it to be a towne of the Caledonians, and interprete it The mount or Hill of Hazeles, as who would have that name given unto it of the Hazel trees in the wood Caledonia. From hence the Tau goeth forward by the carkasse of Berth a little desolate City, remembring well enough what a great losse and calamitie hee brought upon it in times past when with an extraordinary swelling floud hee surrounded all the fields, laid the goodlie standing corne along on the ground, and carried headlong away with him this poore City with the Kings child and infant in his cradle and the inhabitants therein. In steed whereof, in a more commodious place, King William builded Perth, which straightwaies became so wealthy that Necham, who lived in that age, versified of it in this manner:

By villages, by townes, by Perth thou runn’st, great Tay, amaine,
The riches of this Citie Perth doth all the realme sustaine.

4. But the posterity ensuing called it of a Church founded in honour of Saint John, Saint Johns towne, and the English, whiles the warres were hote betweene the Bruses and the Balliols, fortified it with great bulwarkes, which the Scots afterwards for the most part overthrew and dismantled it themselves. Howbeit, it is a proper prety City, pleasantly seated betweene two Greens, and for all that some of the Churches be destroied, yet a goodly shew it maketh, ranged and set out in such uniforme manner that in every several streat almost there dwell several artificers by themselves, and the river Tau bringeth up with the tide sea commodities by lighters. Whereupon John Jonston, so often now by me cited, writeth thus:


Nere to the waters clere of Tai, and pleasant places all greene,
In middle ground betweene them stands Perth, proudly like a Queene.
Of Noble kings the stately seat and palace once it was,
Faire for the site, and ritch withall for spring of corne and grasse.
To neighbour places all it doth lawes, customes, fashions give:
Her praise to give, theirs, to deserve the same for to receive.
Of all the Cities in these parts, walled alone is she,
Least she to foes continuall a scumbling prey might be.
What Knights she bred, and what rewards they wonne to knighthood due,
Danes, Saxons fierce, bold Britans eke the Romanes of-spring knew.
Happy for praises old, happie for praises new of late,
New as thou art, thine honour old strive to perpetuate.

And now of late King James the Sixth hath erected it to the title of an Earldome, having created James Baron Dromund Earle of Perth.
5. Unto Perth these places are neare neighbours. Methven, which Margaret an English Lady, widow unto King James the Fourth, purchased with ready mony for her third husband Henry Steward descended of the roiall bloud, and for his heires, and withall obteined of her sonne King James the Fifth for him the dignity of a Baron. More beneath is Rethuen a castle of the Rethuens, whose name is of damned memory, considering that the three states of the kingdome hath ordeined that whosoever were of that name should forgoe the same and take unto them a new, after that the Rethuens, brethren in a most cursed and horrible conspiracie, had complotted to murder their soveraigne King James the Sixth, who had created William their father Earle of Goury, and afterward beheaded him, being lawfully convicted when he would insolently prescribe lawes to his soveraigne. But of men condemned to perpetuall oblivion I may seeme to have said over much, although it concerneth posterity also for a Caveat, that wicked generations be notified, ‡as wel as noysome weeds and venemous plants.‡
6. As for the Country Goury aforesaid, famous for the corne fields and singular fertility of the soile, it lieth more plaine and flat along the other banke of Tay. In this tract over against Perth, on the farther side of Tay standeth Scone, a renowned monastery in old time, and of reverend respect for the coronation therein of the Kings of Scotland, since that time King Kenith, having hard by put the Picts for the most part to the sword, placed a stone heere enclosed within a chaire of wood for inauguration of the Kings of Scotland, that had bin transported out of Ireland into Argile. Which stone Edward the first, King of England, caused to be conveied unto Westminster. Touching which I have put downe this prophesie so rife in every mans mouth, since it hath now proved true and taken effect, as very few of that sort doe:

Except old sawes be in vaine,
And wits of wisards blind,
The Scots in place must raigne
Where they this stone shall finde.

But now Scone giveth title of Baron of Scone to Sir David Murray, whom King James for his good service advanced lately to that honor.
7. Where Tay, now growen bigger, enlargeth himselfe, there appeareth over it Arrol, the habitation of the noble Earles of Arrol, who ever since the Bruises daies have beene by inheritance the Constables of Scotland, and verily they deduce an ancient pedigree from one Hay, a man of exceeding strength and excellent courage, who together with his sinnes, in a dangerous battaile of Scots against the Danes at Longcarty, caught up an Oxe yoke, and so valiantly and fortunately withall, what with fighting and what with exhorting, reenforced the Scots at the point to shrinke and recule [run away], that they had the day of the Danes, and the King with the States of the kingdome ascribed the victory and their owne safety unto his valour and prowesse. Whereupon in this place the most battle [fertile] and fruitful grounds were assigned unto him and his heires, who in testimony hereof have set over their coat a yoke for their creast over their Armes, three Escotcheons Geules in Argent. Touching Huntley castle, that joyneth unto it, I have nothing to write but that it hath given title to a very potent, great, and honorable family, whereof I am to speake hereafter.


