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FTER the Brigantes, Ptolomee placeth those who according to the divers readings in copies are called Ottalini, Ottadeni, and Ottadini. In steed of all which names I would, if I durst presume so far, with a very easie alteration substitute Ottatini, that it might signifie On the farther side of or above the River Tine. And so verily would the name of the Inhabitants be consonant with the position and site of the country. For these are planted beyond Tine. And the Welsh-Britans at this day call a country in Wales beyond the river Conwey Uch Conwey, beyond the hilles, Uchmynith, beyond the wood, Uch-coed, beyond the river Gwirway, Uch-Gwyrway. Neither can it be, I assure you, altogether absurd if after the same maner they tearmed this country beyond Tine Uch Tin. whence the Romans may seeme to have framed this name Ottadini by a word somewhat disjointed, but more smooth and pleasanter to the eare. And whereas Xiphilinus reporteth out of Dio that all the Britans that dwelt neere unto the wall, which we speake of even now, were called Μαιάται or Maeatae, good reason it is that we should think these our Ottadini, dwelling by the said wall, were among those Maeatae, who in that memorable revolt and rebellion of the Britans called in the Caledonians to assist them and take armes with them. At which time Severus the Emperour commaunded his souldiers peremptorilie to kill all the Britans, using these verses of Homer:

Let none skape cruell death,
Nor dint of sword; no not the child unborne
In mothers wombe that lies, his death is sworne.

But the tempestuous storme of this rebellion was caulmed by the death of Severus, who in his very preparation for warre died at Yorke. Long after, this Country seemeth to have beene a part of Valentia. For so Theodosius called it in honour of Valentinian the Emperour, after hee had subdued the barbarous people and recovered this tract or Province, which before had beene lost. But these ancient names were quite worne out of use in the English Saxon warre, and all the Countries lying North on the side of the Arme of the sea called Humber beganne by a Saxon name to bee called Northan-humbra-ric, that is, the Kingdome of Northumberland. Which name notwithstanding being now cleane gone in the rest of the Shires, remaineth full, as it were, surviving in Northumberland onely. Which when that state or kingdome stood was knowne to bee a part of the Kingdome of Bernicia, which had peculiar pettie Kings and reached from the river Tees to Edenborough Frith.


ORTHUMBERLAND, which the English Saxons called Northan-humber-land, lieth after a sort enclosed in fashion of a Triangle, but not with equall sides. The South-side is shut in with Derwent running into Tine and with Tine it selfe, where it butteth upon the Bishopricke of Durham. On the Eastside the German sea lieth and beateth upon it. But the West side, which reacheth out from South-west to North-west, is first parted from Cumber-land, afterward with Cheviot and hills linked one to another, and lastly with the river Twede, it affonteth Scotland, and so was the limit of both kingdomes. Over which were set in this County two governors, the one called Lord Warden of the Midle Marches, the other of the East marches. The ground it selfe, for the most part rough and hard to be manured, seemeth to have hardened the inhabitants, whom the Scots their neighbours also made more feirce and hardy, while sometimes they keepe them exercised in warres and otherwhiles in time of peace intermingle their manners among them, so that by these meanes they are a most warlike nation, and excellent good light horsemen. And whereas they addicted themselves as it were wholy to Mars and Armes, there is not a man amongst them of the better sort that hath not his little towre or pile, and so divided it was into a number of Baronies, the Lords whereof in times past before King Edward the First his daies went commonly under the name Barons, although some of them were of no great living. But a wise and politicke devise this was of our Ancestours, to cherish and maintaine martiall proesse among them in the marches of the kingdome, if it were nothing else but with an honorable bare title. Howbeit this title came to nothing among them, what time as under King Edward the First those onely beganne to enjoie the name and honor of Barons whom the Kings summoned unto the high Court of Parliament by speciall summons. Towards the sea and Tine, by diligence and good husbandry, it becommeth very fruitfull, but elsewhere it is more barraine, rough, and as it were un-manurable. And in many places those stone lithanthraces which wee call Sea coles, are digged up in great plenty to the great gaine of the inhabitants and commodity of others.
2. The hithermore part bending toward the South-west, and called Hexam-shire, acknowledged a long time the Archbishop of Yorke for the Lord thereof, and challenged unto it selfe, by what right I know not, the priviledge of a County Palatine. But after it became of late annexed unto the crowne land, upon an exchange made with Robert the Archbishop, by authority of Parliament it was laied unto the County of Northumberland, that it should bee subject to the same jurisdiction and in all causes have recourse to the high Sherife thereof.
South-Tine (a river called, if wee may beleeve our Britans, for that by reason of his narrow bankes hee is streight pent in, for so signifieth tin, as they say, in the British tongue) having his spring-head in Cumberland neere unto Alsten-more, where there was an ancient coper mine, holding on his course by Lambley, sometime a Nunnerie built by the Lucies, and now with flouds for the most part undermined and fallen downe; also by Fetherston-Haugh the seat of the ancient and wel-descended family of Fetherston; when hee is come as farre as Bellister Castle, turning Eastward, runneth directly forward with the Wall, which is no place three miles distant from it toward the North.
3. For the Wall, having left Cumberland behind it, and crossed over the Irthing, passed likewise with an arch over the swift riveret Poltrosse, where I saw within the wall high mounts of earth cast up, as it were, to overlooke and discover the country. Nere this standeth Thirl-wale Castle, which is not great but strongly built, yet it gave both habitation to the ancient and noble familie which was first called Wade, where the Picts and Scottish made their passage into the Province betweene Irthing and Tine (and that verily upon good forecast) in that place where they had free entrance by reason of no river in their way, into the inmore partes of England. But you shall better understand and the name of this place out of John Fordon the Scottish Historian, whose words it will not bee amisse, as I thinke, to set downe here, because the booke is not every where to bee had. The Scottes (saith hee) when by conquest they had gotten the possession of those Countries which are on this side the Wall toward Scotland, beganne to inhabite them; and having of a sodaine raised a sort of the Country people with their mattockes, pickaxes, rakes, three tined forkes and spades, made wide gappes and a number of holes in it, by which breaches they might passe in and out readilie at their pleasure. Of these holes, therefore, this mound of the wall afterward tooke the name Thirwall, which it hath at this day in this place; for in the English tongue that very place is called Thirwall, which is as much as a wall pierced through. Then sawe we Blenkensop, which gave name unto a generous family, as also their habitation in a right pleasant country Southward, which was part of the Baronie of Sir Nicolas of Bolteby, a Baron of renowne in the time of King Edward the First.
4. When you are past Thirwall, the said wall openeth it selfe unto the raging river Tipall, where in the descent of an hill, a little within the wall, is to bee seene the ground worke of a castle of the Romans in forme foure square, every side whereof taketh an hundred and fortie paces. The very foundations likewise of houses and trackes of streetes appeere still most evidently to the beholders. The Rank-riders or taking men of the borders doe report that a great port-way paved with flint and bigge stone led from hence through wastes unto Maiden Castle in Stanemore. Certes, it passed directly to Kirkby Thor, whereof I spake. A poore old woman that dwelt in a little poore cottage hard by shewed unto us an ancient little altar-stone in testimonie of some vow, with this inscription unto Vitirineus, a tutelar God, as it seemed, of the place.

RINE . . .
. . . LIMEO
P. L. M.

This place is now named Caer Vorran; what it was in old time, it passeth my wit to finde out, seeing that amongst all the stations mentioned along the range of the Wall there is not one commeth neere unto it in name; neither have wee any light out of inscriptions to lead us thereunto. Whatever it was, sure the wall thereby was both strongest and highest by farre: for scarce a furlong or two from hence, upon a good high hill, there remaineth as yet some of it to bee seene fifteene foot high and nine foote thicke, built on both sides with foure square ashler stone, although Bede reporteth it was not above twelve foot in hight.
5. From hence the wall goeth forward more in a slope by Iverton, Forsten, and Chester in the Wall, neere to Busy-Gapp, a place infamous for theeving and robbing: where stood stone castles, Chesters they call them, as I have heard (but I could not with safety take the full survey of it, for the ranke robbers there about). As for Chester, the neighbors told us that it was a very great building, so that wee may well thinke it to have been that Second station of the Dalmatians, which is called in the old Booke of Notice Magna, where this inscription was found upon an ancient altar:


This broken and imperfect altar likewise brought from thence, we read at Melkrigh, ‡where now women beat their buckes [laundry] on it:‡

