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HE rest of the Country of the Eblani was in ancient times a kingdome and the fifth part of Ireland, <which> within their owne native language they call Miih, the English Meth, Giraldus nameth it in Latin Midia and Media, perhaps because it is in the very middle of the Iland. For they say that Killair, a castle in these parts, which seemeth to be in Ptolomee Laberus, is, as it were, the Navill of Ireland. And the very name implieth no lesse. For lair in the Irish tongue signifieth the middle. This Meth lieth stretched out from the Irish sea as farre as to the river Shannon. For the soile thereof, as saith Bartholomaeus Anglicus, Fertile it is in corne, pasture ground and Cattaile, plentifull in fish, flesh, and other victuals of white meate, as Butter, cheese, and milke; watered also with rivers. The situation is dilectable to the eie, and an wholesome aire. In regard of woods and marishes in the skirts and borders, it hath a very hard accesse and entrie unto it. And therefore, considering them multitude of people, the strength of castles and townes, it is commonly called for the peace thereof the Chamber of Ireland. Within the memorie of our fathers, because the country was too large to be governed by one Sheriffe, and to the end that Justice might with more facility be ministred, it was divided by authority of Parliament in the 38 yeere of King Henrie the Eighth into two parts, namely the County of East-Meth and the County of West-Meth.


HE County of East-Meth is environed round about with the county of Kildar South, with the County of Dublin and the sea East, with the territorie of Louth North, and with the county of West-Meath on the West. The whole is divided into 18 Baronies; Duelke, Scrine, Slane, Margallen, Navan, Kenles, halfe the Baronie of Fower nere to Kenles, Killalon, Denmore, Clove, Moylagh, Logherne, Oldcastle, Luyn, Moufeuraraghe, Deese, Rath-touth, and Dunboyn.
2. Boyn, which Ptolomee calleth Buvinda, Giraldus Boandus, a noble river springing out of the North side of the Kings County, runneth through this County. In the hither part on this side Boyn these are the places memorable: Galtrim, where the Huseys have dwelt a long time; Killin Castle, whch Hugh Lacy, custos of Ireland under King Henrie the Second, built; and Dunsany, which have their Parliament-Barons, noble men of ancient descent out of the family of the Plonkets, which others others fetch out of Denmarke, but they beare the very same Armes in sundry colours which Alan Plonket of Kilpecke in England did: who also under King Edward the First lived in the dignity and port of a Baron. Now this house of the Plonkets in Ireland came up and grew to be of high estimation, ever since that Sir Christopher Plonket a valiant and wise man (Deputy, as they tearme him, unto Richard Duke of Yorke, Lord Lieutenant in King Henrie the Sixth his time) was advanced to the dignity of Baron of Killin, which fell unto him by his wife, heire to the family of the Cunsakes, and his second sonne by his own worth and valor obtained the title of Baron Dunsany.
3. On the farther side of Boyn are Trimletstoun, which hath his Baron out of the family of the Barnwell (for King Edward the Fourth promoted Sir John Barnwell to the honor of a Parliamentary Baron); Gormanston, which now hath had honorable Vicounts, men of good desert in the Common-wealth, descended from the line of the Prestons (as is verily thought) in Lancashire; and Slane, which is able likewise to shew Barons thereof out of the family of the Flemings. And among them stands Aboy a mercate towne well inhabited and of good resort, upon the river Boyn, which when it hath passed beside Glan-Jores, that is, The Land of the sonnes of George (this George was of the Birminghams progenie, whose heire by marriage brought a faire inheritance with the castle of Carbray unto the Prestons), runneth under Trim a prety towne of trade, and one of the better sort, where William Pepard erected a castle. This was an ancient Baronie of the Lacies, which accrewed unto the titles of the Dukes of Yorke, who stiled themselves Lords of Trim. Then floweth it beside Navan, which hath a Baron or Baronet, but not of the Parliament house, and affordeth for the most part a dwelling house unto the Bishop of the Diocese, who hath now no Cathedrall Church, but doth all with the assent of the Clergy of Meth. His See seemeth to have beene at Cluanarard, which is called also Clunart, where Hugh Lacy in times past built a castle. For in the letters Apostolicall we read thus, episcopus Midensis sive Cluanarardensis, that is, The Bishop of Meth or Cluanarard, and corruptly, as it is to be thought, in a Romane Provinciall, Elnamirand. Boyn, now by this time carrying a fuller streame, after it hath with an hasty course swiftly passed on certaine miles, neere unto Drodagh emptieth himselfe into the sea. Of this swift running, what if I should think this Boyn took his name? For boan both in Irish and in British also signifieth swift, and our Poet Necham of this river hath thus versified:

Lo Boin, that swiftly unto Trim doth runne, and marke with all
How at Tredagh his streame into the salt-sea-gulfe doth fall.

The men of greatest reputation and name in this County, besides those whom I rehersed before, to wit the Plonkets, Flemings, Barnwells, and Hussey, are the Darceys, Cusakes, Dillons, Birminghams, De-la-Hides, Nettervills, Garuyes, Cadells, and others, whom if I doe name not all, or if I reckon either these or others elsewhere not in their owne ranke according to their worth degree, I desire no imputation may be laid upon me therefore.


HE County of West-Meth, so called in respect of the other above said, unto which it adjoineth on the West side, reacheth unto the river Shanon, and lieth betweene the Kings County South and Longford County North, unto which it is not willing to give place, either in fertility of soile, multitude of inhabitants, or any thing else whatsoever, unlesse happily it bee inferiour in civility of maners. Molongar by authority of Parliament was ordeined to be the head and principall shire towne, because it lieth, as it were, in the very midest, and the whole country is laied forth into twelve Hundreds or Baronies, viz., Fertulogh, where the Tirells; Ferbille, where the Darcyes dwel; Delvin, which adorneth the old Noble stock of the Nogents (who came first out of England) with the title of a Parliament Baron. These are descended from that Sir Gilbert Nogent whom Hugh Lacy the Conqueror of Meth, for his courageous and valiant service in the wars of Ireland, rewarded both with these lands and those also of Furrie, as that most lerned Gentleman Richard Stanihurst hath recorded; Forrie aforesaid; as also Corkery, where the Nogents dwell; Moyassell, where the Tuts and Nugents; Maghertiernan, where very many of the Petits and Tuts; Moygoisy, where the Tuts and Nangles, Rathcomire, where Daltons; Magirquirke, where the Dillons, all propagated from English bloud, doe inhabit; Clonlolan, where the O-Malaghlins of the old roiall line of Meth; Moycassell, where the Magohigans, meere Irish, beare sway; and others whose very names cary an harsh sound of more barbarousnesse: which notwithstanding, even as Martiall the Poet, when he had reckoned up certaine barbarous Spanish names of place, beeing himselfe a Spaniard, said that hee liked them better than British names, so the Irish love these rather than the English, in so much as one of their great Potentats gave it out that hee would in no wise learne the English tongue, for feare he should in speaking English get a wry mouth. Thus the crowe thinks her owne bird fairest, and we all are given to like our owne to well, even with the disdaine and contempt of others.
2. This Meth had in times past Kings, or pety Princes rather, to rule it. And, as we read, that Monarch or Sole King of Ireland, Slany, caused the revenewes of Meth to be assigned and appropriat to the furnishing of his royall table. But then the Englishmen had once set fast footing in Ireland, Hugh Lacy subdued a great part thereof, and King Henry the Second enfeoffed him in it and made him Lord of Meth, who whiles he was building of a Castle at Derwarth, and holding his head downe to prescribe a Carpenter somewhat that he would have done, had by him his head striken off with his ax. This Hugh begat two sonnes, Hugh Earle of Ulster of whom I will speake heereafter, and Walter Lord of Trim, who begat Gilbert that died before his father. By the daughters of this Gilbert, Margaret and Maud, the one part by the Genevils, who were (as they write) of the house of Lorrain, and by the Mortimers, came to the Dukes of Yorke, and so to the Kings domaine or Crowne: for Peter de Genevill, sonne to that Maud, begat Joan, espoused to Roger Mortimer Earle of March, and the other part by Margaret, wife to John Lord Verdon, and by his heires who were Constables of Ireland, was devolved at length upon divers families in England, as Furnivall, Burgersh, Crophul, &c.