Y the out-let or mouth of Tay, and more within beside the river North-Eske, Anguis, called by the naturall and true Scots Aeneia, lyeth extended with goodly fields bearing wheat and corne of all kinds plentifully, with large hilles also and pooles, forrests, pastures, and meedowes, and also garnished with many forts and castles. In the very first entry into it from Goury standeth Glamis, a castle and the Baronie of a family surnamed Lions, which arose to honor and reputation ever since that Sir John Lion, standing in the high favour of King Robert the Second, received this and the dignity of a Baron with the Kings daughter for her marriage portion, and therewith, as I find written, the surname of Lion with a Lion in his Armes within a Treassure Floury, as the Kings themselves do beare, but in different colours, like as Sir Patrick Lion Lord Glamys, who now liveth, was advanced very lately by King James the Sixth of that name to the honor of the Earle of Kinghorn.
Not farre hence standeth Forfare, where for the administration of justice the Barons Greies are hereditary Sheriffes, who, being descended from the Greies of Chillingham in the county of Northumberland, came into Scotland with King James the First at his returne out of England. Upon the first of whom, named Andrew, the King of his bounteous liberality bestowed the Seignorie of Foulis, together with Helen Mortimer in marriage for his advancement.
2. Hard by the mouth of Tay is situate Dundee, sometimes called Alectum. Others terme it in Latin Taodunum, a towne verily of great resort and trade, and the Constable whereof by a speciall priviledge is Standerdbearer to the King of Scots. Hector Boetius, who was heere borne, expounded this name Dundee by way of allusion to Donum Dei, that is, Gods gift. This Hector in the reflourishing time of learning wrote the Scottish historie elegantly, and that out of such hidden and farre fetched monuments of antiquity that Paulus Jovius wondred in his writings there should be records extant for above a thousand yeeres of these remote parts of the world, Scotland, the Hebrides, and the Orcades, considering that Italie, the nource of fine wits, for so many ages after the Goths were cast out was defective of writers and records. But of this place Maister Johnston, borne not farre from it, writeth thus:


Where Southwind with his whistling blasts aloft doth mildly blow,
There Tay with streame and Sea with tide doe friendly goe.
And heere Dundee, ships under saile harbring in gentle road,
The wide worlds wealth to Inlanders both sells and sends abroad.
By wiles betraied, by force assaild oft times like to have beene,
With heart undanted to this day it stands sound to be seene.
With new springs of Religion her old fame more did grow.
Hence shone pure light, hence to the rest cleere beames full bright did show.
At first Alectum clep’d it was. But if you marke withall
Her gifts so great, perhaps you will it Donum Dei call.
Thou, Boeth, now this peoples praise and Cities joy for ay,
The blessings all besides of thine owne native place shalt say.

3. From hence standeth within sight Brochty-cragge, a good fortresse which the English garison-souldiers manfully defended and made good for many moneths together, what time as in their affectionate love to a perpetuall peace they desired and wished for a marriage betweene Marie, heire apparant of Scotland, and Edward the Sixth King of England, and upon promise thereof demanded it by force of armes, and in the end of their owne accord abandoned the said piece. Then there lieth full against the open Ocean Aberbroth, short Arbroth, a place endowed with ample revenewes and by King Wiliam dedicated in old time to Religion, in honor of Thomas of Canterbury. Beside which the Red-head shooteth into the deepe sea, and is to be seene afarre off. Hard by, South Eske voideth it selfe into the Ocean; which river, flowing amaine out of a Lake, passeth by Finnevim Castle, well knowen by reason of the Lindesaies Earles of Crawford keeping residence there, of whom I have already written. Then upon the said river standeth Brechin, which King David the First adourned with a Bishops See, and at the very mouth thereof Mont-rose, as one would say, the Mount of Roses, a towne in times past called Celurca, risen by the fall of another towne bearing the same name, which is seated betweene the two Eskes, and imparteth the title of Earle to the family of the Grahams. Concerning which towne, Jonston hath these verses:


With Roses gay the towne is deckt, a easie Mount withall
Stands neare the same, and hence, they say, Mont-rose folke did it call.
In former times by ancient name Celurca men it knew.
Ennobled thus you see it is by name both old and new.
Both old and new renowne it hath for proesse and for wit,
Of men that have their country grac’d and honor wonne to it.