VRNIO AG -------
---III. A. IOR--------

Which if I were able to read, thus would I willingly read it, and the draught of the letters maketh well for it: Deae Suriae, sub Calphurnio Agricola legato Augusti, propraetore Licinius Clemens praefectus, that is, Unto the Goddesse Suria, under Calpournius Agricola Lieutenant of Augustus and Praetor, Licinius Clemens the Captaine. This Calphurnius Agricola was sent by Antoninus Philosophus against the Britans, what time as there was likely to be warre in Britaine, about the yeere of Christ 170. At which time some Cohorts under his command erected this altar unto the Goddess Syria, whom with a turreted crowne on her head and a Tabber [small drum] in her hand, was set in a coach drawn with Lions, as Lucian sheweth at large in his Narration of the Goddesse Suria. which Goddesse also Nero, albeit hee contemned all religion, especially worshipped for a time, and soone after so aviled [reviled] and despised that hee defiled her with his urine.
6. From whence we saw Willymotes-wicke, the seat of a respected familie of the Ridleies, and hard by it the river Alon, running with a surging streame and rise of waters into Tine, namely when both the Alons are met together in one channell. By the Easterne of the two Alons there is to bee seene a towne, now called Old-towne, but what the old name was will not easily bee found. Now to the wall againe. The next station upon the wall beyond Busye-gap is called Seaven-shale: the name whereof it any man would thinke with me to come from the wing Saviniana or Sabiniana, I might the more confidently say that it was from that Hunnum where the Notice of Provinces reporteth the wing Sabiniana kept watch and ward. Then, beyond Carraw and Walton, standeth Walwick, which some conjecturally would have to be Gallana in Antonine, in all which places there be evident remaines of old fortifications.
Here there runneth through the wall North Tine, which being now come downe amaine out of the mountaines in the marches of England and Scotland, first as hee passeth Eastward watereth Tindale, a place taking the name of him, and in the end receiving into his bosome the river Rhead, which springing out of Readsquire, a steepe mountaine, where oftentimes was the True-place, that is, a place of parly and conference for the East marches (for the Lords Wardens of the East marches to both kingdomes were wont here to decide the matters and controversies betweene the borderers), giveth his owne name to a dale too too voide of inhabitants by reason of depredations.
7. Both these dales breed noteable light horsemen, and both of them have their hilles hard by, so boggy and standing with water in the top that no horsemen are able to ride through them: whereupon (and that is wonderfull) there be very great heapes of stone, called Lawes, which the neighbour inhabitants bee verily perswaded were in old time cast up and laid togither in remembrance of some there slaine. In both of them also there bee many ruinous remaines of old castles. In Tindal are Whitchester, Delaley, Tarset, sometimes belonging to the Comins. In Rheadsdale are Rochester, Green-chester, Rutchester and some others, whose ancient names are abolished and lost by the injurie of long time. But seeing that at Rochester, which standeth neerer into the head of Read, in the brow of a rocky high mountaine that overlooketh the Country underneath a great way (whence it seemeth to have taken this new name) there hath beene found an antique altar among the rubbish of an old castle with this inscription:

D. R. S.

May we not hence guesse that Bremenium, for which there hath beene made so long and great search, was here? Whereof Ptolomee hath made mention in this very site and position of the country, and from which Antonine the Emperour beginneth the first journey of Britaine, as from the utmost limit of the Romane Province in Britaine at that time. And the limites or Bounds of a Dominion were seas, great rivers, Mountaines, Desert lands and unpassable, such as be in this tract. Trenches also with their rampiers, walles, mounds of trees cut downe or plashed [stripped], and Castles especially built in places more suspected and daungerous than others, to all which there are to be seene remaines heere every where about. Certes, when the Barbarous nations, after they had broken through the wall of Antoninus Pius in Scotland, harried all over the country and laid all wast before them, and the wall of Hadrian lay neglected unto the time of Severus, we may well thinke that even heere was set downe the limit of the Roman Empire, and that from hence the old Itinerarie which goes about under the name of Antoninus beganne thus, A limite, that is, From the Bound. As for that which is set to it, id est a vallo, that is, From the wall or rampier, may seeme a Glosse put downe by the transcribers, considering that Bremenium is foureteene miles Northward distant from the said wall, unlesse it may seeme to have beene one of those out Fieldstations which, as I said even now, were placed within the Barbarians ground beyond the Wall.
Scarce five miles from old Bremenium Southward standeth Otterburne, where there was a field most valiantly fought betweene the Scottish and English, in which the victorie waved alternatively too and fro three or foure times, and fell in the end to the Scottish. For Sir Henrie Percy, for his overforward spirit and youthfull heat by-named Hot-Spurre, who had the leading of the English, lost 15 hundred of his men in fight and was himselfe led away prisoner. William Douglas also, the leader of the Scots, which most of his companie was slaine, so that the Martiall valour of both nations was never more illustrious.
8. There is also another towne beneath of ancient memorie, which Rhead watereth, or rather hath now well neere washed away. They call it at this day Risingham, which is in the ancient English and German language The Giants Habitation, as Risingburg in Germanie, The Giants HIll. Many shewes are there, and those right evident, of antiquitie. The inhabitants report that God Magon defended and made good this place a great while against a certaine Soldan, that is, an Heathenish Prince. Neither is this altogether a vaine taile. For that such a God was heere honored and worshipped is plainly proved by these two altar stones lately drawen out of the river there, with these Inscriptions:

ET. N. D N. AVG.

Out of the former of these we may in some sort gather that the name of the place was Habitancum, and that he who erected was beneficiarius to a Consull, and Primate beside of the place. For certaine it is out of Codex Theodosii that the chiefe Magistrates of Cities, townes, and Castles were called primates. Now, whether this God were the Tutelar and appropriate Genius of the Gadeni, whom Ptolomee placed as next neighbours to the Ottadini, I cannot averre, let other sift and search it out. Moreover, these Inscriptions also were heere found: for which, with others, we are thank the right worshipfull Sir Robert Cotton of Connington Knight, who very lately both saw them, copied them out, and most kindly imparted them to this worke:

D. M.


V. S. LL. M.

V. S.


9. And, that which farre surmounteth all the rest for the curious workmanship, a long table in this forme artificially engraven, set up by the fourth Cohort of the Gauls-Horsmen, and dedicated to the sacred Majestie of the Emperours:

But now, leaving these particularities, Rhead a little lower carrieth both his owne streame and also other swelling brookes that he receaveth unto him by the way into Tine, and so farre reacheth Rhedesdale. Which as we find in a booke of the Kings Exchequer, the Unfran Vills held of ancient feofament by regall power and service, that they should keepe the vale from theeves and robbers.
10. Heere every way round about in the Wasts, as they tearme them, as also in Gillesland, you may see, as it were, the ancient Nomades, a martiall kind of men, who from the moneth of Aprill unto August ly out skattering and sommering (as they terme it) with their cattaile in little cottages here and there, which they call Sheakes and Shealings. Then North Tine aforesaid, passing downe by Chipches a towre belonging sometime to the Unfranvills, afterward to the Herons and not farre from Swinborne a little Castle or Pile (which gave name unto a worthy family), and was in old time parcell of the Baronie of the Hairuns, now commonly called Heron, a warlicke generation, now a seat of the Woderingtons, and so commeth to the Wall, running under it beneath Collerford, where a bridge of arches was made over, and where now are seene the ruins of a large castle. Which if it were not Cilurnum, wherin the second wing of the Astures lay in garison, it was hard by at Scilicester in the Wall, where after that Sigga, a noble man, had treacherously murdred Ethwald King of North-Humberland, there was a Church built by the faithfull Christians in honor of Saint Cuthbert and King Oswald: whose name so obscured the light of the other that, the old name being quite gone, it is now called Saint Oswaldes. This Oswald King of Northumberland, being at the point to give battaile unto Cedwall the Britane (for so Bede calleth him, whom the Britans themselves named Caswallon), King it seemeth of Cumberland, erected a Crosse and humbly upon his knees praied unto Christ that Hee would vouchsafe His heavenly aid unto His devoted servants, and presently with a lowd voice cried unto the armie in this wise: Let us all kneele downe and beseech the Almighty, living, and true God of His mercy to defend us from our proud and cruell enimie. No signe (saith Bede) doe we find of Christian faith; no leader and conducter of an armie, directed thereto by faithfull devotion, did set up the holy Crosse when he was to fight against a most savage and bloudie enimie. For when Oswald perceived in this battaile the present assistance of Christ, which he had so earnestly implored, streightwaies he became a professed Christian and sent for Aidan the Scot to catechise and instruct his people in the Christian religion. The very place of victorie was called Heafenfield, that is, Heaven-field, which at this day in the same sense, as some will have it, is named Haledon. Concerning which, have heere these verses, such as they be, out of the life of the said Oswald:

Then wist he first and not before, why this place tooke the name
Of Heafenfield, that is, the field of Heaven: for the same
By those that liv’d in alder time unto it given had beene,
As if by skill divine they had this future warre fore-seene.
And even the reason of this name he there streightwaies expressed,
For that from heaven an heavenly troupe a wicked crew suppressed.
Now, that in time through negligence the fame might not miscary
Both of the place so memorable, and this so noble victorie.
The Monkes of Hangustald-Church in great devoutnesse heere
Are wont to be, and Christ to praise duly from yeere to yeer.
And that the honor of this place might still remaine entiere,
In honor of Saint Oswald king they built a Chappell there.