NTO West Meth on the Northside joyneth the County of Longford (reduced into this rank of Counties a few yeeres since by the provident policy of Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy), called beforetime Anale, inhabited by a numerous Sept of the O-Pharols: of which house there be two great men and Potentates, one ruleth in the South part named O-Pharoll Boy, that is The Yellow, the other in the North, called O-Pharell Ban, that is, The White. And very few Englishmen are there among them, and those planted there but of late.
2. Along the side of this County passeth Shannon, the noblest river of all Ireland, which, as I have said, runneth betweene Meth and Connaught. Ptolomee named it Senus, Orosius Sena, and some copies Sacana, Giraldus, Flumen Senense, but the people dwelling thereby call it Shannon, that is, as some expound it, The ancient river. He springeth out of Therne hils in the County Le Trim, and forthwith, cuting through the lands Southward, one while overfloweth the bankes and enlargeth himselfe into open Pooles, and otherwhiles drawes backe again into narrow straights, and after he hath run abroad into one or two Lakes, gathering himselfe within his bankes, valeth bonet to [tips his hat to] Macolicum, now called Malc (as the most learned Geographer Gerard Marcator hath observed), whereof Ptolomee hath made mention, and then by and by is enterteined by another broad Mere (they call it Lough Regith), the name and situation whereof doth after a sort imply that the City Rigia, which Ptolomee placeth there, stood not far off from hence. But when he hath once gotten beyond this Poole and draweth himselfe to a narower chanell within the bankes, there standeth hard upon him the towne Athlon, of which I will write in place convenient. From thence Shannon, having gotten over the Water-fall at Killoloe (whereof I must speake anon), being now able to beare the biggest ships that are, in a divided channel, as it were with two armes, claspeth about the City Limirick, whereof I have spoken already. From hence Shannon, passing on directly for threescore miles or thereabout in length, bearing a great breadth and making many an Iland by the way, speedeth himselfe Westward, and in what place soever he becommeth shallow and affordeth fords at an ebbe or low water, there were planted little forts with wardes (such was the carefull providence of our forefathers) to restraine the inroades of prey-taking robbers. And so at length he runneth and voideth out at an huge mouth into the West Ocean beyond Knoc Patric, that is, Patricks Hill, for so Necham tearmeth that place in these his verses of Shannon:

Ireland takes joy in rivers great, and Shannon them among,
Betwixt Connaught and Munster both, holds on his course along.
He runneth hard by Limrick ways, Knoc Patric then at last
Within the gulfe of th’ Ocean doth see him lodged fast.


HE fourth part of Ireland, which beareth Westward, closed in with the river Shannon, the out-let of the Lake or Lough Erne, which some call Trovis, others Bana, and with the maine Western sea, is named by Giraldus Cambrensis Conachtia and Conacia, in English Conaght, and in Irish Conaughty. In ancient times, as we may see in Ptolomee, it was inhabited by the Gangani, who also are named Concani, Auteri, and Nagnatae. Those Concani or Gangani, like as the Luceni their next neighbours that came from the Lucensii in Spaine, may seeme both by the affinity of name and also by the vicinity of place to have beene derived from the Concani in Spaine, who in Strabo are according to the diversity of reading named Coniaci and Conisci, whom Silius testifieth in these verses following to have beene at the first Scythians, and to have usually drunke horses bloud (a thing even of later daies nothing strange among the wilde Irish):

And Concane, though in savagenesse that now resembling still
Thy parents old the Massagets, of horse-bloud drink’st thy fill.

And beside him, Horace:

And Concaine, who thinks it so good
To make his drinke of horses bloud

Unlesse a man would suppose this Irish name Conaughty to be compounded of Concani and Nagnatae. Well, this Province as it is in some place fresh and fruitfull, so by reason of certaine moist places (yet covered over with grasse), which of there softnesse they usually tearme Boghes, like as all the Iland besids every where, is dangerous and thicke set with many and those very shady woods. As for the sea coast, lying commodious as it doth with many baies, creekes, and navigable rivers, after a sort it inviteth and provoketh inhabitants to navigation, but the sweetnese of inbred idlenesse doth so hang upon their lazy limmes that they had rather get their living from dore to dore than by their honest labours keepe themselves from beggery. Conaught is at this day divided into these counties, Twomond or Clare, Gallway, Maio, Slego, Letrim, and Roscomon.
2. The ancient Concani above said held in old time the more Southerly part of this Conaught, where like now Twomon or Clare, the County Gallway, Clan-Richards C0ounty, and the Barony of Atterith


WOMON or Twomond, which Giraldus calleth Theuetmonia, the Irish Twowoun, that is, The North-Mounster (which although it lie beyond the river Shannon, yet was counted in times past part of Mounster, untill Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy laid it unto Conaught), shooteth out into the sea with a very great Promontory growing by little and little thin and narrow. On the East and South sides it is so enclosed with the winding course of the river Shannon, which waxeth bigger and bigger, like as on the West part with the open maine sea, and on the Northside confineth so close upon the County Gallway, that there is no comming into it by land but through the Clan-Ricards territory. This is a country wherein a man would wish for nothing more, either from sea or soile, were but the industry of the inhabitants correspondent to the rest; which industry Sir Robert Muscegros an English Nobleman, Richard Clare and Thomas Clare, younger brethren of the stocke of the Earles of Glocester (unto whom King Edward the First had granted this country) stirred up long since by building townes and castles, and by alluring them to the fellowship of a civil conversation; of whose name the chiefe towne Clare, now the dwelling place of the Earle of Twomond, tooke denomination, as also the whole tract of it, called the country of Clare. The places of greater note and name than the rest are Kilsennerag and Killaloe or Laon, the Bishops seat. This in the Roman Provinciall is tearmed episcopatus Ladensis, where there stands a rocke in the mid chanell of the river Shannon, from which the water rusheth downe amaine with a great fall and noise, and by standing thus in the way as a bar hindreth the river that it can carry vessels no further, which if it were cut downe or a draine made about it, the river were able to bring up vessels much higher, to the great commodity of all the neighbour inhabitants. Not far from the banke of Shannon is seated Bunraty, for which Sir Robert Muscegros obteined from KIng Henry the Third the liberty of a Mercate and Faire, and when he had fortified it with a Castle, gave it at length unto King Edward the First, who granted both this towne and the whole territory unto Richard Clare aforesaid. And seven miles from thence appeareth Clare the principall towne, at a Creeke (flowing up out of Shannon) full of Ilands, and these twaine are the onely Mercat townes heere, and those but small ones. Most of the English who were in times past brought hither to inhabit are either rooted out, or become degenerate and growen Irish. But they who carry the whole sway heere at this day be of the Irish blood, as Mac-Nemors, Mac-Mahon, O-Loughton, and the mightiest by farr of all other, the O-Briens, descended from the ancient Potentates or Kings of Conaught, or, as themselves give forth, from the Monarchs of ireland. Of these, Morogh O-Brien was the first Earle of Twomond created by Henry the Eight for tearme of life, and after him to Donough his brothers sonne, and his heires, now at the same time being made Baron of Ibarcon, succeeded in the Earldome and was slaine by his brother Sir Donel O Brien. Connogher, O-Brien Donaghs son, was the third Earle, and father to Donaugh, now the fourth Earle, who hath shewed singular good proofe of his faithfull loialty and couragious valour unto his Prince and Country in most dangerous times, to his singular commendation.