Not farre from hence is Boschain, belonging to the Barons of Ogilvy, of very ancient nobility, lineally descended from Alexander Sheriffe of Angus, who was slaine in the bloudy battaile at Harley against the Mac Donald of the out Isles.
4. As touching the Earles of Angus, Gilchrist of Angus, renowned for his brave exploits under King Malcolm the Fourth, was the first Earle of Angus that I read off. About the yeere 1242 John Comin was Earle of Angus, who died in France, and his widow (happly inheritrice to the Earledome) was married to Sir Gilbert Umfranvill an Englishman. For both he and his heires successively after him were sommoned to the Parliaments in England (untill the third yeere of King Richard the Second) by the titles of Earles of Angus. Howbeit, the Lawyers of England refused it their Brieves and instruments to acknowledge him Earle, for that Angus was not within the Kingdome of England, untill he had brought openly in the face of the Court the Kings writ and warrant, where in he was sommoned to the Parliament by the name of Earle of Angus. In the reigne of David Brus, Thomas Stewart was Earle of Angus, who by a sudden surprise wonne Barwicke and streightwaies lost it; yea, and within a while after died miserably in prison at Dunbritton. But the Douglasses, men of hauty mindes and invincible hearts, from the time of King Robert the Third have beene Earles of Angus (after that George Douglasse had taken to wife the Kings daughter), reputed the chiefe and principall Earles of Scotland, and to whom this office belongeth to carrie the regall crowne before the Kings at all the solemne assemblies of the kingdome. The sixth Earle of Angus out of this stocke was Archebald, who espoused Margaret daughter to Henrie the Seventh King of England, and mother James the Fifth King of Scots, by whom he had issue Margaret wife to Matthew Stewart Earle of Lennox, who after her brothers decease that died childlesse, willingly resigned up her right and interest in this Earledome unto Sir David Douglasse of Peteindreich her unkles sonne by the fathers side, and that with the consent of her husband and sonnes, to the end that she might bind the surer unto herselfe by the linke also of a beneficiall demerite [favor] that family, which otherwise in bloud was most neere, what time as Henrie her sonne went about to wed Marie the Queene; by which marriage King James our soveraigne, the mighty Monarch of Great Britaine, was happily borne to the good of all Britaine.


HESE regions were in Ptolemeis time inhabited by the Vernicones, the same, perhaps, that the Veturiones mentioned by Marcellinus. But this their name is now quite gone, unlesse we would imagine some little peece thereof to remaine in Mernis. For many times in common speech of the British tongue V turneth into M. This small province Mernis, abutting upon the German Ocean, and of a rich and battle soile, lieth very well as a plaine and levell Champion [flatland]. But the most memorable place therein is Dunnotyr, a Castle advanced upon an high and unaccessible rocke, whence it looketh downe to the underflowing sea, well fensed with strong walles and turrets, which hath beene a long time the habitation of the Keiths, of an ancient and very noble stocke, who by the guidance of their vertue became hereditarie Earles Mareschals of the kingdome of Scotland, and Sheriffes of this province. In a porch or gallerie heere is to be seene that ancient inscription which I mentioned even now, of a companie belonging to the twentieth legion, the letters whereof the right noble and honorable Earle now living, a great lover of antiquity, caused to be guilded. Somewhat farther from the sea standeth Fordon, graced in some sort, and commendable in regard of John de Fordon, who being borne heere, deligently and with great paines compiled the Scoti Chronicon, that is, The Scotish Chronicle, unto whose laborious studies the Scotish Historiographers are very much indebted, but more glorious and renowned in old time for the reliques of Saint Palladius, bestowed and shrined sometime, as it is verily thought, in this place, who in the yere 431 was by Pope Caelestinus appointed the Apostle for the Scotish nation.


ROM the sea in the mediterranean or inland parts above Mernis, Mar enlargeth it selfe and runneth forward threeskoare miles or there about. Where it lieth broadest Westwards, it swelleth up with mountaines, unlesse it be where the rivers Dee, which Ptolomee calleth Diva, and Done make way for themselves and enfertile the fields. Upon the bank of Done, Kildrummy standeth as a faire ornament to the country, being the ancient seat of the Earles of Marre; and not farre distant from it, the habitation of the Barons Forbois, who, being issued from a noble and ancient stocke, assumed this surname, whereas before time they were called Bois after that the heire of that family had manfully killed a savage and cruell Beare. But at the very mouth of this river there be two townes that give greater ornament, which of the said mouth that in the British tongue they call aber, borrowing one name, are divided asunder by one little field lying betweene. The hithermore of them, which standeth neerer to Dee mouth, is much ennobled by an Episcopall dignity (which King David the First translated hither from Murthlake, a little village) by faire houses of the Chanons, a hospitall for poore people and a free Grammer school, which William Elphinston, Bishop of the place, in the yeere 1480 consecrated to the training up of youth, and is called New Aberdon. The other beyond it, named Old Aberdon, is most famous for the taking of Salmons. But John Jonston a native hereof in these his verses depeinteth Aberdon thus:

Beset with lofty tops of hilles, and Northward lying spred,
Among her sister-townes alone she beareth up her head.
The warme Sun-beames such temper give to sharpnesse of the aire
That neither skorching heat you need, nor pinching cold, to feare.
The sea, the fishfull rivers eke, with plenteous gulfes and streames
Make this place rich, and one of them enricheth it with gemmes.
Plaine-hearted men, of lightsome lookes and cheerefull, passing kind
To strangers, decent every thing neate you shall there find.
Their noble gentry ancient, their livings ancient were,
And their demenses, undanted hearts and martiall mindes they beare.
The Justice Hall, as mother kind, she honors due doth deigne
Professions all; art strives with it, and wits with arts againe.
All short of her. But praises all of this my genitresse
That shee deserv’s, no wit nor art is able to expresse.