And another in praise of him wrote in that unlearned age, not unlearnedly, thus:

What was to Oswald Hercules? What Julius Caesar? What
Great Alexander? Hercules is named much for that
Himselfe he wonne. Xander the world. Julius made foes to flie.
Oswald at once conquer’d himselfe, the world, and enimie.

11. Beneath Saint Oswalds both Tines meete in one, after that South-Tine (which keepeth just pace in parallele as it were with the wall, about two miles from it) hath passed by. Langley Castle, which sometimes, under King John, Sir Adam Tindale had his Baronie, which afterwards came to Sir Nicolas Bolteby, and of late belonged to the Percies, and at Aidon runneth under the wooden weake bridge and, shaking through the violence of the streame Tine, by this time being now broader and broader, discontinueth his course in one channell apace toward the Ocean, by Hexham, which Bede calleth Hangulstald, but the old English-Saxons Hextoldesham. That this was named in the Romans time Axlelodunum where the first Cohort of the Spaniards had their station), both the name implieth and the high situation upon an hil answerable to the name, whenas the ancient Britans called an Hill dunum. But as touching this, heare what Richard Prior of this place saith, who flourished 500 yeeres agoe. Not farre from the river Tine Southward there standeth a towne, now in these daies verily but of meane bignesse and slenderly inhabited, but in times past, as the remaines of antiquity doe beare witnesse, very large and stately. This place, of the little river Hextold running downe by it, and swelling otherwhiles like unto a floud with a swift streame, is named Hextoldesham, which towne Etheldreda the wife of King Egfrid gave unto Saint Wilfrid in the yeere 675 that hee should exalt it with an Episcopall See: who built there a Church, that for the artificiall frame and passing beauty went beyond all the Minsters in England. Take with you also that which William of Malmesbury wrote. This was Crown-land, when Wilfrid the Bishop exchanged with Queene Etheldreda other lands. It was wonderfull to see what buildings were erected there with mighty high walles, and how they were set out and contrived with divers turnings in and out by winding staires, all polished and garnished by the curious workmanship of Masons and Pargetters [plasterers], whom the hope of his liberality had allured from Rome, so that those buildings carried a shewe of the Romaines stately magnificence, and stood very long strugling with Time. The foresaid King Egfrid placed an Episcopall See in this little citie. but that dignity after the eighth Bishop vanished cleane away, whiles the Danish warres were at the hotest. And so ever since it was counted onely a Manour or township belonging to the Archbishops of Yorke, before the exchange made with King Henry the Eighth whereby they resigned up their right. This place was also renowned by reason of that bloudy battaile wherein John Nevill Marquesse Montacute encountred the leaders of the Lancastrian faction with much courage, and with greater successe put them to flight, and therefore was created Earle of Northumberland by King Edward the Fourth. But now all the glory that it hath is in that ancient Abbay, a part whereof is is converted into a faire dwelling house belonging to Sir John Foster Knight. As for the Church, it standeth whole and sound, save that the West end onely thereof is pulled downe, and I assure you a right stately and sumpteous building it is, within the quire whereof is to be seene an ancient tombe of a noble man of that warlike family of the Umfranvills, as appeereth by his Escutcheon of Armes, lying with his legges a crosse. After which fashion in those daies were they onely enterred (that I may note so much by the way) who tooke upon them the crosse, and were marked with the badge of the crosse for sacred warfare to recover the Holy Land from the Mahometanes and Turkes. Hard by the East end also of this Church, upon the brow of an hill, are erected two most strong bulwarkes of free stone, which belong, as I have heard, unto the Archbishop of Yorke.
12. From hence we went Eastward and came to Dilston a mansion house of the Ratcliffes. In old evidence it is found written Divelston of a little river running into Tine, which Bede called Divilesburn, whereas he writeth Oswald, having the faith of Christ for his armour and defense, in a set battaile slew Cedwalla the Britan, that wicked and horrible Tyrant who had already slaine two Kings of Northumberland and depopulated the country all over. On the other banke of Tine lieth Curia Ottadinorum, whereof Ptolomee maketh mention. It may seeme by the distance thereof to bee Corstopitum in Antonine, called at this day, of the Bridge, Corbridge, in Hovedons Annales, Corobridge, and in Henrie of Huntingdon, Cure. It can shew nothing now but a Church and a little towre hard by, which the Vicars of the Church built, and wherein they dwell. Howbeit there remaine still sundry reliques of antique worke, among which King John searched for ancient treasure, supposed to have beene buried there. But hee was overtaken with his owne vanity, and deceived of his great expectation no lesse than Nero when hee searched for the hidden wealth of Dido at Carthage. For nothing found hee but stones signed with brasse, iron, and lead. But who so shal see the heape of rubbish that lieth thereby, and is called Colecester, will soone say it was some hold of a Roman garrison. Forward still upon the same banke wee saw Binwell, a proper faire castle, which in the reigne of King John was the Baronie of Sir Hugh Balliol, for which he did owe to the Ward of Newcastle upon Tine thirty Knights service. Beneath this Castle there is a very goodly Weare for the catching of Salmons, and two solid piles of most firme stone, which in times past supported the bridge, stand up in the midest of the river. From hence Tine, running underneath, looketh up to Prudhow Castle, in ancient bookes written Prodhom, situate very pleasantly upon the ridge of an hill. This may I guesse to have beene Protolitia, which also is called Procolitia, the station of the first band of the Batavians, till Time tell me more and instruct mee better. But it is famous in this regard, that in King Henry the Second his daies it valiantly gave the check unto William King of Scots laying seege unto it, when, as William of Newborrough writeth, hee had taken great pains to no purpose, to his losse and hurt. Afterwards it belonged to the Unfranvils, men of great estimation, among whom Sir Gilbert Umfranvill, flourishing in the profession of armes, in right of his wife atteined the title of Earl of Anguish [Angus] in Scotland in the raign of King Edward the First, and left that honour to his posterity. But Eleonor daughter to the sister, and heire of the last Earle, was married at length into the familie of Talebois, and afterward this Castle by the Princes bountifull guift came to the Duke of Bedford.
13. But to retire to the Wall, Beyond Saint Oswalds there are seene in the wall the foundations of two forts which they call Castle-steeds, then a place named Porgate, where there stood a gate in the wall, as may appeere by the word, that in both languages importeth as much. Beneath this, more within the country, is Halton-Hall, where flourisheth the family of the Carnabies, in great name for their antiquity and militarie prowesse, neere unto which is seated Aidon Castle, sometimes part of the Baronie of that Hugh Balliole before named. But for as much as many places about the wall cary this name Aidon, and the very same signifieth a Militarie Wing or a troupe of horsemen in the British tongue, of which sort there were many winges placed along the Wall (as plainely appeareth by the Booke of Notices) in their stations, I would have the reader throughly to consider whether this name was not thereupon imposed upon these places, like as Leon upon those townes where the Legions had their standing campe. Well, hard by there was digged up the fragment of an antique stone, wherein is the expresse portrait or Image of a man lying in bed, leaning upon his left hand, with the right touching his right knee, with these inscriptions:



V. S. L. M.

14. Then the river Pont, having his spring head more outwardly, and running downe nere to Fenwick-Hall, the dwelling house of the worthy and martiall familie of the Fenwickes, for certaine miles together gardeth the wall, and upon his banke had for a defense in garison the first Cohort of the Cornavii at a place called Pons Aelii, built as it seemeth by Aelius Hadrianus the Emperor, now called Pont-eland, at which King Henry the Third in the yeere 1244 concluded a peace; and nere unto this the first Cohort of the Tungri had their abode at Borwick, which in the Notice of Provinces is called Borcovicus. From Port-gate the wall runneth along to Waltowne, which, seeing the signification accordeth so well with the name, and that it standeth twelve miles from the East sea, I beleeve verily it is the same roial towne which Bede called Ad Murum, wherein Segbert King of the East Saxons was by the hands of Paulinus baptized and received into the church of Christ. Neere unto this was a fortification called Old Winchester, I would gladly take it to be that Vindolana which that Booke of Notices so often cited recordeth to have beene the Frontier-station in times past of the fourth Cohort of the Gaules. And then have yee Fouchester, where we beheld very plainly the expresse footings [vestiges] in forme foure square of a garizon castle that joyned hard to the wall. Neere unto it Headon sheweth it selfe, which was part of the Barony of Sir Hugh de Bolebec, who fetched his descent by his mother from the noble Barons of Mont-Fichet, and had issue none but daughters, matched in wedlock with Ralph Lord Greistock, John Lovell, Huntercomb, and Corbet.
15. Now where the wall and Tine almost meet together, New-Castle sheweth it selfe gloriously, the verie eye of all the townes in these partes, ennobled by a notable haven which Tine maketh, beeing of that depth that it beareth very tall ships, and so defendeth them that they can neither easily bee tossed with tempests, nor driven upon shallowes and shelves. It is situate on the rising of an hill, very uneven, upon the North-banke of the river (which hath a passing faire bridge over it). On the left hand whereof standeth the Castle. After that, a steepe and upright pitch of an hill riseth. On the right hand you have the Mercat place, and the better part of the Citty in regard of faire buildings. From whence the ascent is not easie to the upper part, which is larger by farre. It is adorned with foure churches, and fortified with most strong walls that have eight gates in them, with many towres. What is was in old time is not knowne. I would soone deeme it to have beene Gabrosentum, considering that Gates-head the suburbe, as it were, thereof, doth in the owne proper signification expresse that British name Gabrosentum derived from Goates, as hath beene said before. The Notice also of Provinces placeth Gabrosentum and the second Cohort of the Thracians in it, within the range of the wall. And most certaine it is that both the Rampier and the Wall went through this city, and at Pandon Gate there remaineth, as it is thought, one of the turrets of that all. Surely, for workemanship and fashion it is different from the other. Moreover, whereas it was named before the Conquest Monk-Chester, because it was as it seemeth in the possession of Monkes. This addition Chester, which signifieth a place fortified, implieth that it was anciently a place of strength. But after the Conquest of the ground, it got this new name New-Castle, and by little and little encreased merveilously in wealth, partly by entercourse of trafficke with the Germans, and partly by carrying out sea coles, wherein this Country aboundeth, both into forraine Countries and also into other parts of England. In the reigne of Edward the First, a rich man chanced to bee haled away prisoner by the Scottish out of the middle of the towne: who after hee had ransomed him selfe with a great summe of money, beganne with all speed to fortifie the same, and the rest of the inhabitants, moved by his example, finished the worke and compassed it with faire strong walles. Since which time it hath with security avoided the force and threates of the enemies and robbers which swarmed al over the country, and withal fel to trading and merchandise so freshly that for quick commerce and wealth it became in very flourishing estate. In which regard King Richard the Second granted that a sword should bee carried before the Maior, and King Henry the Sixth made it a County incorporate by it selfe. It is distant from the first Meridian or West line 21 degrees and 30 minutes, and from the Aequinoctiall line toward the North pole 34 degrees and 57 minutes. As touching the suburbs of Gateshead, which is conjoined to New-castle with a faire bridge over the river and apperteineth to the Bishops of Durham, I have al-ready written. Now in regard of the site of New-Castle and the aboundance of sea-cole vented thence, unto which a great part of England and the Low Countries of Germanie are beholden for their good fires, read these verses of Maiseter John Jonston out of his Poem of the Cities of Britaine:


Seated upon high rock shee sees Dame Natures wonders strange,
Or else to others wittily doth vent them for exchang.
In vaine why seeke yee fire to fetch from heaven to serve your turne?
The ground here either keepes it close, or quickly makes it burne.
Not that which folke with stony flash or whirlewind grim affrights,
But giveth life to earthly things, and mindes to living wights.
This melteth iron, brasse, and gold so pliable and soft.
What mindes th’ allective shade of gold stirres not, nor sets aloft?
Nay, more than so. Men say it doth dull mettals change to gold:
To say therefore he is a God our Alchimists are bold.
If God he be, as though giv’st out (Great Maister) of thy word,
How many Gods then doth this place and our Scotland afford?