HE County of Gallway meeteth South upon Clare, West upon the Ocean, North upon the County Maio, and East upon the river Shannon. A land very thankeful unto the industrious husbandman, and no lesse profitable unto the Shepheard. The West shore endented in with small in-lets and out-lets, or armes of the sea, hath a border all around of greene Ilands and rugged rocks set orderly, as it were in a rew, among which foure Ilands called Arran make a Barony, and many a foolish fable goes of them, as if they were the Ilands of the living wherein none doe die. Also Inis Ceath, well knowen in times past by reason of the Monastery of Colman a devout Saint, founded for Scots and Englishmen, and Inis-Bouind, which Bede interpreteth out of the Scottish tongue to signifie The Isle of white Heighfers, whereas it is a meere [pure] Brittish word. But the Englishmen soone forsooke the Monastery, when the Scots and they could not well agree together. Further within lieth a Lake called Logh-Corbes (where Ptolomee placeth the river Ausoba), spreading out twenty miles or thereabout in length, and 3 or 4 in breath, being navigable and garnished with three hundred petty Ilands full of grasse and bearing Pine-trees, which lake when it reacheth neere the sea, growing narrow into a river, runneth under Gallway, in the Irish tongue Gallive, named so (or else I cannot tell) of the Gallaeci in Spaine. The very principall City of this Province, and which would thinke hardly to be reckoned the third in Ireland. Surely a very proper and faire Citie it is, built almost round and in maner tower-like of entrie, and some stone, and hath beside to set it out a Bishoppes See, and withall, through the benefit of the haven and roade abovesaid under it, being well frequented with merchants hath easie and gainefull traffike, by exchange of rich commodities both by sea and land. Not full foure miles from hence standeth Knoc-toe, that is, The Hill of Axes, under which that Noble Girald Fitz-Girald Earle of Kildare, and by times for the space of three and thirty yeeres Lord Deputie of Ireland, discomfited and put to flight after a bloudy overthrow the greatest rable of Rebels that ever was seene before in Ireland, raised and gathered togither by William Burk, O-Bren, Mac-Nemare, and O-Carall. Not farre from hence Eastward standeth Aterith (in which remaine some footings [vestiges] of the name of Auteri), commonly called Athenry, enclosed round about with a wall of great circuit, but slenderly inhabited. It glorieth much of that warlike Baron thereof, John de Bermingham an Englishman, out of which familie the Earle of Louth descended; but these Berminghams of Aterith, being now as it were degenerate into barbarous Irishry, scarce acknowledge themselves to have beene English originally. The Septs or Kinreds of the Irish here that be of the better sort are O-Kelleis, O Maiden, O-Flairtes, Mac-Dervis &c.
2. Clan-Ricard, that is, The sonnes, kinred, or Tribe of Ricard, or the Land of Richards sonnes, confineth upon these and lieth to this County. The name it tooke, after the Irish manner, from one Richard of an English familie, called de Burgh, that became afterwards of most high renowne and name in this tract, and out of which KIng Henry the Eight created Vlick Burgh Earle of Clan-Ricard, whose eldest sonne carrieth the title of Baron Dun-Kellin. His sonne Richard was the Second Earle, whose children, begotten of sundry wives, stirred up many troubles to the griefe of her father, the overthrow of their owne country, and themselves. After Richard, who died an old man, succeeded his sonne Vllick, the third Earle and father to Richard the fourth Earle, now living, whose fast fidelity and singular fortitude hath to his great praise evidently appered with the English and their whole estates in Ireland were in greatest danger. In this territorie is the Archbishops See of Toam, unto which in old time many Bishops were subject, but at this day the Bishoprickes of Anagchony, Duae, and Maio are annexed unto it. The Bishoprick likewise of Kilmacough, which in the old Provincial, unlesse the name be corrupt, is not mentioned, as also of Clonfert, are seated in this part, and, as I have heard, united to the See of Toam.


HE County Maio, on which the Western-Ocean beateth, lies bounded South with the Country of Gallway, East with the Country Roscoman, and North with the County of Slego. A fertile Country and a pleasant, abundantly rich in Cattaile, Deere, Hawkes, and plenty of hony, taking the name of Maio, a little City with a Bishops See in it, which in the Roman Provinciall is called Mageo. But that Episcopall seat is now annexed to the Metropolitane of Toam, and the neighbour inhabitants repaire for Ecclesiasticall jurisdiction to the Bishop of Lillaley in the Barony of Tir-Auley.
2. In Maio, if I deceive not my selfe, Colman a Bishop of Ireland built, as Bede writeth, a Monasterie for thirty men or there about of the English nation trained in the profession of the monasticall life, whom he brought out of England into Ireland. But here what Bede saith. Colman found a place in the Isle of Ireland meete [fit] for building of a monastery, named in the old Scotish tongue Magio. And he brought a part of it, which was not much, of the Earle unto whose possession it belonged, to found a Monastery therein, but with the condition annexed unto the sale that the Monkes restant there should pray unto the Lord for him also that permitted them to have the place. Now when he had streightwaies erected this monastery, with the helpe of the said Earle and all the neighbour inhabitants, hee placed the Englishmen there, leaving the Scots behind in the Isle Bound. Which very monastery is inhabited at this day by Englishmen: for the same it is which, now of a small one growen to bee great, is usually termed In Mago. And having now this good while turned all to better orders, it conteineth a notable covent of Monkes who, beeing assembled there togither out of the Province of England, according to the examples of the reverend fathers, under Regularity and a Canonicall Abbat live in great continency and sincerity with the labour of their owne hands. About the yeare of our Lord 1115 this monasterie was reedified and flourished in King Johns time, who by his Patent confirmed may farmes and faire lands unto it. Neither verily is there any other place that I can finde memorable, unlesse it be Logh-Mesk a good and fishfull Lake, in two small Ilands whereof stand sure forts that belonged to the familie of Burk. This country is not so famous for the townes therein as the Inhabitants, who are either of the Irish race, as O-Maylies, Joies and Mac-Vadus, or of the Scotish out of the Islands Hebrides and out of the sept of Donell, whereupon they bee called Clan-Donelles, all Galloglasses [retainers] and, as it were, doughty mercinary soldiers who fight with two edged axes and be armed with habergeons or coates of maile, procured in times past to come hither by the rebells, and endowed here with lands; or else of English bloud, as the said Burkes, Jordans, descended from one Jordan of Excester, Nangles of Castlough, Prendergest of Clan-Moris. But the most puissant be those Burkes, who after a sort are beholden both for their first beginning, and also for their glory, unto William a yonger brother of Walter de Burgo or Burk of Ulster. This William, highly renowned for his militarie prowesse, being led away prisoner into Scotland, and leaving his wife behinde him for an hostage, when hee was restored to his owne home by his manhood recovered Conaught (out of which in his absence all the English had beene expelled by Phelim O-Conor), having slaine in the field the said Phelim O Conor, Mac Dermond, Tego and Kelly, and was himselfe at last in reveng killed by Cormac Mac-Dormond. His grandsonne Thomas by his sonne Edmund, surnamed Albanach (because he was borne in Scotland), when he saw the goodly and rich inheritance of his owne familie translated by a female unto Leonell Duke of Clarence, tooke it to the heart, and therefore, raising a powre of lewd lawlesse and desperate persons (who will bee never wanting in Ireland, nor elsewhere), by force and wrong seized the Patrimony of the Earles of Ulster in this County into his owne hands, and after the name of that grandfather of his, whose glorious fame and gracious authority was then fresh in remembrance, called himselfe Mac-William, that is, the sonne of William. And his posterity under that name and title usurped a tyrannie in these parts, raging upon themselves otherwhiles with mutuall injuries, and oppressing the poore people a long time with extorting, pilling and spoiling, insomuch as they left scarce one village or house in the Country unrased and unrifled. This powrefull violence of theirs Sir Richard Bingham, principal Commissioner or governor of Conaght, a man resolute, severe and valiant, fit for such a fierce and fell province, thought not to be endured. For he well understood, being prudent and politicke, that these injust oppressions, pollings and pillings were the principall causes of the rebellions, of barbarousnesse, and base beggery of Ireland, and yea that they drew the people away from their due obedience and allegeance to their Prince, so as that they would acknowledge no other soveraigne than their owne Lords and Captaines. He therefore to establish (what hee might) the roiall powre and authority there, and to overthrow this tyrannical government of this Mac William and of others getting head, emploied with all diligence his whole care and cogitations to the uttermost, and albeit he had from time to time many imputations, suggestions, and complaintes eagerly urged upon him, both before Queene Elizabeth and also the Lord Deputy, yet proceeded hee in his purpose. Contrariwise, those of the familie of Burke, their followers and dependants, that refused to obey the lawes, tooke armes, and drew to band and side with them the Septs of the Clan-Donells, Joies and other who distrusted themselves and their owne powre. Whom Bingham the Governour soone scattered, and, having forced their forts, drave them into woods and lurking hooles, untill the Lord Deputy, taking pittie of them upon their humble supplication, commanded by his Missives that they should bee received upon tearmes of peace. But they who by war had troubled the peace, and knowing not how to lay down war for sweetnese of peace, were no sooner relieved and raised as it were from death, but they tooke armes againe, entred afresh into actuall rebellion, drave booties everywhere, and made foule uprores in all places, crying out that they would set up their Mac-William or else send for one out of Spaine; that they would not admit a Sherif, nor yeeld obedience to lawes. And heerewith they closly [secretly] procured the Scottish Ilanders from out of the Hebrides to come over for to aid them, promising them faire lands and possessions, whereupon the Lord Deputy commanded the Governour to represse and bridle this their excessive and malapert insolence. He then immediately, when they rejected all equall and indifferent conditions offered unto them, assembled an armie and pursued them so hotly through the woods and forrests that after six or seven weekes, being grievously hunger-bitten, they most humbly submitted themselves. At which very time the auxiliary forces of the Scots aforesaid came seeking through desert by-waies, and untravailed out waies as closely as they could, to come into the County of Maio. But the Governor with continuall journeis affronted them by night and day so neere, and followed upon them so hard, that in the end he intercepted them at Ardnary and, valiantly giving the charge, put them to flight after hee had killed and drowned in the river Moin about three thousand of them. A happy victory this was and of great consequence both for the present and future times, whereby the rebellion together with the title of Mac-William was extinguished, Donell Gormy and Alexander Carrough, the sonnes of James Mac-Conel, and those Ilanders who most of all had plagued Ireland were slaine. These occurrents have I briefely set downe ‡out of my Annales‡ (impertinent though they be to my intended purpose), which for their worthinesse ought more at large to be penned by some Historiographer.