2. It is almost uncredible what abundance of Salmons as wel these rivers as others also in Scotland on both sides of the realme doe breed. This fish was altogether unknowne unto Plinie, unlesse it were that esox of the Rhene, but in this North part of Europe passing well knowne, shining and glittering (as he saith) with his read bowels. In Autumne they engender within little rivers and in shallow places for the most part, what time they cast their spane and cover it over with sand. And then they are so poore and leane that they seeme to have nothing else in maner but their small bones. Of that spawne in the spring next following there comes a frie of tender little fishes, which, making toward the sea, in a small time grow to their full bignesse; and in returning backe againe to seeke for the rivers wherein they were bred, they strive and struggle against the streame, and looke whatsoever lieth in their way to hinder their passage, with a jerke of their taile and a certaine leape (whence happly they had their name Salmons), to the wonder of the beholders they nimbly whip over and keepe themselves within these rivers of theirs, untill they breed. During which time it is enacted by law they should not be caught, namely from the feast of the Assumption of our Lady to the feast of Saint Andrew in Winter. And it should seeme they were reputed among the greatest commodities of Scotland, when likewise it was ordained that they should not be sold unto Englishmen but for English gold, and no other contentation [currency]. But these matters I leave for others.
3. To come now unto the Earles of Marre, in the reigne of Alexander the Third William Earle of Marre is named among those that were sore offended and displeased with the King. Whiles David Brus reigned, Donald Earle of Marre Protector of the Kingdom was before the battaile at Dyplin murdred in his bed by Edward Balliole and the Englishmen that came to aide him: whose daughter Isabell King Robert Brus tooke to be his former wife, on whom he begat Marjorie mother to Robert Stewart King of Scots. Under the same David there is mention also made of Thomas Earle of Marre, who was banished in the yeere 1361. Likewise in the reigne of Robert the Third, Alexander Stewart is named Earle of Marre, who in the battaile at Harley against the Ilanders lost his life in the yeere 1411. In the daies of King James the First, we read in Scots Chronicon thus: Alexander Earle of Marre died in the yeere 1435. The base sonne of Alexander Stewart Earle of Bucquan, sonne to Robert the Second King of Scots, after whom, as being a bastard, the King succeeded in the inheritance. John the second sonne of King James the Second afterwards bare this title, who being convict for attempting by art magicke to take away the King his brothers life, was let bloud to death. And after him Robert Cockeran was promoted from a Mason to this dignity by King James the Third, and soone after hanged by the Nobility. Since which time this honorable title was discontinued untill that Queene Marie adorned therewith James her bastard brother. And not long after, when it was found that by ancient right the title of Earle of Marre appertained to John Lord Ereskin, in lieu of Marre she conferred upon him the honour of Earle Murray, and created John Ereskin, a man of ancient and noble birth, Earle of Marre; whose sonne bearing the same Christian name now enjoieth also the same dignity, and is in both realmes one of the Kings privie Counsell.


HE Taizali mentioned by Ptolomee in ancient times inhabited where now Buquhan, in Latin Boghania and Buchania, above the river Done, beareth forth toward the German sea. Some derive this later name a bobus, that is, From Oxen and Kine, whereas notwithstanding the ground serveth better to feed sheepe, whose woole is highly commended. Albeit the rivers in this coast everywhere breed great store of Salmons, yet doe they never enter into the river Ratra, as Buchanan hath noted. Neither let it bee offensive if I cite his testimonie, although his bookes by authoritie of Parliament in the yeere 1584 were forbidden, because many things in them contained are to be dashed out. Who also hath written, that on the banke of Ratra there is a cave neere unto Strangs Castle, the nature whereof seemeth not to be passed over. The water, distilling by drops out of a Naturall Vault, presently turneth into Pyramidall stones, and were not the said cave or hole otherwhiles rid and clensed by mans labour, the whole space as far as up to the Vault would in short time be filled therewith. Now the stone thus engendred is of a middle nature betweene yce and hard stone, for it is brittle and easie to crumble, neither groweth it ever to the solidity and hardnesse of marble. Concerning those Claike-geese, which some with much admiration have beleeved to grow out of trees both upon this shore and else where, and when they be ripe to fall downe into the sea, it is scarce worth the labour to mention them. That there be little birds engendred of old and rotten Keeles of ships, they can beare witnesse who saw that ship wherein Francis Drake sailed about the world, standing in a docke neere the Tamis, to the outside of the Keele whereof a number of such little birds without life and fethers stucke close. Yet would I gladly thinke that the generation of these birds was not out of those logges of wood, but from the very Ocean, which the Poets tearmed the father of all things.
2. A mighty masse likewise of Ambar as big as the body of an horse was not many yeeres since cast upon this shore. The learned call it succinum, glessum, and chryso-electrum, and Sotacus supposed that it was a certaine juice or liquor which distilleth out of trees in Britaine and runneth downe into the sea, and is there hardned. Tacitus also was of the same opinion when he wrote thus: I can verily beleeve that, like as there be trees in the secret and inward parts of the East which sweat out Frankincense and balme, so in the Ilands and other countries of the West there be woods and groves of a more fatty and firme substance, which, melting by the hote beames of the sunne approching so neere, runneth into the sea hard by, and by force of tempests floteth up to the shores against it. But Serapio and the Philosophers of later times write that it ariseth out of a certaine clammy and bituminous earth under the sea and by the sea side, and that the billowes and tempests cast up part thereof a-land, and fishes devour the rest. But I digresse extravagantly. I will into my way againe, and since I acknowledge my fault, let my confession purchase pardon.
3. In the reigne of King Alexander the Second, Alexander Comin rose up to the honor of Earle of Buquhan, who married the daughter and one of the heires of Roger de Quincy Earle of Winchester in England, and his neice by a sonne brought the same title unto Henrie de Beaumont her husband: for he, in King Edward the Third his daies, had his place in the Parliament of England by the name of Earle of Buquhan. Afterwards, Alexander Stewart, sonne to King Robert the Second, was Earle of this place; unto whom succeeded John, a younger sonne of Robert Duke of Albanie, who arriving in France with seven thousand Scotishmen to aide Charles the Seventh King of France, bare himselfe valiantly and performed singular good service against the Englishmen, and that with so great commendation, as having victoriously slaine Thomas Duke of Clarence, brother to Henrie the Fifth King of England, at Baugy, and discomfited the English, hee was made Constable of France. But in the third yeere following, when the Fortune of warre turned, he with other most valiant Knights, to wit, Archebald Douglasse Earle of Wigton and Duke of Touraine &c., was vanquished at Vernoil by the English and there slaine. Whom notwithstanding, as that Poet said,