16. Scarce three miles hence (for I overpasse Gosseford, which was the Baronie in old time of Richard Sur-Teis, who came up under King Henry the First and lived in great honour), standeth a village named Wallsend. The very signification of the name sheweth that this was a station of the Second Cohort of Thracians, which in the Booke of Notices is called Vindobala, in Antone Vindomora. For it may seeme that in the provinciall language of the Britans, as the latter of them betokeneth The Walls-end, so the former The Rampers-end, considering that long since they tearmed a Wal mur, and a Rampier bal, val, and gual.
17. Neither is it credible that the Rampier or Wall reached any farther, seeing that beyond this place there are no tokens thereof, and Tine, beeing now very neere unto the Ocean, with his exceeding deepe chanell serveth in steed of a most strong fense. Yet some there be who thinke that the rampier and not the wall went as farre as to the very mouth of Tine, which is called Tinmouth, and stifly affirme that it was termed Pen-hal-crag, that is, The head of the rampier in the rocke, whom I will not contradict. But I durst almost avouch that this was in the Romans time Tunnocellum, seeing that Tunnocellum soundeth as much as The Promontorie of Tunn or Tine, where the first cohort Aelia Classica, enrolled (as is probable by the very name) by Aelius Hadrianus the Emperour, was in pay for sea service. For the Romans had certaine light Foists or Pinnaces termed lusoriae upon the rivers in the marches, as well to represse the outrodes of them that dwelt thereby as to quit them with like inrodes, as we may see in the bookes of Theodosius his Code under the title De lusoriis Danubii, that is, Touching the pinnaces of the river Danow. Under the Saxons Heptarchy it was called Tunnacester, not of Tunna the Abbot, as Bede writeth, but doubtlesse of the river, and a little monasterie it had, which was oftentimes rifled by the Danes. But now it is called Tinmouth Castle, and takes great glorie in a stately and strong castle, which, as an ancient writer saith, on the East and North-side is unpossible to bee entred, by reason of a mighty high rocke over the sea, and in other places such is the height of it that it needes but small defense. Whereupon Robert Mowbray Earle of Northumberland made choise of it for his strongest hold when hee rebelled against King William Rufus. But, as commonly falleth out with rebells, he had but ill successe: who being forthwith very streightly besieged, withdrew him selfe into a monastery hard by, which was counted a Sanctuary and therefore not to be forced and broken; neverthelesse he was drawne out thence and kept a long time close prisoner in misery, a just reward for his so perfidious treachery.
18. Now must I coast along the shore. On the backe side of the Promontory on which Tinmouth is situate, next unto Seton, which under King Henry the Third was part of the Barony De-la-vall, Seghill sheweth it selfe, called in old time Segedunum, a station of the third Cohort of the Lergi, by the wall or Rampier, and very Segedunum in British is all one with Seghill in English. Some few miles from hence the shore maketh roome for the river Blith to fall into the sea: which river, watering Belsey, belonging in times past to the Midletons, and Ogle a Castle of the Barons Ogle, is heere togither with the river Pont discharged into the sea. These Ogles, from the very beginning of Edward the Fourth his reign, flourished in the dignity of Barons, enriched by marrying the heires of Sir Berthram Bothall, of Alan Heton, and of Alexander Kirkby. The issue male of these Barons went out lately, and expired in Cuthbert the seventh Baron of that house: who begat two daughters, Joan married to Edward Talbot a younger sonne of George Earle of Shrewsbury, and Catharine wife to Sir Charles Cavendish Knight.
19. A little higher, the river Wents-beck is swallowed up of the Ocean. It runneth beside Mitford, which King John and his Rutars set on fire when in most greivous manner they over ranne these Countries. That age called foreign and willing souldiers Rutars, whom Falques de Brent and Walter Buc brought out of the Low Countries and from other parts to aid King John. Brent, a wilde madbraine, was at length banished out of the Realme. But Buc, a more staied man after hee had done the King stout service, had given unto him by the possessions in Yorkeshire and Northampton-shire, and his race flourished there untill that John Buc was attainted under King Henry the Seventh, whose great grand-son is Sir George Buck knight, a man well learned, of great reading, and Maister of the Kings Revells: who (for I take pleasure to professe by whom I have profited) hath observed many things in historie, and gently [kindly] imparted the same to mee. This was sometimes the Baronie of William Berthram, whose issue male soone had an end in Roger his grandsonne, and his daughters inheretrices were bestowed in marriage upon Sir Norman Darcy, Thomas Penbry, and William of Elmeley.
20. From thence Wents-beck passeth through Morpeth, a famous little towne. For on the North banke of the river is the towne situate, and on the South banke standeth the Church and the Castle by it upon a shady hill beset with trees; which together with the towne came from Sir Roger Merley, whose Barony it was, unto the Lords of Greystock, and so from to the Barons Dacre of Gillesland. Nothing I have of any antiquity to say of this towne but that in the yeere of Christ 1215 it was set on fire by the inhabitants themselves in spitefull malice to King John. From thence the river Wents-beck passeth by Bothall Castle, and the Barony sometimes of Richard Berthram, from whose posterity it was devolved unto the Barons of Ogle. Upon the bank whereof I have thought this great while (whether truely or upon a bare supposall I know not) that in old time Glanoventa stood, which was fortified by the Romans with a garison of the first Cohort of the Morini for defense of the marches. Which the very situation doth as it were perswade, and the rivers name, togither with signification of the same, induceth me to thinke. For it is seated within the raunge of the Rampire or wall, even where the Booke of Notices placeth it: the rivers name is Wants-beck, and Glanoventa in the British tongue signifieth the Shore or Bank of Venta. Whence also Glanon, a city in France upon the sea shore, wherof Pomponius Mela hath made mention, may seeme to have drawn that appellation.
21. Not farre hence, to let passe little piles and towres of lesse account, is to bee seene nere unto the shore Withrington or Woderington, in the English Saxon tongue of old time called Widringdun, an ancient Castle, which gave the name unto the Withringtons Gentlemen of good birth and Knights, whose valour in the warre hath beene from time to time remarqueable. Then the river Coquet falleth into the sea, which springing among the rough and stony mountaines of Cheviot, not farre from his head, hath Bestledun upon it, from whence sprang the ancient familie of the Selbeies, and somewhat lower Southward Harbottle, in the English Saxons tongue Herbottle, that is, the station of the Armie, whence the familie of the Harbottels descended, that in the afore-going ages flourished. A Castle it had in times past, but in the yeere of our salvation 1314 the Scottes rased it. Close unto this standeth Halyston, as one would say Holystone, where the report goeth that Paulinus in the primitive Church of the English nation baptized many thousands. And at the very mouth of Coquet, Warkworth a proper faire Castle of the Perceies standeth and defendeth the shore, where there is a chappell wonderfully built out of a rocke heawen hollow and wrought without beames, rafters, or any peeces of timber. This Castle King Edward the Third gave unto Henrie Percie, together with the manour of Rochbury. Aforetime, it had beene the Baronie of Roger Fitz Richard, by the gift of Henry the Second King of England, who gave also unto his sonne Clavering in Essex, whereof at the commandement of King Edward the First they assumed unto them the surname of Clavering, leaving the ancient manner of taking their names from the forename or Christian name of the father: for before that time they were surnamed according to the forename of the father, as Robert Fitz Roger, Roger Fitz John &c. Part of this inheritance the Nevills entred upon by Fine and Convenant, who afterwards were Earles of Westmorland, and part of it a daughter named Eve inherited, who was wedded to Sir Thomas Ufford, from whose posterity it came hereditarily unto the Fienes Barons of Dacres. But from the younger sonnes branched the Barons of Evers, the Evers of Exholme, and the Claverings of Kalaly in this County, and others. Hard unto this also lieth Morwick, which may likewise boast of the Lords it had, whose issue male had an end about the yeare of our Lord 1258. And so the inheritance passed over by the daughters unto the Lumlies, Seimors, Bulmers, and Roscells.
22. The shore after this openeth it selfe to give passage unto the river Alanus, which beeing not yet bereft of that name, whereby it was knowne unto Ptolomee, is called shorte Alne. Upon the banke whereof, beside Twifford, that is, A Duble fourd (where was holden a solemn Synod under King Egrid) and Eslington, the habitation of the Collingwoods (men renowned for their warlike exploites), there sheweth also it selfe Alan-wic, in the English Saxon tongue Ealn-wic, now commonly called Anwick, a towne ennobled by the victorie of Englishmen (wherein our ancestors shewed such valour and prowesse that they tooke William King of Scots and presented him prisoner unto King Henrie the Second), and fortified besides with a goodly castle: which when Malcome the Third, King of Scots had by long siege enforced to such extreamity that it was at the point now to be yeelded up, hee was slaine by a souldior that, making semblance to deliver unto him the keies of the Castle hanging at the head of a speare, ranne him into the body with it. And withall his sonne Edward, whiles to revenge his fathers death he charged unadvisedly upon the enemie, was so wounded that hee died thereof shortly after. This was a Baronie sometimes belonging to the Vescies. For King Henry the Second gave it unto Eustach Fitz-John, father to William Vesci, to bee held by the service of twelve knights. Sir John Vescy of this race, returning out of the sacred warre in the holy-land, was the first that brought with him into England the Friers Carmelits, and built for them a Convent heere in Holme a desert place, not unlike to Mount Carmel in Syria. William, the last of the Vescies, made Antonine Bec Bishop of Durham his feofie upon trust that hee should deliver this castle with all the lands lying thereto unto his base sonne, the onely child that hee had left behind him. But the Bishop falsly conveied away from him the inheritance, and for ready mony sold it unto William Lord Percy, since which time it hath evermore belonged to the Percies.
23. From hence the shore, making divers angles and pointes, passeth by Dunstaburge, a Castle belonging to the Duchy of Lancaster, which some have untruely suposed to be Bebban, For Bebbane standeth higher, and in steed of Bebanburgh is now called Bamborrow. Our Bede, where he reportes that this Castle was besieged and burnt by Penda King of the Mercians, writeth that Queene Bebba gave it this name. But the Flourgatherer recordeth that Ida the first King of Northumberland built it, which hee fensed first with great stakes or piles of timber, and afterward with a wall. But take heere with you the description thereof out of Roger Hovedon. Bebba (saith hee) is a most strong City, not very great, but conteining the space of two or three fields, having into it one hollow entrance, and the same raised on high with staires after a wonderfull maner, and on the pitch of an hill a verie faire Church, and Westward on the toppe thereof there is a well set out with merveilous workmanship, sweet to drinke of and most pure to see. but in our age it is counted a castle rather than a citie, yet so bigge and large as that it may seeme to match with a city. Neither went it for any other but a castle when King William Rufus, having raised over against it a towre called Mal-voisin, gave assault continually to Mowbraie, while hee rebelled and lurked there, who at length privily stole away and escaped by flight. The greatest part of the beauty thereof was lost long time after in the civill warre, when Bressie the Norman, a redoubted soldiour who sided with the house of Lancaster, exercised his rage against it very outragiously. Since then it hath beene sore beaten with time and the windes together, which have blowne by drifts an incredible deale of sand of the sea into the fortresses. Hereto adjoyneth Emildon, sometime the Baronie of John LeViscont, but Rametta the heire of that house sold away the possessions to Simon de Montfort Earl of Leicester. In this was borne John Duns, called Scotus, because hee was descended of Scotish bloud, who being brought up in Merton Colledge at Oxford, became wonderfull well learned in Logicke and in that crabbed and intricate Divinity of those daies, yet as one still doubtfull and unresolved, hee did overcast the truth of religion with mists of obscurity. And with so profound and admirable subtilty, in a darke and rude stile, hee wrote many workes, that hee deserved the title of The Subtile Doctor, and after his owne name erected a new sect of the Scotists. But hee died pitifully, beeing taken with an Apoplexie and overhastily buried for dead; whiles upon returne of life, nature (though too late) was about to discusse [dispel] the violence of the disease, and hee, making meanes in vaine by a lamentable noise to call for helpe, after hee had a long time knocked his head against the grave stone, dashed out his owne braines and at last yeelded up his vitall breath. Whereupon a certaine Italian wrote thus of him:

All learning taught in humaine bookes, and couch’d in holy writ,
Dan Scotus darke and doubtfull made by subtilty of wit.
Nor mervaile that to doubtfull termes of life him selfe was brought,
Whiles with like wile and subtil tricke, death on his body wrought.
Whenas her stroke to kill outright she would not him vouchsave,
Untill the man (a piteous case) was buried quicke in grave.