OMEWHAT higher lieth the County of Slego, a plenteous and battle [fertile] country for feeding and raising of cattell, wholly also coasting upon the sea. Betweene it and Ulster Northward runneth the river Trobis, which Ptolomee called Ravius, as an out-let of the Lake Erne. It is severed from the neighbour Counties Le Trim and Roscoman by the comberous Curlew hils, and the river Suc divideth it in twaine. In some place heereabout Ptolomee setteth the City Nagnata, but what City it was, it passeth my wit to finde out. He hath placed also the river Libnius in this tract, which through the rechlesnesse of the transcribers I reduced even now from out of exile to Dublin his owne City. But that place which Ptolomee heere pointeth out is now called The Bay of Slego, a road full of harbours under Slego the principal place of this County, where standeth a Castle, the seat at this day of the Sept of O-Conor, who of it take their addition of Slego and fetch their pedigree, as they say themselves, from that Rotheric O-Conor Dun who, being a great man and of much puissance, bare himself as Monarch of Ireland what time as the English entred first into Ireland, and hardly yeelded himselfe unto King Henry the Second, although in words he professed submission, and, oftentimes raising tumults (as an author without name of that age writeth), used ever and anon to cry out and say that these words following of Adrian the Pope in his Patent or Charter made unto the King of England were prejudiciall unto him: Enter you into that Iland, and execute whatsoever shall concerne the glory of God and the salvation of that Land, and let the people of the said land receive you and honour you as their Lord, untill such time as Pope Alexander the Third by a new Bull or Charter of his had confirmed in like maner unto the Kings of England their right to Ireland, For then became he more tractable and condescended unto more equall conditions, as I shall shew anon. After these O Conors, the greatest men of name in this Territory are O Don, O Haris, O Ghar, and Mac-Donagh.


HE County of Slego, Eastward, is enclosed with Breany, the Possession of the ancient family of O-Rorck, which drew their descent from Rotherick Monarch of Ireland, whom they by contraction (which they take pleasure in) terme Rorck, untill that Brien O Rorck Lord of Breany and Minterolise, fed with vaine hopes by Pope Sixtus Quintus and the King of Spaine, had perfidiously cast off his alleageance to Queene Elizabeth and taken armes: who, being streightwaies chased into Scotland and sent backe into England, suffered for his inconsiderate rashnesse due punishment upon the gallowes, and his lands were adjudged to the Crowne. This Breany, by John Perot Lord Deputie, was made a Country, and of the chiefe towne, called Le-Trim, which riseth up throughout with hilles, full of ranke grasse, yet not so as that it should be altogether true which Solinus reporteth of Ireland, namely, that it is so full of forage that, unlesse cattaile were kept otherwhiles from grasing, their fulnesse would endanger them. And so much cattaile it feedeth that within the little circuit which it hath it may reckon at one time above a hundred and twenty thousand head of beasts. In this standeth Achonry Bishopricke, united now to the See of Elphin. And Shannon, the Soveraigne of all rivers in Ireland, hath heere his spring-head; which being one while narrower, and another while broader, with divers turning and winding reaches that he makes, washeth and watereth of either side, as I have said, many a country. The principall families be O Rorcke, O Murreies, Mac Lochleims, Mac Glanchies, and Mac Granelles, all mere and starke Irish. Whereas John Burgh, sonne to Richard the Earle of Clan-Ricards, was created by Queene Elizabeth Baron Let-trim, who was afterward slaine by his envious concurrents [rivals]. I cannot say whether he had that title of this Le-trim or of some other place in this Kingdome.


NDER the County of Letrim Southward lieth Roscoman, ordeined to be a County by Henry Sidney Lord Deputie, lying out a good length but narrow, closed up betweene the two rivers Suc Westward and Shannon Eastward, and on the Northside bounded with Curlew mountaines. A territorie it is for the most part plaine, fruitfull, feeding many heards of cattaile, and with meane husbandry and tillage yeeldeth plenty of corne. Where it beareth Northward, the steep mountaines of Curlew perke up aloft, and those impassable, untill by the carefull industry of George Bingham there was a way cut out: which Curlews not long since became more notorious for the disasterous death of Sir Coners Clifford and (by his default) for the slaughter with him of most valiant and experienced souldiers. In this Country are reckoned foure Baronies. Under Curlew hilles, by the river Shanon, the Baronie of Boyle first commeth in view, where was founded in times past a famous Abbay, in the yeere 1152, together with the Abbay of Beatitude, and Mac Dermot ruleth all there as Lord. Then by the river Suc lieth the Baronie Balin Tober, where O Conor Dun is of the greatest commaund, and upon it joineth Elphen an Episcopall See. Somewhat lower is Roscoman, the Baronie of O Connor Roo, that is, Conor the Red, wherein is seated the chiefe towne of the whole Countie, fensed in times past with a Castle by Robert Ufford Lord Justice of Ireland, but all the houses are meane and thatched. And more Southward Athlone, the Baronie of the O Kellies, so named of the head towne, which hath a Castle and ward in it, also a most beautifull bridge of heawen stone, which to the great terrour of seditious rebels Queene Elizabeth in our memorie, appointing Henrie Sidney Lord Deputie of Ireland overseer thereof, caused to be built, with a purpose to constitute in that place (as most fittest of all others in Ireland to represse seditions) the seat of residence for the Lords Deputies, and thus much for the Counties of Conaght.