France thankfully will ay recount as citizens of her owne,
On whom both titles glorious and tombs she hath bestowne.

Certes, whereas under the Kings Charles the Sixth and Seventh France was preserved and Aquitain recovered by thrusting out the English, the Frenchmen cannot chuse but acknowledge themselves much beholden to the fidelity and fortitude of the Scotish. But afterwards King James the First gave the Earledom of Buquhan unto George of Dunbar, moved thereto upon pity and commiseration because he had deprived him before of the Earldome of March by authority of Parliament for his fathers crime. And not long after, James, the son of James Stewart of Lorn surnamed the Black Knight, whom he had by Queene Joan sister to the Duke of Somerset and widdow to King James the First, obtained this honour and left to his posterity. But for default not long since of heires male, it came by a daughter married to Robert Douglas a younger brother of Douglas of Lochleven, to the family of the Douglases.
4. From Buquhan, as the shore bendeth backward and turneth full into the North, lieth Boena, and Bamff a small Sherifdome, also Aiuza a little territory of no especiall account, and Rothamay Castle the dwelling place of the Barons of Salton, surnamed Abernethy. Beneath these lieth Strath-bolgy, that is, the Vale by Bolgy, the habitation in times past of the Earles of Athol, who of it assume their surname, but now the principall seat of Marquesse Huntley. For this title King James the Sixth conferred upon George Gordon, Earle Huntley, Lord Gordon and Badzenoth, a man of great honour and reputation for his ancient noblenesse of birth and the multitude of his dependants and followers, whose ancesters, descended from the Setons, by Parliamentary authority tooke the name of Gordon (whenas Sir Alexander Steton had taken to wife the daughter of Sir John Gordon Knight, by whom he had a large and rich inheritance), and received the honour of Earle of Huntley at the hands of King James the Second in the yeere 1449.


HE Vacomagi, remembred by Ptolomee, anciently inhabited on the further side of Grantz-baine mountaine, which, as it were, in a continued range of hils hanging one by another drive out his ridge with many a winding as far as to Murray Frith, where now lieth Murray, in Latin Moravia, celebrated for the fertility, pleasant site, and commodity of fruitfull trees. By this Province Spey a famous river maketh his issew into the sea, wherin he lodgeth when he hath watered Rothes Castle, whence the family of the Lesleys tooke the title of Earle ever since that King James the Second conferred the honor of Earle of Rothes upon Sir George Lesley. Concerning this Spey, our Poet Necham hath thus written:

Spey raising heaps of sands amaine, that shift of times their place,
Inconstant he doth change eftsones, and keeps no certaine race.
A panier
[basket] serves heere for a boate, some venterous swaine it guides,
Who followeth still the rivers course while downe the stream it glides.