That he was borne here in England, I avouch it out of his owne manuscript works in the Librarie of Merton Colledge in Oxford, and upon their faithful testimony, which conclude in this manner, Explicit lectura &c., that is, Thus endeth the Lecture of the Subtile Doctor in the University of Paris, John Duns, borne in a certaine little village or hamlet within the Parish of Emildon called Dunston, in the County of Northumberland, perteining to the house of the Scholars of Merton Hall in Oxford.
24. On this shore forward there is nothing to be seene worth relation but the Holy Island (whereof I will write in due place) untill a man come to the mouth of Twede, which parteth England and Scotland a great way asunder, and is called the East Limite: and thereupon our Necham thus writeth, ‡insinuating that the hither part of Scotland was called Pict-land.‡

The river Twede, a certaine bound,
Divids Pict-land from English ground.

This river, breaking forth at a number of Springs out of the mountaines of Scotland, wandereth a great while with many a crooked winding in and out among the ranke riders and borderers (to give them no worse tearme), whose maner is, as one saith, to try their right by the swords point. But when he is come hard to a village called Carram, waxing a great deale bigger by reason of many waters fallen unto him, he beginnes to distinguish the Confines of the Kingdomes. And when he hath watered Werke, a Castle often assaulted by the Scotish, belonging in times past to the Rosses, and now to the Graies, who by feates of armes have wonne much honor, he is encreased more with the streame of Till, a river that hath two names. For at the head, which is in the innermore part of the country, it is called Bramish, and upon it standeth Bramton, a little village, very obscure and almost of no reckoning; from whence it goeth Northward by Bengeley, which together with Bampton it selfe, with Broundum, Rodam (which hath given name to a stock in this tract of goode note), Edelingham &c., was in King Henrie the Third his time the Baronie of Patricke Earle of Dunbar, who also, as we read in the booke of Inquisitions, was Inborow and Outborow betweene England and Scotland, that is to say, if I mistake not, he was to allow and observe in this part the ingresse and egresse of those that travailed too and from betweene both Realmes. For Englishmen in ancient time called in their language an Entry and fore Court or Gatehouse inborou. Higher somewhat standeth Chevelingham, now called Chillingham, hard by the river, which like as Horton, not farre distant from it, had their Castles belonging to the Greyes, ever since that those two families of the Greies were conjoined in one by marriage.
25. Then lieth neere unto it Wallover. a Baronie which King Henrie the First gave to Robert Muschamp, who bare Azure three Butterflies or Papilions Argent, of whose race descended Robert, who in Henrie the Third his reigne was reputed the mightiest Baron in these North parts. But the inheritance was quickly dismembred and parted among the females: one of whom was married unto the Earle of Stratherne in Scotland, a second to Sir William de Huntercombe, and a third to Odonell Ford. Then the river of Glen from out of the West augmenteth Till with his waters and nameth the vale that he runneth through Glendal. Touching this little river, Bede writeth thus: Paulinus, comming with the King and Queene into a Manour or house of the Kings called Ad-Gebrin (at this day Yeverin) abode with them 36 daies there, emploied wholy in the Cathechizing and baptizing, during all which time he did nothing from morning but instruct the people resorting to him in the saving word of Christ, and being thus instructed, hee baptised them to the forgivenesse of their sinnes in the river of Glen, which was hard by. This house was in the time of the succeeding Kings neglected and another made for it in a place called Melmin, but at this day Melfeld.
26. Heere Bramish, loosing his owne name, comes to be called Till, and first saluteth Ford Castle belonging sometime to the warlicke and valiant house of the Herons, now to the family of the Carrs; then Etall, where the family surnamed De Maneriis or Manours sometimes inhabited, reckoned in the ranke of worshipfull Knights, out of which flourished the right honorable Earles of Rutland at this day. Many small castles and piles in this tract I wittingly let passe. For an endlesse peece of worke it were to goe through them all one by one, considering it is certaine that in King Henrie the Second his time there were eleven hundred and 15 Castles in England.
27. Right over against this Ford Westward there mounteth aloft an high hill called Floddon neere Bramton, memorable in regard of James the Fourth, King of Scots, who was there slaine and his armie overthrowen: who, whiles King Henrie the Eight lay at the siege of Tournay in France, marched forward in great courage and greater hope with Banner displaied against England. But Thomas Howard Earle of Surrie, arraunged in good order of battaile, valiantly in this place received him: where the fight continued sharpe and hote on both parts untill the night came upon them, uncertaine as then whether [which] side had the victorie. But the day ensuing manifested both the Conquerour and conquered, and the King of Scots himselfe, with many a mortall wound, was found among the heapes of dead bodies. And heereupon was granted a new augmentation unto the Armes of the Howards, as I have formerly specified.
28. Twede, having now entertained Till, runneth downe with a fuller streame by Norham or Northam, in old time called Ubbanford, a towne belonging to the Bishops of Durrham. For Egrid the Bishop built it, and Raulph his successour erected a Castle upon the top of an high steepe rocke and fortified it with a trench, in the uttermost wall whereof, which is of greater circuit, are placed sundry turrets in a Canton toward the river. Within there is another enclosure or wall much stronger, in the mids of which there riseth up the Keepe of great hight But the secure peace of our age hath now a long time neglected these fortifications, albeit they stand in the borders. Under it lieth the towne in a plaine Westward, and hath in it a Church, wherein was enterred Ceolwulph King of Northumberland, unto whom Venerable Bede dedicated his booke of the Ecclesiasticall historie of England. And who afterwards, renouncing the world, became a Monke in Lindisfarn Church, and served as a Christian souldiour for the Kingdome of heaven, and his body was conveied after that into the Church of Northam. Also, when the Danes harried and spoiled the Holy Iland where Saint Cuthbert, whom Bede so highly extolleth, both sat as Bishop and lay buried, and some went about by a devout and religious kind of stealth to transport his bodie over, by occasion that the winds were gainst them, they laid the sacred body downe with due honour at Ubbanford (whether it were an Episcopall See or no, it is uncertaine) hard by the river Twede, and there it lay for many yeeres together, untill the comming of King Etheldred. Of this and other things I had information (for I will never conceale by whom I have found any good) by George Carleton borne heere, as who was the Castellanes sonne of this place, whom for that I have loved in regard of his singular knowledge in Divinitie (which he professeth) and in other more delightfull literature, and am loved againe of him, I were not worthy I assure you of love, if I did not acknowledge thus much. Beneath Northam at Killey, a little village hard by, were found, as I have heard old men say in our grandfathers remembrance, the ornaments or Harnish [harness] of a Knights belt, and the hilt of a sword, of massie gold, which were presented unto Thomas Ruthall then Bishop of Durham.
29. A little lower appeereth the Mouth of Twede, upon the farther side whereof standeth Berwicke, the utmost towne in England and the strongest hold in all Britaine. Which name some derive from one Berengarius a Duke, whom they never heard of unlesse it were in a dreame. Leland fetcheth it from aber, which in the British tongue signifieth the mouth of a river, so that Aberwic should sound as much as The towne by the rivers mouth. But he that knowes what Berwic in the Charter of our Kings signifieth, wherein nothing is more common than these words, I give C. and D., that is, such and such Townes cum suis berwicis, surely he must needs understand the true Etymologie of this Berwicke. For mine owne part, I cannot conjecture what it meaneth, unlesse it be a Village or Hamlet annexed, as it were a parcell of the Demesne, unto some place of greater reckoning. For in the Donations of Edward the Confessor, Tothall is called the Berwicke of Westminster, and Wandelsworth the Berwicke of Patricseie, and a hundred such. But to what end is all this? Surely we doe but loose this labour if, as some will have it, the name thereof were in old time Beornica-wic, in in the English Saxon tongue, that is, The towne or village of the Bernicians. Now that these countries were named Bernicia, it is better knowen than can bee said, and I have already notified as much. But whence so ever it hath the name, it is so situate that it shooteth farre into the sea, in so much as it is well neere compassed about with the sea and Twede together. And seated betwixt two most mighty Kingdomes, as Plinie hath reported of Palmyra in Syria, it was the first thing alwaies that both nations tooke care of whensoever they were at any discord, so that since the time that King Edward the First of that name first wrested it perforce out of the Scots hands, the Scots have oftentimes repossessed it, and the Englishmen as often recovered it of them againe. But let us heere (if you please) abridge the Historie therof. Of this Berwicke I have read nothing of greater antiquity than this, that William King of Scots, being taken prisoner in the field by the English, delivered it upon unto our King Henrie the Second for his enlargement [release] out of prison, on this condition, that unlesse by a certaine day appointed he paid a summe of money for his ransome, it should belong unto the Crowne of England for ever; and presently. as it is in the Polychronicon of Durham, the said King Henrie fortified it with a Castle. Howbeit, King Richard the First upon paiment of money released it againe unto the Scottish. Afterwards King John, as we read in the Historie of Melrosse, wonne both the towne and Castle of Berwicke, what time as he with his Rutars burnt Werke, Roxburgh, MItford, and Morpath, yea and laid all Northumberland wast, because the Barons of Northumberland had done homage at Feltun to Alexander King of the Scots. Many yeeres after, when John Ballioll King of Scots had broken his oath, King Edward the First in the yeere of salvation 1297 brought Berwicke under his subjection. Yet within a little while after, when the fortune of warre beganne to smile upon the Scots, they surprised it standing forlet [abandoned] and neglected, but streightwaies it was yeelded up, and the English became Maisers of it. Afterward, in that loose reigne of King Edward the Second, Peter Spalding betraied it unto Robert Brus King of the Scots, who hotely assaulted it, and the English laid siege unto it in vaine untill that our Hector, King Edward the Third, in the yeere of Christ 1333, setting valiantly upon it, wonne it as happily. Howbeit in the reigne of Richard the Second, certaine Scottish robbers upon a sudden supprised the Castle, but within nine daies Henrie Percie Earle of Northumberland regained it. Scarce seven yeeres were overpassed when the Scots recovered it againe, not by force, but by money. For which cause the said Henrie Percie, Governour of the place, was accused of high treason, but he with money likewise corrupted both their faith and fortitude, and streightway got it in his hands againe. A great while after, when England was even pyning by reason of civill warre, King Henrie the Sixth, being now fled the realme into Scotland, surrendred it up into the hands of the Scot, for to be secured of his life and safty in Scotland. But after twenty two yeeres were expired, Sir Thomas Stanley, not without losse of his men, reduced it under the commaund of King Edward the Fourth. Since which time, our Kings have at divers times fortified and fensed it with new workes, but especially Queene Elizabeth, who of late, to the terrour of the enimie and safegard of her state, enclosed it about in a narrower compasse within the old wall with an high wall of stone most strangly compacted together, which she hath so forewarded againe with a counterscarfe, a banke round about, with mounts of earth cast up by mans hand, and open terraces above head, that either the forme of these munitions or strength thereof may justly cut of all hope of winning it. To say nothing all this while of the valour of the garison soldiers, ‡ the store of great Ordinance and furniture of warre, which was wonderfull.‡ He that was wont to be cheife Governour of this towne (that I may note thus much also) was alwaies one of the wisest and most approved of the nobility of England, and withall Warden of these East marches anent Scotland. The Longitude of this towne, as our Mathematicians have observed, is 21 degrees and 43 minutes, the Latitude 55 degrees and 48 minutes. And by this inclination and position of the heaven, the longest day is 17 houres and 22 minuts, and the night but six houres and 38 minutes, so that there was no untruth in Servius Honoratus when he wrote thus, Britanni lucis dives &c., that is, Britaine is so plentiful of day light, that it affordeth scarce any time for the nights; neither is it any mervaile that souldiers without other light doe play heere all night long at Dice, considering the side light that the Sunne beames cast all night long. And therefore this verse of Juvenal is true:

The Britains who with least night stand content.

30. Concerning Berwicke have heere now for an Overdeale [bonus] these verses of Maister John Jonston:

Afront the bound of Scotish ground, where staid the furious broile
Of English warres, and Nations both were put to equall toile.
Now wonne, then lost, a thousand turnes it felt of fortunes will,
After so many miseries, wonder it standeth still.
And still it stands, although laid wast it were and desolate,
Yet alwaies after every fall it rose to firmer state.
So that for strength, best fensed townes it matcheth at this day.
The Citizens were souldiers all, and serv’d in wars for pay.
But after service long perform’d and hard adventures past,
Of joy and mirth the gladsome signes it putteth forth at last.
And now her ancient honor she doth vaunt in happy plight,
When to her Sovereigne Lord she yeelds all service due by right,
Whose blessed Crowne united hath Great Britain now at last,
Whereby her head she lifts on high, since quarels all be past.

31. That which Aeneas Sylvius, or Pope Pius the Second, who when hee was a private person was Embassadour into Scotland about the yeere 1448, hath reported in his owne life by him selfe penned, and published under the name of another, touching the borderers that dwelt there round about, I thinke good heere to put downe, considering that as yet they have nothing degenerated. there is a river (saith hee) which, spreading broad from out of an high hill, confineth both the lands. This river when Aeneas had firied [ferried] over, and turned aside into a great village about Sunne setting, where he supped in a cuntrie-mans house with the Priest of the place and his hoast, many sorts of gruels and potage, hens, and geese were set on the bord, but no wine nor bread at all, and all the men and women of the village came running thither, as it were to see some strange sight; and as our countrymen are wont to wonder at Blackamores or men of Inde, so they stood gasing and gaping, as astonied at Aeneas, asking of the priest what countryman he was, upon what busines he came, and whither he were a Christian or no. Now Aeneas, having beene enformed before at what scarcitie of victuals hee should find in those parts, had received at a certaine Abbay some loaves of white bread and a rudlet [flagon] of red wine, which when they were brought forth, the people made a greater wonder than before, as who had never seene either wine or whit bread. There approched unto the table great bellied women and their husbands who, handling the bread and smelling to the wine, craved some part thereof, and their was no remedie but to deale and give all away among them. Now when we had sitten at supper untill it was two houres within night, the priest and our hoast togither with the children and all the men left Aeneas and made hast away. For, they said, they were to flee for feare of the Scots unto a certaine pile that stood a great way off. Which Scots, at a low water when the tide was past, used to passe over the river and fall to boot-haling [plundering]. But they would in no wise take Aeneas with them, although he entreated them very instantly, no nor any woman, although amongst them ther were many both young maides and wives, passing faire. For they are perswaded verily that the enimies will doe them no hurt, as who reckon whoredome no hurt or evill at all. So Aeneas remaines there alone with two servants and his guide, in company of an hundred women who, sitting round in a ring, with a good fire in the mids before them, fell to hetchel [prepare] and dresse hemp, sat up all night without sleepe, and had a great deale of talke with his interpreter. When the night was farre spent, what with barking of dogs and gagling of geese, a mighty noise and outcry was made. Then all the women slipped forth divers waies, his guide also made shift to be gone, and al was of an hurry, as if the enimies had bin come. But Aeneas thought his best course to expect the event within his bedchamber (and that was a stable), for feare least if he had runne forth of dores, knowing not the way, he should have become a prey and booty to him that should first meete him. But see, streightwaies the women returned with the Interpreter, bring word all was well, and that they were friends and not enimies were come thether.
32. There have beene in this country certaine pety nations called Seovenburgenses and Fisburgingi, but to point out precisely the very place of their abode in so great obscurity passeth my skill. Neither can I define whether they were Danes or English. But Florentius of Worcester, published by the right honorable Lord William Howard, writeth that when there was an assembly or Parliament holden at Oxenford, Sigeborth and Morcar, the worthier and mightier ministers of the Seovenburgenses, were secretly made away by Edrike Streona. Also that Prince Edmund, against his fathers will, married Alfrith the wife of Sigefrith and, having made a journey to the Fisburgings, invaded Sigeferth his land and brought his people in subjection to him. but let other inquire farther into these matters.
33. This region (of North-humberland) being brought under the English Saxons dominion by Osca Hengists brother, and by his sonne Jebusa, had first officiall governors under the fealty to the Kings of Kent. After that, when the Kingdome of the Bernicii, whom the Britans call Guir a Brinaich, as it were, Mountainers, was erected, that which reached from Tees to the Scottish Frith, was the best part thereof, and subject to the Kings of North-humberland: who having finished their period, whatsoever lay beyond Twede became Scottish and was counted Scotland. Then Egbert King of the West-Saxons laied it to his owne kingdome, when it was yeelded up to him. Afterwards King Aelfred permitted the Danes to possesse it, whom Athelstane some few yeeres after dispossessed and drave out; yet after this the people set up Eilrick the Dane for their king, whom King Ealdred forthwith displaced and expelled. From which time forward this Country had no Kings over it, but such as governed it were termed Earles. Amongst whom, these were reckoned up in order successively in our Histories: Osulfe, Oslake, Edulph, Ealdeof the Elder, Uchtred, Adulph, Aldred, Siward, Tostie, Edwin, Morcar, Osculph, and that right valiant Siward, who as he lived in armes, so would he die also armed. Then his Earldome and these parts were given unto Tostie the brother of Earle Harold, but the Earldomes of Northampton and Huntingdon, with other lands of his, were assigned to the Noble Earle Waldeof his sonne and heire. These words of Ingulphus have I put downe because some denie that hee was Earle of Huntingdon. And now will I adde moreover to the rest that which I have read in an old manuscript memoriall of this matter in the Librarie of John Stow, a right honest Citizen and diligent Antiquarie of the Citie of London. Copso, being made Earle of Northumberland by the gift of King William Conquerour, expelled Osculph, who notwithstanding within a few daies after slewe him. Then Osculph, being runne through with a Javelin by a theefe, ended his life. After this, Gospatricke purchased the Earldome of the Conquerour, who not long after deposed him from that honour; and then succeeded after him Waldeof Siwards sonne. His fortune was to loose his head, and in his roome was placed Walcher Bishop of Durham who, like as Robert Comin his successor, was slaine in a tumultuous commotion of the common people. Afterwards Robert Mowbray attained to the same honor, which hee soone lost through his owne perfidious treachery when he devised to deprive King William Rufus of his roiall estate, and to advance Stephen Earle of Albermarle a sonne to the Conquerours sister thereunto. Then King Stephen made Henrie the sonne of David King of Scotland (as we read in the Polychronicon of Durham) Earle of Northumberland, whose sonne also William, that afterwards was King of Scots, writ himselfe William de Warrenna Earle of Northumberland: for his mother was descended out of the family of the Earles of Warren, as appeereth out of the booke of Brinkburn Abbay. After some few yeeres King Richard the First passed away this Earldome for a summe of money unto Hugh Pudsey Bishop of Durham for tearme of his life, ‡scoffing that he had made a young Earle of an old Bishop.‡ But when the said King was imprisoned by the Emperour in his returne out of the Holy-land, and Hugh for his delivery had contributed onely 2000 pounds of silver, which the King tooke not well at his hands, because he was deemed to have performed but a little, whom he understood to have raised and gotten together a huge masse of money under pretense of his ransome and release, he devested and deprived him of his Earldome. After which time, the title of the Earldome lay discontinued about an hundred and fourescore yeeres.