S for the Lords of Conacht, we find it recorded in the irish histories that Turlogh O Mor O Conor ruled absolutely in old time this Country, and divided it wholly betweene his two sonnes Chael and Brien. But at the Englishmens first arrivall into Ireland, Rothericke bare rule, who styled himselfe Monarch of Ireland. Yet being put in feare with the great preparation for the English warre hanging so neere over his head, he betooke himselfe into the protection of King Henrie the Second without trying the hazard of battaile. But whenas forthwith he brake his allegeance and revolted, Miles Cogan was the first Englishman that gave the attempt upon Conaght, yet sped he not in his enterprise. Howbeit, the King of Conaght abovesaid was driven to this exigent, as to acknowledge himselfe the King of Englands liege man, to serve him faithfully as his man, and to pay unto him yeerely of every tenth beast one hide mercateable &c. And King John granted that the third part of Conaght should remaine unto him still to be held haereditarily for an hundred markes. But William Fitz-Adelm, whose posterity are called in Latin de Burgo, and Burke or Bourke in Irish, Robert Muscegros, Gilbert Clare Earle of Glocester, and William de Bermingham were the first English that fully subdued this country and laboured to bring it to civill government. And William Bourke and his lineall posterity, being called Lords of all Conaught, governed this province together with Ulster for a long time in great peace and tranquillity, yea and raised thereout rich revenews, untill the onely daughter of William Burke, sole heire in grosse [in full] of Conaght and Ulster both, was matched in marriage with Leonell Duke of Clarence, King Edward the thirds sonne. But whenas he abode for the most part in England, and the Mortimers his heires and successours looked but negligently to their patrimonie and inheritance in Ireland, the Bourkes there allies, whom they had appointed as overseers of their lands, taking the advantage of their Lords absence, and presuming upon the troubles in England, despising the authority of lawes, entring into alliance with the Irish, and contracting marriage with them, seized upon all Conaught to their owne behoofe, and, degenerating by little and little, have laid downe English civility and taken up Irish behaviour. Whereof some who fetched their pedigree from Richard Burke were called Clan-Ricard; others Mac William Ooghter, that is, The Upper; others, Mac William Eughter, that is, The Lower, even as they who in the County of Maio were of greatest powre and authority affected to be tearmed simply Mac-William, as being a name full of honor, glory and authority, because they descended from William De Burgo or Burke, whom I mentioned erewhile, under countenance of which name they for a long time tyrannized over the poore inhabitants with most grievous exactions.


L the land beyond the mouth of the river Boyn, Meath, the County Longford, and the mouth of the river Ravie that stretcheth Northward is counted the fifth part of Ireland, called in Latin Ultonia and Ulidia, in English, Ulster, in Irish Cui Guilly, that is, The Province Guilly, and of our Welsh Britans, Ultw. Which Province was wholly inhabited in Ptolemees time by the Voluntii, Darni, Robogdii, and Erdini. A large country, bespred with many and those very large loghes or lakes, shaded with many and thicke woods, in some places fruitfull, in others baraine, howbeit fresh and greene to see to in every place, and replenished with cattaile. But as the country for want of manuring is growne to be rough, so the naturall dispositions of the people, wanting civill discipline, are become most wilde and barbarous. Yet to the end that they might bee kept within the bounds of their duty who were wont to breake in sunder all bands of aequity, of honesty, and of duty, the hether part of it was in times past divided into three Counties, Louth, Down, and Antrimme, and now the rest is laid out into seven new Countries, that is to day, Cavon, Fermanagh, Monaghan, Armagh, Colran, Tir-Oen, and Donegall or Tir-Conell, by the provident care of Sir John Perot Lord Deputy: who, being a notable and worthy man, well acquainted with the humours and hauty spirits of the Province, foreseeing that no policy would serve better to appease the tumults of Ireland than to reduce these parts of Ulster into order, and to keepe them downe, going thither in a dangerous and ticklish time, when the King of Spaine hovered and gaped both for Ireland and England, with his gravity and authority, whiles by barring all wrongs he did cut off the causes and quarels of warre, brought all the Potentates or Captaines of Ulster to this passe, that willingly they suffered their Seignories to bee divided into Counties, and Sherifs to bee appointed for the government thereof. But hee, beeing within a while after recalled home and climbing still higher unto honours, the heavy displeasure and envie of some, whom hee was not able to counterpoise, and his owne lavish tonge togither, for unadvisedly hee had let flie somewhat against the Princes Majestie (which to impaire in a word is a capitall matter), plunged him headlong ere hee was ware upon his destruction, ‡as I have declared else-where more amply.‡


HE County of Louth, in ancient bookes written Luva and Lua, called in the Irish tongue Iriel or Uriel (if that bee not rather a part of this territorie), situat beyond Meth and the mouth of the river Boyne, turning full upon the Irish sea, runneth out with a shore much winding into the North, the soile whereof is so full of forage, and so fruitfull, that it soone answereth and recompenseth the husbandmans toile and charges. Neere unto Boynes mouth is seated Drogeda or Droghda, in English Tredagh, a fine towne, well peopled and frequented, so called of the bridge, and divided by the river Boyne running through it. Unto which King Edward the Second for Theobald Verdons sake granted licence for a mercate and faire; the Kings confirmed many and great liberties, and among other a Mint. Neere unto this standeth Mellison Abbay, founded by Donald a King of Uriel, and much praised by Saint Bernard, which Queene Elizabeth (whenas the religious Monkes were before thrust out) gave unto Sir Edward More of Kent for his good deserts both at home and abroad in the warres. Ardeth, seven miles form hence, is a drie in-land towne well knowne, and above it Dundalk with a commodious haven, and in times past strongly walled: which Edward Brus brother to the King of Scots, who had proclamed himselfe King of Ireland, burnt, but hee within a while after was with eight thousand two hundred of his men slaine neare thereabout. And in our remembrance Shan O Neale laid siege unto it, but streightwaies hee was forced with shame enough to dislodge. Eight miles from hence standeth Carlingford, a port also of good request and resort; neither bee there to my knowledge any other places in this County worth the naming.
2. This Lough had for an Earle Sir John Birmingham an Englishman, whom in reward of his martiall valour, when hee had discomfited and in a pitcht field slaine that Edward Brus, who, assuming the title of King of Ireland, for a time had made foule work with fire and sword in Ireland, King Edward the Second advanced to the honour of Earle of Louth, to have unto him and his heires males, and withall the dignity of Baron of Athenry, to him and his heires. But this honourable title as it beganne, so it ended in him, for he that in warre vanquished his enimies was soone after in a tumult of rebellious people vanquished and slaine by his owne men in this territorie, with many other of his surname, leaving no issue behind him. But in our fathers remembrance, King Henry the Eighth honored Sir Oliver Plonket with the title of Baron of Louth. There remaine in this county the Verdons, Tates, Clintons, Bellews, Dowdals, Gernons, Hadsors, Wittons, Brandons, Mores, Warrens, Chamberlanes, and very many beside of English bloud, and of the Irish the Mac-Mathons, &c.


EXT unto Louth to the West lieth the County of Cavon, called in times past East Braenny, the habitation of the O-Reileys, who vaunt themselves to have had their beginning of the Ridleys in England, whereas in their whole course and manner of life they bee meere Irish. These O-Reileys not long since were of great powre in horsemen, but to the end they might be in that way lesse powrefull, Sir Henry Sidney in his pollicy divided their country into seven Baronies, whereof the Lords out of that familie should immediatly hold the same by service, in fee, from the Crowne of England. They dwell scattering in piles or forts, not in townes. A Bishop they have of their owne, and him a poore one, God He knoweth, whose See is at Kilmore, and yet is hee not so poore as those Irish Bishops were who had no other rents and revenews than three milch kine, which their parishioners exchanged for others new milch when they went dry, according as Adam Bremensis from their own relation, when they returned by Germany out of Italy, learned and put downe in writing.