2. The river Loxa, mentioned by Ptolome, which now is called Losse, hideth himselfe in the sea hard by, neere unto which Elgina appeareth, in which and in Forres adjoining John of Dunbar of Cumnock, descended from the stocke of the Earles of March, hath his jurisdiction as Sherif by inheritance. But where it is now redy to enter into the Sea, he findeth a more plaine and soft soile, and spreadeth abroad into a Meere full of swans, wherein the Hearbe Olorina plentifully groweth, he hath Spiny Castle standing upon it, whereof now the first Baron is Alexander, of the linage of the Lyndsays, like as Kinlosse, also a neighbour by, sometimes a famous Monastery (some call it Kill-flos, of certaine flowers miraculously there springing up on a sodaine, when the carcase of King Duff, murdered and hidden in the same place, was found) hath also for the Lord thereof Edward Brus Maister of the Rols in England, and of the Kings Majesties Privy counsell, whom King James the Sixth created Baron Brus of Kinlosse. Thus much for the shore. More inward, where now standeth Bean Castle (thought to be Banatia that Ptolomee mentioneth), there was found in the yere 1460 a vessell of marble artificially engraven and full of Romane coine. Hard by is Nardin or Narne, an heritable Sherifdome of the Cambels of Lorne, where there stood within a Biland a fortresse of a mighty height, built with wonderfull bulwarkes, and in times past defended by the Danish forces against the Scotish. A little off is Loch-Nesse, a very great Lake, as reaching out 23 miles in the length, the water whereof is so warme that even in this cold and frozen climate it never freezeth: from which by a very small Isthim or partition of hils, the Logh Lutea or Lothea, which by Aber letteth it selfe forth into the West sea, is divided. Nere unto these Loghs there stood in old time two notable fortifications, the one named Innerness, the other Innerlothea, according to the names of the said Loghs. Innernes hath for Sheriff thereof by right of Inheritance the Marquesse Huntley, who is of great command heereabout. But have here what Maister Jonston hath written jointly of these two:


Two mighty forts and holds these were in ancient kingdomes daies,
The first wall’d fenses, as they say, that hand of Kings did raise.
Affront with towres oppos’d they stand. For one of them regards
The Western winde, but th’ other lookes the Sun-rising towards.
On both sides they their rivers have, and rivers full of fish.
One hath an haven frequented aye, and safe as heart can wish.
Such was it once. But now, alas, to wast and desert fields
Is turn’d, and that which longed Kings to wilde beasts harbour yeelds.
The other yet draws breath, though deepe, and shewes that it doth live,
But over-match’d, to destine at length bucklers give.
What’s now become of Carthage great? Where is that martiall Rome?
Where Troy? Of wealthy Asia the riches all and some?
No mervaile now that mortall weights to death be subject. Why?
Because you plainely see that townes and Cities great may die.

3. Under the reign of Robert Brus, Thomas Randolph his sisters sonne, who in his Countries behalfe undertooke exceeding great paines and most greivous quarrels, was highly renowned by the title of Earle of Murray. Under King Robert the Second, John of Dunbarre tooke to wife the Kings daughter, to make amends for for her devirgination, received this Earldome of Murray with her in marriage. Under King James the Second William Creichton Chancelour of the Realme and Archebald Douglas grew to great variance and aegre [sharp] contention about this Earledome, whenas against the lawes and ancient customes Douglas, who had married the younger daughter of James Dunbar Earle of Murray, was preferred to the Earldom before Creighton, who had wedded the elder, and that through the powrefull authority that William Earle of Douglasse had with the King, which was so great that he advanced not onely him to the Earledome of Murray, but also another brother to the Earledome of Ormund, and made two confines [kinsmen] of his Earles, the one of Angus, and the other of Morton. But this greatnesse of his, not to bee trusted upon because it was excessive, turned soone after to his owne confusion. Under King James the Fifth his owne brother, whom hee appointed his viceregent in the government of the Kingdome, enjoyed this honour. And within our remembrance, James the base sonne of King James the Fifth received this honour of Queene Marie his sister, but he requited her basely, when, conspiring with some few of the Nobility, hee deposed her from her Roiall estate and kingdome, a fowle precident and prejudiciall to all Kings and Princes. Which notwithstanding was revenged, for shortly after hee was shot through with a bullet. His onely daughter brought this title unto her husband Sir James Stewart of Downe, who was also of the bloud roiall from the Dukes of Albanie, who beeing slaine by his concurrents [rivals] left his sonne James to succeed him in this honour.


HATSOEVER beyond the Nesse bendeth to the West coast and adjoineth to the Lake Aber is thereupon called Loghuabre, that is in the ancient tongue of the Britans, The mouth of the Lakes, as what lieth toward the North is commonly Rosse. Loquabre is full of fresh pastures and; woods, neither is without yron mines, but no so free in yeald of corne, but for most fishfull pooles and rivers scarce inferiour to any country thereabout. At Logh-Lothey, Innerlothey, fensed with a fort and well frequented with Merchants, as of great name and importance in times past, but being razed by the piracies and warres of Danes and Norwegians, it hath lien for these many ages so forlet that there remaineth scarce any shew of it, which those verses that I alledged even now doe imply.
2. Loqhuabre hath had, so farre as I have read, no Earls, but about the yeere of our salvation 1050 there was a Thane over it of great fame and much spoken of, named Banqhuo, whom Macbeth the bastard, when with murder and bloudshed he had usurped the crowne, being fearefull and suspitious, caused to be made away, for that he had learned by a Prophesie of certaine wise women that his posterity, when the line of Macbeth was expired and extinct, should one day obtaine the Kingdome, and by a long successive descent reigne in Scotland. which verily hath fallen out accordingly. For Fleanch the sonne of Banqhuo, who unknowen in the darke escaped the traines laid for him, fled into Wales, where for a time hee kept himselfe close, and having taken to wife Nesta the daughter of Griffith ap Lewellin Prince of North-Wales, begat Walter; who returning into Scotland, with so great fame of his fortitude repressed the rebellion of the Ilanders, and with as great wisdome managed the Kings revenews in this tract, that the King made him Seneschall, whom they commonly call Stewart, of the whole Kingdome of Scotland. Whereupon this name of Office imposed the surname Stewart unto his posterity, who spreading throughout all parts of Scotland into a number of noble branches, after many honors heaped upon them have flourished a long time, and from out of them, three hundred yeeres agoe and thirty, Robert Stewart by Majorie his mother, daughter to King Robert Brus, obtained the Kingdome of Scotland, and now lately James Stewart of that name the Sixth King of Scots, by Margaret his great grandmother, daughter to King Henry the Seventh (the divine powre of that most high and almighty Ruler of the world so disposing) is ascended, with the generall applause of all nations, to the height of Monarchicall Majestie over all Britaine and the Isles adjacent.