34. But at this day the familie of the Percies enjoieth the same, which familie beeing descended from the Earles of Brabant, inherited together with the surname of Percie the possessions also of Percie, ever since that Joscelin of Lovain, younger sonne of Godfrey Duke of Brabant, the true issue of the Emperour of Charles the Great by Gerbega, the daughter of Charles, tooke to wife Agnes the daughter and sole heire of William Percy; of which William the great grandfather William Percy, comming into England with King William the Conquerour, was rewarded by him for his service with lands in Tatcaster, Linton, Normanby and other places. Betweene this Agnes and Joscelin it was covenanted that hee should assume the name of Percies, and reteine still unto him the ancient Armes of Brabant, viz. A lion azure (which the Brabanters afterwards changed) in a shield Or. The first Earle of Northumberland out of this familie was Henrie Percy, begotten of Marie daughter to Henry Earle of Lancaster, who beeing descended of ancient bloud, and renowned for his martiall prowesse, was rewarded also by King Edward the Third with faire possessions in Scotland, created Earle of North-humberland by King Richard the Second ‡on the day of his Coronation,‡ and much enriched by his second wife Dame Maud Lucy (although by her hee had no issue) upon a fine levied unto her that hee should beare quarterly the Armes of the Lucies with his owne, and lived in great honour, confidence, and favour with King Richard the Second. Yet full badly hee requited him againe for all this singular good demerits. For in his adversity hee forsooke him, and made way for Henry the Fourth to the kingdome, who made him Constable of England and bestowed upon him the Isle of Man; against whom, within a while, hee feeling the corrosive and secret pricke of conscience for that King Richard by his meanes was injustly deposed, and besides taking at the heart indignantly that Edmund Mortimer Earle of March, the true and undoubted heire of the Kingdome and his neere ally, was neglected in prison, ‡he conceived inward enimitie, grievously complaining and charging him with perjury, that whereas hee had solemnly sworne to him and others that he would not challenge the Crowne but onely his owne inheritance, and that King Richard should be governed during his life by the good advice of the Peeres of the realme, he to the contrarie had by imprisonment and terror of death enforced him to resigne his Crowne, and usurped the same by the concurrence of his faction, horribly murthering the said King and defrauding Edmund Mortimer Earle of March of his lawfull right to the Crowne, whom he had suffred to languish long in prison under Owen Glndowr, reputing those traitours who with their owne money had procured his enlargement. After the publication of these complaints he, confident in the promises of his confederates, who yet failed him,‡ sent his brother Thomas Earle of Worcester and his couragious sonne Henrie surnamed Hot-Spurre with a powre of men against the King, who both lost their lives at the battaile of Shrewsbury. Whereupon he was proclaimed Traitour and attainted, but shortly after by a kind of connivency received againe into the Kings favour (unto whom hee was a terror), yea and restored too all his lands and goods save only the Isle of Man, which the King resumed into his owne hands. Howbeit within a little while, being now become popular and over forward to entertaine new designes, and having procured the Scots to bandy and joine with him in armes, himselfe in person entred with banner displaied into the field against the King as an Usurper, and on a sudden at Barrhammore, in a tumultuary skirmish in the yeere 1408, was discomfited and slaine by Thomas Rokesby the high Sherife of Yorke-shire. Eleven yeeres after, Henrie this mans nephew by his sonne Henrie Hote-Spur (whose mother was Elizabeth daughter to Edmund Mortimer the elder, Earl of March, by Philippa the daughter of Leonel Duke of Clarence) was restored in bloud and inheritance by authority of Parliament, in the time of King Henrie the Fifth: which Henrie Percy, whiles he stoutly maintained King Henrie the Sixth his part against the house of Yorke, was slaine at the battaile of Saint Albans, like as his sonne Henrie, the third Earle of Northumberland, who married Aeleonor the daughter of Richard Lord Poinings, Bian, and Fitz-Payn, in the same quarell lost his life in the battaile at Towton in the yeere 1461. The house of Lancaster being now kept under and downe the wind, and the Percies with it troden under foot, King Edward the Fourth made John Nevill Lord Montacute Earle of Northumberland, but he after a while surrendred this title into the Kings hands and was created by him Marquesse Montacute. After this, Henrie Percy, the sonne of Henrie Percy aforesaid, recovering the favour of King Edward the Fourth, obtained restitution in bloud and heriditaments, who in the reigne of Henry the Seventh was slaine by the country people, that about a certaine levie of money exacted by an Act of Parliament rose up against the Collectours and Assessours thereof. After him succeeded Henrie Percy the fifth Earle, whose sonne Henrie by a daughter and Coheire of Sir Robert Spenser and Aeleonor, the daughter likewise and Coheire of Edmund Beaufort Duke of Somerset, was the sixth Earle; who (having no children, and his brother Thomas being executed for taking armes against King Henrie the Eighth in the first difference about religion), as if now that family had beene at a finall end for ever, prodigally gave away a great part of that most goodly inheritance unto the King and other. Some few yeeres after, Sir John Dudley Earle of Warwicke got to himselfe the title of Duke of Northumberland by the name of John Earle of Warwicke, Marshall of England, Vicount Lisle, Baron Somery, Basset, and Ties, Lord of Dudley, Great Master and Steward of the Kings house, when as in the tender age of King Edward the Sixth the Chieftaines and leaders of the factions shared titles of honour among themselves, their fautors [supporters], and followers. This was that Duke of Northumberland who for the time, like unto a tempestuous whirlewind, beganne to shake and teare the publicke peace of the state, whiles he with vast ambition plotted and practised to exclude Marie and Elizabeth the daughters of King Henrie the Eighth from their lawfull right of succession, and to set the Emperiall Crowne upon Lady Jane Grey his daughter in law (being seconded therein by the great Lawyers, who are alwaies forward enough to humour and sooth up those that be in highest place). For which, being attainted of high treason, he lost his head, and at his execution embraced and publickly professed Poperie, which long before either seriously or colorably for his own advantage he had renounced. When he was gone, Queene Marie restored Thomas Percy nephew unto Henrie, the sixth Earle by his brother Thomas, unto his bloud, and by a new Patent created him, first, Baron Percy, and anon Earle of Northumberland, to himselfe and the heires males of his body, and for default thereof to his brother Henrie and his heires males. But this Thomas, the seventh Earle, for his treason to Prince and Country under maske of restoring the Romish religion againe, lost both life and dignity in the yeere 1572. Yet through the singular favour and bounty of Queene Elizabeth, according to that Patent of Queene Marie, his brother Henrie succeeded after him as the eight Earle. Who in the yeere 1585 ended his daies in prison, and has for his successor Henrie, his sonne by Katherin the eldest daughter and one of the heires of John Nevill Lord Latimer, the ninth Earle of Northumberland of this family.
Parishes in Northumberland about 46.

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