EYOND Cavon West and North Fermanagh presenteth it selfe, where sometimes the Erdini dwelt, a country full of woods and very boggish. In the mids whereof is that most famous and the greatest Meere of all Ireland, Logh-Erne, stretching out 40 miles, bordred about with shady woods, and passing full of inhabited Ilands: whereof some conteine an hundred, two hundred and three hundred Acres of ground, having besides such store of Pikes, Trouts, and Salmons that the fishermen complaine oftener of too great plenty of fishes, and of the breaking of their nets, than they doe for want of draught. This Lake spreadeth not from East to West (as it is described in the common Maps), but, as I have heard say who have taken a long and good survey thereof, first at Bal-Tarbet, which is a little towne farthest North of any in this County of Cavon, it stretcheth from South to North fourteene miles in length and foure in breth. Anon it draweth in narrow, to the bignesse of a good river, for six miles; in the chanell whereof standeth Inis Killin, the principall Castle in this tract, which in the yeere 1593 was defended by the rebels, and by Dowdall, a most valiant Captaine, won. Then turning Westward, it enlargeth it selfe most of all, twenty miles long and ten broad, as far as to Belek, neere unto which is a great downefall of water, and, as they tearme it, that most renowned Salmons Leap. A common speech is currant among the inhabitants thereby, that this Lake was once firme ground, passing well husbanded with tillage, and replenished with in habitants, but sodainly for their abominable buggery committed with beasts, overflowen with waters and turned into a Lake. The Almighty God (saith Giraldus), Creator of Nature, judged this land privy to so filthy acts against Nature, unworthy to hold not onely the first inhabitants, but any others for the time to come. Howbeit this wickednesse the Irish Annales lay upon certaine Ilanders out of the Hebrides, who being fled out of their owne Country lurked there. Among the Lords in this tract, Mac-Gwir was most noble and powerfull, untill he overthrew himselfe and his state in the late rebellion. And they that be of that Sept dwell on both sides, yet so as that those beyond the Lake are reckoned of Ulster, and they on this side of Conaght.


LONG the Lough-Erne on the East side stretcheth out the County Monaghan, mounting aloft with hils, well attired with woods, but knowen by no town at all (unlesse it be Monaghan, which imparteth the name unto the whole country). It is divided into five Baronies, and containeth Iriel, Dartre, Ferney, Lougthy (which by authority of Parlament were for rebellion given away from the Mac-Mahons) with the litle territory Donemain, which Queene Elizabeth bestowed upon Walter De Eureux Earle of Essex. Those Mac-Mahons, that is, if we interpret it out of the Irish language, The Sons of Ursus, or the Beare, ruled heere as tyrannical Lords a long time, and derive their Genealogy from Walter Fitz-Urse, who embrued his hands with the bloudy murdering of Thomas Archbishop of Canterbury. The most puissant of these, after the maner of that Nation, tooke upon him to Lord it over the rest, and by way of excellency was tearmed Mac-Mahon. About which preheminence when as of late daies they of that Sept or Family were at most bitter debate by way of hard words, open armes, foule practises, yea and close [secret] corruptions, Sir William Fitz-William the Lord Deputy came hither among them, and judicially convented Hugh-Roe Mac-Mahon, whom he by his authority had set upon this Signory, and being upon his triall condemned of treason, caused him to be hanged. And to the end that he might suppresse for ever both the name and Soveraignty of Mac-Mahon, he divided the territory betweene the kinred of the said Hugh and certaine Englishmen, to have and to hold after the English Tenure, to them and theirs.


N the East side againe lieth out in length the County of Armagh, so as that it is compassed as it were about with the river Neury by East, with the County of Louth by South, and with the Black-water by North. A Country, as I have sundry times heard the Earle of Denshire Lord Lieutenant Generall say, that for a most rich and battle [fertile] soile passeth all other parts of Ireland, insomuch as if any compost be laid upon it to make it more fruitfull, it skorneth and disdeineth, as one would say, the same and becommeth barraine. The first place in it that we meet with is Fewes, a little territory belonging to Turlogh Mac-Henry, one of the family of O-Neal, thicke set with woods and by reason of loughes and bogges unpassable. Then have you Orry, as scarce of woods, where dwelleth O-Hanlon, and the fort Mont-Norris, built by Charles Baron Montjoy when he was Lord Deputy, and so named in honour of Sir John Norris under whom he had served first, and was trained in military discipline.
Eight miles from hence neere unto the river Kalin, Armach ‡maketh a poore shew albeit it‡ is the Archiepiscopall See and Metropolitane of the whole Iland. The Irish talke much that it was so called of Queene Armacha, but in mine opinion it is the very same that Bede nameth Dearmach, and out of the Scottish or Irish language interpreteth it The field of Okes. But it was named Drumsailich before that Saint Patricke had built there a proper faire City, for site, forme, quantity, and compasse modelled out, as he saith, by the appointment and direction of Angels. That Patricke, I say, who, being a Britan borne and Saint Martins sisters sonne, named at his Baptisme Sucat, was sould into Ireland, where he became Herd-man to King Miluc, afterwards was named by S. German, whose disciple he was, Magonius, as a Nurse-father out of British word, and by Pope Celestine Patricius, as a Father of the Citizens, and by him sent over to catechize Ireland in the Christian faith. Which notwithstanding some had received there before, as we may gather out of an old Synodall, wherein is urged the testimony of Patricke himselfe against that Tonsure or shaving of Priests which had beene used before his time in Ireland, whereby they were shaven onely on the fore part of the head, and not by the Crowne. Which maner of shaving he seemeth by way of contempt to father upon a certaine Sweinheard of King Lagerius the sonne of Nell, and the writers of that age creid out that it was Simon Magus shaving, and not S. Peters. In this place about the yeere of our salvation 610 Columbane built a most famous Monastery, Out of which very many Monasteries afterwards were propagated by his disciples, both in Britaine and in Ireland. Of this Armach S. Bernard writeth thus: In honour of Saint Patricke the Apostle of Ireland, who heere by his lifetime ruled, and after death rested, it is the Archiepiscopall seat and Metropolitane City of all Ireland, and of so venerable estimation in old time that not onely Bishops and Priests, but Kings also and Princes in generall were subject to the Metropolitane thereof in all obedience, and he alone governed them all. But through the develish ambition of some mighty Potentates, there was taken up a very bad custome that this holy See should be obtained and held in hereditary succession, neither suffered they any to be Bishops but such as were of their owne Clan, Tribe, and Family. Neither prevailed this execrable succession a little, but continued this wicked maner for the space well neere of fifteene generations.
2. When in processe of time the Ecclesiasticall discipline in this Iland was growne loose, so as in townes and Cities there was translations and plurality of Bishops according to the will and pleasure of the Metropolitane. For reformation of this abuse, John Papirio a Cardinall was sent hither from Pope Eugenius the Fourth, as a namelesse writer then living wrote in these words: In the yeere of our Lord 1142 John Papyrio a Cardinall sent from Eugenius the Fourth, Bishop of Rome, together with Christian Bishop of Lismore Legate of all Ireland, came into Ireland. The same Christian held a solemne counsell in Mell, at which were present all the Bishops, Abbots, Kings, Dukes, and Elders of Ireland. By whose consent there were established foure Archbishoprickes, namely, of Armach, of Dublin, of Cassile, and Toam. Wherein sat and ruled at the same time Gelasius, Gregorius, Donatus, and Edanus. And so the Cardinall, bestowing his blessing upon the Cleargy, returned to Rome. For before that time the Bishops of Ireland were wont to be consecrated by the Archbishopes of Canterburie, in regard of the Primacie which they had in Ireland. This did the Citizens of Dublin acknowledge when they sent Gregorie elect Bishop of Dublin unto Raulph Archbishop of Canterburie for to be consecrated, by these words, Antecessorum vestrorum magisterio &c., that is, Unto the Magistracie of your Praedecessours we willingly submitted our Prelats, from which we remember that our Prelats have received their dignity Ecclesiasticall &c. Which appeereth for certaine out of letters also bearing date of greater antiquity, namely of Murchertach King of Ireland written unto Anselme Archbishop of Canterburie for the ordaining and enstalling of the Bishops of Dublin and of Waterford; likewise of King Gothriche unto Lanfranke his predecessour, in the behalfe of one Patricke, a Bishop; of Lanfranke also unto Therdeluac a King of Ireland, unto whom he complaineth, That the Irishmen forsake and leave at their pleasure their wedded wives, without any Canonicall cause, and match with any others, even such as be neere of kin either to themselves or to the said forsaken wives, and if another man with like wickednesse hath cast of any wife, hir also rashly and hand over head they joine with, by law of marriage, or fornication rather, an abuse worthy to be punished. With which vices if this nation had not beene corrupted even unto these daies of ours, both the right of lineall succession among them had beene more certaine, and as well the gentry as the communalty had not embrued themselves so wickedly with the suffusion of so much bloud of their owne kinred about their inheritances and legitimation, neither had they become so infamous in these respects among foraine nations. But these matters are exorbitant of themselves, and from my purpose.
3. Long had not that Archiepiscopall dignitie and Primacie been established, when Vivian the Popes Legate confirmed the same againe, so that their opinion may seeme to be worthy of discredite and confutation who affirme that the Archbishop of Armach hath in regard of antiquity the priority and superiour place of the Archbishop of Canterburie in the Generall or Oecumenicall Councells, whereas by the first institution he is by many ages the latter. Neither according to the antiquity of place are the seats in Councells appointed, but all Prelates, of what degree soever they be, sit among their Colleagues according to their owne ordination, enstalling, and promotion.
What time as that Vivian was Legate in Ireland, Sir John Curcy subdued Armach, and made it subject to the English. And yet did he no harme then, but is reported to have beene very good and bountifull unto the Churchmen that served God there, and he reedified their Church, which in our memorie was fiered and foully defaced by the rebel Shan O Neal, and the Citie withall, so that they lost all the ancient beauty and glory, and nothing remaineth at this day but very few small watled cotages, with the ruinous walles of the Monasterie, Priorie, and Primats pallace. Among the Archbishopes of this place there goes the greatest fame and name of Saint Malachie, the first that prohibited Priests marriage in Ireland, a man in his time learned and devout, and who tooke no lesse of the native barbarousnesse of that country, than seafishes saltnesse of the seas, as saith Saint Bernard, who wrote his life at large. Also Richard Fitz-Raulfe, commonly called Armachanus, is of famous memorie, who turned the edge of his stile about the yeere 1355 against the mendicant Freers, as detesting in Christians such Voluntarie begging. Neere to Armach upon a rising hill remaine the reliques of an old Castle (Owen-Maugh they call it) which was, as they say, the ancient habitation of the Kings of Ulster. More East glideth the Black-water (in the Irish tongue More, that is, Great), which is the limit betweene this shire and Tir-Oen, whereof I am to speake in due place. In this country and about it, Mac-Genis, O Hanlan, O Hagan, and many of the sept of O-Neal, assuming unto them sundry additions and bynames, carry all the sway after a sort, and over-rule the rest.