HE Province Rosse, so called from an old Scottish word which some interpret to be a Promontorie, others a Biland, was inhabited by the people named Cantae (which terme in effect implieth as much) in the time of Ptolomee. This extendeth it selfe so wide and large that it reacheth from one sea to the other. What way it beareth upon the Vergivian or Western Ocean, by reason of huge swelling mountaines advancing their heads aloft, and many woods among them, it is full of stagges, roe buckes, fallow Deere, and wild foule; but where it butteth up against the German sea it is more lovely bedect with corne fields and pastures, and withall much more civill. In the very first entrance into it, Ardmanoch, no small territory, whereof the second sonnes of the Kings of Scotland beare the title, riseth up with high mountaines that are most trusty preservers of snow. As touching their height, some have reported unto me strange wonders, and yet the ancient Geometers have written that neither the depth of sea, nor height of hills exceed by the plumb line tenne stadia, that is, one mile and a quarter. Which notwithstanding, they that have beheld Tenariffe amongst the Canarie Ilands, which is fifteene leagues high, and saile withall the Ocean neere unto them, will in no wise admit for truth. In this part standeth Lovet Castle and the Barony of the worthy family of the Frasers, whom for their singular good service for the Scottish kingdome, King James the Second accepted into the ranke of Barons; and whom the Clan-Ranalds, a most bloudie generation, in a quarrel and braule betweene them had wholy destroied every mothers sonne, but that by the providence of God fourescore of the principall persons of this family left their wives at home all great which child, who, being delivered of so many sonnes, renewed the house and multiplied the name againe.
2. But at Nesse mouth there flourished sometimes Chanonry, so called of a rich Colledge of Chanons whiles the Ecclesiasticall state stood in prosperity, in which there is erected a See for the Bishop of Rosse. Hard by is placed Cromarty, where Urqhuart, a gentleman of noble birth, by hereditary right from his ancestours ministreth justice as Sheriffe to this Sherifdome, and this is so commodious and safe an harbour for any fleet, be it never so great, that both Sailers and Geographers name it Portus Salutis, that is, The haven of safety.
Above it is Littus Altum, whereof Ptolomee maketh mention, caled now as it seemeth Tarbarth. For there in deed the shore riseth to a great height, enclosed on the one side with Cromer a most secure and fast haven, and on the other with Celnius, now Killian, the river. And thus much of the places toward the East Ocean. Into the West sea the river Longus, mentioned in Polomee, at this day named Lough Longus, runneth; then the Cerones anciently dwelt where now is Assinshire, a country much mangled with many inlets and Armes of the sea, inbosoming it selfe with manifold commodities.
3. As for the Earles of Rosse, it is full of difficulty to set them down in order successively out of writers. About foure hundred yeers past, we read that Ferqhuard flourished and enjoied this title. But for default of issue male it came by a daughter to Walter Lesley, who for his noble feats of armes, courageously atchieved under Lewis the Emperour, was worthily named The Noble Knight. Hee begat Alexander Earle of Ross, and a daughter married unto Donald Lord of the Islands Hebrides. This Alexander had issue one onely daughter, who made over by her deed all her owne title and unto Robert Duke of Albanie: whereat the said Donald of the Islands, being highly enchaufed [angry] and repining, stiled himselfe, in the reigne of James the Third, King of the Islands and Earle of Rosse, having with fire and sword laied wast his native country fare and nere. At length, the said King James the Third, by authority of Parliament, in the yeere 1476 annexed the Earledome of Rosse to the crowne, so as it might not be lawfull for his successours to alienate by any meanes from the crowne either the Earledome it selfe or any parcell thereof, or by any devise to grant the same unto any person save only the Kings second sonnes lawfully borne. Whence it is that Charles the Kings second sonne, Duke of Yorke, at this day holdeth and enjoieth the title of Earle of Rosse.


EYOND Rosse, Sutherland looketh toward the East Ocean, a land more meete to breede cattaile than to beare corne: wherein there be hils of white marble (a wonderfull thing in this so cold a climate), but of no use almost, considering excesse in building and that vaine ostentation of riches is not yet reached to these remote regions. Here is Dunrobin, a castle of very great name, the principall seat of the ancient Earles of Sutherland, descended, if I be not deceived, out of the familie of Murray. Among whom one William under King Robert Brus is most famous, who married the sister of the whole bloud to King David, and had by her a son, whom the said David declared heire apparant of the crowne, and compelled his nobles to swear unto him allegeance. But he within a little after departed without issue, and the Earledome in the end came by a daughter and heire hereditarily unto Anthony Gordon, one of the line of the Earles of Huntly.


IGHER lieth Cathanes, butting full upon the said East-sea, bending inward with a number of creakes and compasses which the waves as it were indent. In which dwelt in Ptolomees time the Catini, but written falslie in some copies Carini, among whom the selfe same Ptolomee placeth the river Ila, which may seeme to be the Wisle at this day. The inhabitants of this province raised their greatest gaine and revenewes by grazing and raising of cattaile and by fishing. the cheife Castle therein is called Girnego, in which the Earls of Catnesse for the most part make their aboad. The Bishops sea is in Dornok a little meane towne otherwise, where also King James the Fourth appointed the Sherife of Catnesse to reside, or else at Wik, as occasions should require, for the administration of justice.
2. The Earles of Catnesse in ancient times were also Earles of the Orcades, but at last they became distinct, and by the eldest daughter of one Malise, given in marriage to William Seincler the Kings Pantler [butler], his heires successively came to bee Earles of Catnesse, and doe still enjoie the same honor.


HE utmost and farthest coast of all Britaine, which with the front of the shore looketh full against North point, and hath the midest of the greater beares tale, which, as Cardan was of opinion, causeth translations of Empires, just over head, was inhabited, as we may see in Ptolomee, by the Cornabii, among whom hee placeth the river Nabeus, which names are so nere affinity that the nation may seeme to have drawne their denomination from the river that they dwelt by. Neither doth the modern name Strath-Navern, which signifieth the Valley by Navern, jarre altogether in sound from them. The country it selfe is for the soile nothing fertile, and by reason of the sharpe and cold aire lesse inhabited, and thereupon sore haunted and annoied by most cruell wolves. Which in such violent rage not only set upon cattaile to the exceeding great dammage of the inhabitants, but also assaile men with great danger, and not in this tract onely, but in many other parts likewise of Scotland, in so much as by vertue of an act of Parliament the Sheriffes and inhabitants in every Country are commanded to goe forth thrice a yeere a-hunting, for to destroy the wolves and their whelpes. But (if in this so Northerly a country this be any comfort to speake of) it hath of all Britaine againe the shortest night and the longest day. For by reason of the position of heaven here distant from the Aequinoctiall line 59 degrees and forty minutes, the longest daie conteineth 18 houres and 15 scruples, and the shortest night not above 5 houres and 45 scruples. So that the Panegyrist is not true in this, who made report in times past that the sunne in manner setteth not at all, but passeth by and lightly glanceth upon the Horizon, happily relying upon this Authority of Tacitus, for that the extreme points and plaine levels of the earth with their shade so low raised up no darkeness at all. But more truely Plinie (according to true reason), where hee treateth of the longest daies according to the inclination of the Sunnes circle to the Horizon: The longest daies (saith he) in Italie are 15 houres, in Britannie 17, where the light nights doe prove that undoubtedly by experience which reason forceth credibly, that in Midsommer daies when the sonne approcheth neere to the Pole of the world, the places of the earth under the Pole have 6 moneths, though the light having but a narrow compasse, the night contrariwise when he is farre remote in middle winter.
2. In this utmost tract, which Ptolomee extendeth out farre East, whereas indeed it beareth full North (for which Roger Bacon in his Geography taxed him long since), where Tacitus said that an huge and enorme space of ground, running still forward to the farthest point, groweth narrow like a wedge. There runne out three Promontories mentioned by the old writers: namely Berubium, now called Urdchead, neere to Bernswale a village; Virevedrum, now Dunsby otherwise named Duncans-bay, which is thought to be the most remote promontory of Britain; Orcas, now named Howburn, which Ptolomee setteth over against the Islands Orcades, as the utmost of them all. This also in Ptolomee is called Tarvedrum and Tarvisium, and so named, if my conjecture faile mee not, because it is the farthest end of Britain. For tarvut in the British tongue hath a certaine signification of ending, which which I accordingly will end this booke, purposing to speake of the out-Isles Orcades, Hebudes or Hebrides, and of Shetland in their due place.

Thus have I breifely runne over Scotland, and verily more breifly than the worth of so great a kingdome requireth. Neither doubt I but that someone or other will set it forth more at large and depeinct it (as I said) with a more flourishing pensill, in greater certeinty, and upon better knowlege, whenas our most mighty Monarch now openeth those remote places hitherto fore-closed from us. Meanwhile, if I have at any time dropt a steepe (for the most watchful may sometimes bee taken napping) or if some error in this unknowne tract hath misleade me from the truth (as nothing is more rife and easie than error), I hope the courteous Reader will pardon it upon my acknowledgement, and of his kindnesse, recalling me from error, direct me in the right way to the truth.

Go to Ireland