OW followeth Eastward the County of Down, and that verily large and fertile in soile, stretched out even as farre as to the Irish sea, reaching on the Northside to the lake Eaugh, by a new name called Logh-Sidney, and on the South to the County of Louth, from which the river Newry severeth it. Upon this river, in the very first entrance into this shire within our remembrance, Sir Nicolas Bagnall Mareschall of Ireland, who by his conduct atchieved heere diverse exploits, and reduced the country to more civility, built and fortified a towne of the same name. Hard by it, the river called Banthelesse, issuing out of the desert mountaines of Mourne, passeth through the country of Eaugh, which belongeth to the family of Mac Gynnis. Betweene whom and the O-Neales, who tyrannized in Ulster, there fell in times past a controversie whether they were vassals to O Neale, and whether they should find their followers and soldiers victuals &c. (this kind of service they call bonoghty). This hath unto it an Episcopall See at Dromore, above which at the edge of Logh Eaugh are the tracts of Kilwlto and Kilwrny, much encombred with woods and bogges. These lie inwardly. But by the maritime coast, the sea doth so wind it selfe in, and with sundry creeks and bayes encroch within the land, yea and the Logh or Lake dilateth it selfe beside Dyffryn a valley full of woods, the inheritance in old time of the Mandevils, afterwards of the Whites, in such sort that it maketh two Bilands, Lecall Southward, and Ardes Northward. Lecall, a rich and battle ground, beareth out farthest into the East of any part of Ireland, and is the utmost Promontory or cape thereof, which the Mariners now tearme Saint Johns Foreland. Ptolomee calleth it Islanium, perhaps of the British word isa, which signifieth lowest. In the very streight whereof flourished Dunum, whereof Ptolomee also made mention (though not in the right place), now named Down, a towne of very great antiquity and a bishops See, renowned by the tombe of Saint Patrick, Saint Brigid, and Saint Columbe, upon which was written this rude riming distichon:

At Down these three lie buried in one tombe:
Brigid, Patricke, and that devout Colomb.

2. Which monument of theirs, as the bruite [report] runneth, was demolished by the Lord Leonard Grey, Deputy under King Henry the Eighth, and sure it is that when he was arraigned for misgoverning, and condemned therefore to death, among other imputations he was charged that he had profaned this Cathedrall Church of Saint Patricke. But as touching the Sepulcher of Saint Patricke, the religious Priests were at variance, like as the Cities of Greece in times past strove about the native country of the Poet Homer. Those of Downe challeng it to themselves, and that upon the authoritie of the verses aforesaid. Those of Armagh put in their claime out of the words of Saint Bernard which erewhile I alledged. The Monkes of Glastenbury in England averred it to be with them, and that out of the old Records and evidences of their Abbay. And some Scots have likewise avouched that, as he was borne nere unto Glasco, so likewise he was enterred there at Kirk-Patricke.
3. Into this Down, Sir John Curcy, that Maritall Englishman and (for a Warrior) extraordinarily devout to God-ward, after he had brought this country in subjection unto him, was the first that brought in the Benedictine Monkes, and he translated the Monasterie of Cariche, which Mac Neal Mac Eulif King of Ulster had founded in Erinaich nere unto S. Finins Fountaine, into the Isle called after his name Ynis-Curcy, and endowed the same with lands assigned for it. For before time the Monkes of Ireland, as those of ancient times in Egypt, whose maner and order that devout man Congell, that is, by interpretation, A Faire Plege, brought over into Ireland, being wholly given to prayer, earned for themselves and the poore their living with the labour of their owne hands. Howbeit, these Monasticall orders and customes (as al humane things) continued not long, when their maners and carriage grew to be worse, and riches had by little and little polluted piety, which, as a mother, had formerly bred them. Robert Abbat of Molisme in Burgundie studied and endeavored earnestly in times past to reduce and set on foote againe the said ancient Discipline, and perswaded his owne Disciples to live with their handy labour, to leave Tithes and Oblations unto the Priests that served in the Dioecesse, to forbeare wearing of Breeches made of woven cloth of of leather. But they, labouring to the contrary, refused flatly to goe from the customes observed in the Monasteries of the West parts of the world, which were knowne for certaine to have beene instituted and ordained by Saint Maure scholler to Saint Benet [Benedict], and by Saint Columban. But I have digressed too farre, now I will returne againe. By the sea-side stand Arglas, where Saint Patrick by report founded a Church, and Strangford, called in old time Strandford, a safe harbour where the river Coyn with a great and violent streame breaketh into the Sea. Neere unto which, in the Biland Lecale, Queene Marry in her great bounty unto Noblemen liberally gave lands unto the Earle of Kildare. And heere of the English race the Russells, Audleys, Whites, and the Bagnalls, who came thither last, stoutly defend, among the wild and fierce Irish, not without danger, what they and their ancestours wonne in these parts.
4. Ardes the other Biland, ‡called The Andes,‡ lieth over against it to the North, severed with a small chanell out of the Logh-Coin, which on the West side encloseth it, like as the sea on the East side and the Bay of Knoc-Fergus on the North. You may resemble it to the bent of the arme, which by a very narrow Isthim or necke of land groweth to the rest of the Iland, like as an arme to the shoulder. The soile is everywhere passing good and bountifull, but onely in the mids, where lieth out for twelve miles or thereabout in length a moist, flat, and boggy plaine. The shore is sufficiently bespred with small villages, and in times past had a most renowned Monasterie at the Bay of Knoc-Fergus, of the same institution, order and name as was that right and famous Abbay in England neere unto Chester, I meane Banchor. Out of whether [which] of these twaine that Archhereticke Pelagus came it is uncertaine: whiles some will needs have him to spring from hence, others from that in Britaine, but neither of them grounding upon any certaine warrant of authority. Howbeit, certaine it is that he was of Britaine, as may appeere by other testimonies, as also by this distichon of Prosper Aquitaine inveying against his impiety:

Avaunt farre hence, impiety, and leawd arts take with thee.
Once gone, with British sire of thine keep alwaies companie.

5. But touching this place, heare what Saint Bernard saith: A rich and mighty man gave a place called Banchor unto Malachie to build, or rather to reedifie there, a Monasterie. It had beene, ywis, a most noble house before time under the first founder and father Congell, breeding many thousand Monkes, and the head likewise of many Monasteries. A holy place in truth, and a breeder of many Saints, most plenteously fructifying unto God, so that one of the sonnes of that holy congregation named Luan is reported to have beene the founder of an hundred Monasteries. Which I have beene more willing to relate, that by this one the reader may give a guesse what a mighty multitude there was beside. Thus at length the sprouts thereof replenished Ireland and Scotland. From out of which Saint Columbane, comming up to these parts of ours heere in France, built the Monasterie at Luxovium, which grew to a mighty multitude. And so great an Abbay, by report, this was that the solemnity of divine service held out continually in one quire after another, so that there was not one moment of time, night or day, without singing praises. Take all this to be spoken of the ancient glory of Banchor Monasterie. Malachias, both in regard of the noble name that it bare and of the ancient dignity, especially liked this place although it was destroyed, as minding to replant it like unto a certaine garden or Paradise, as also because many bodies of Saints slept there. For, to say nothing of those that were buried in peace, it is reported that 900 in one day were slaine by Pirats. Verily, the possessions belonging to that place were great. But Malachias, contenting himselfe onely with the site of the Holy place, surrendred the possessions and lands wholly to another: for from the time that the Monasterie was destroyed, there wanted not one to hold it with the livings thereto belonging. for they were ordained by election also, and called Abbats, keeping still in name, though it were not so in deed as it had beene on old time. And when many gave advise not to alienate the possessions, but to retaine the whole together unto themselves, this professor of poverty agreed not thereto, but caused according to the custome one to bee chosen for to hold the same, reserving onely to himselfe and his the place, as I have before said. Moreover, within a few daies there was the Oratorie or Church finished, of timber peeces made smooth, but fitly and firmely knit together (a Scottish kind of worke, faire and beautifull enough). Afterwards Malachie thought it good to have a Church built of stone, proportioned like to those which he had seene built in other countries. And when he had begunne to lay the foundation, the native inhabitants of the Country beganne to make a wonder thereat, because there were not found in that land as yet such maner of buildings. And thereupon one cried out, “O good Sir, what meane you to bring in this new fashion into our Countries? Scots we are and not French. What vanity is this? What need was there of such worke, so superfluous, so proud, and so glorious?”
6. More inward hard by the Lake is the Bishops See of Conereth or Coner, where sat the said Malachie as Bishop. But what maner of flocke this so holy a pastour fed, listen to Saint Bernard: Malachie, in the thirtieth yere almost of his age was brought in and presented a Consecrated Bishop of Conereth, for this was the Cities name. Now as when he beganne to execute his function according to his office, then perceived this man of God that it was his lot not to come unto men, but unto beasts. Nowhere had he to that time experience of such in the most barbarous parts that ever he came unto. Nowhere had he found for maners so froward, for rites so develish, for faith so impious, for lawes so barbarous, for discipline so stifnecked, and for life so filthy. Christians they were in name, and Pagans in deede. Tithes and first fruits they have none, lawfull marriage they contracted none, confessions they made none, to crave or to give pennance there could be found just none. And Ministers of the Altar there were very few or none. But what needs many words, where the very paucity and fewnesse among the lay Persons was in maner idle and imployed about nothing? No fruit was to be expected by their duties and functions among so leawd a people. For in the Churches there was heard neither voice of preacher nor sound of singing. What should the Lords champion doe in this case? Either he must yeeld with shame, or bicker in jeapordie. But hee, who acknowledged himselfe to be a Sheapherd and not an hireling, chose rather to stand to it than to flie, ready to give his life for his sheepe if it so behooved. And albeit they were all wolves and no sheepe, in the mids of wolves hee stood as a fearles Shepheard, by all meanes casting about how to make of wolves sheepe. Thus wrote Saint Bernard, and little better can he that is Bishop there at this day say, as I heare, of his wilde flocke hereabout.
7. This Ardes the Savages, an English familie, in times past held in possession, amongst whom there goeth a great name of him who said no lesse stoutly than pleasantly when hee was mooved to build a castle for his defence, that hee would not trust to a castle of stone, but rather to a castle of bones, meaning thereby his owne bodie. Afterward, the O-Neals wrested it out of their hands: who beeing attainted of high treason, by permission of Queene Elizabeth, Sir Thomas Smith, Knight and the Queenes Secretary, planted a Colonie there not long since; a worthie adventure, but it sped unhappily. For after great expenses deffraied, the Irish by a traine [trick] caught his base sonne, whom hee had made Captaine and ruler thereof, and cruelly cast him to hungry doggs; for which barbarous cruelty, those mot wicked wretches suffered afterward most grievous punishment accordingly, beeing killed and given unto Wolves to bee devoured. Above Ardes Westward, the more Southern Clan-boy, that is, The Yellow Nation or Sept, or The kinred of Hugh the Yellow, a country very full of woods, reacheth as farre as to the bay of Knock-Fergus, inhabited by the Sept of the O-Neales, and is counted the farthest territorie of this County of Downe.


HE next County in order unto Louth Northward is that of Antrim, so called of Antrim a base townlet of small reckoning at all, had it not imparted the name unto the whole country which lieth betweene the Bay of Knoc-Fergus, Logh-Eaugh, and the river Ban. This Bay of Knoc-Fergus, which Ptolomee tearmeth Vinderius, tooke name of a towne situate upon it which the English call Knoc-Fergus, the Irish Carig-Fergus, that is, the Rock of Fergus, of that most renowned Fergus who first brought the Scotish out of Ireland into Britaine, there drowned. This is well inhabited and more frequented than the rest in this coast by reason of the commodious haven, although the block-houses thereto be unfinished, having a fortresse pitched upon an high rocke, a ward of garizon souldiers to keepe the country in awe and good order, with an ancient Palace converted now into a magazin. Hard by it lieth the Nether Clane-boy, which also was the habitation of O-Neales, notable for the death of that most leawd Rebell Shan or John O-Neal, who after many robberies and sacrileges committed, beeing in one or two skirmishes under the leading of Sir Henry Sidney Lord Deputy vanquished and weakened, was brought to that exigent that hee was resolved to goe unto the Deputy with an halter about his necke and submisly to crave pardon. But being perswaded by his Scribe to seeke first for aide of certaine Scots of the Islands, who under the conduct of Alexander Oge had encamped themselves here and preied in the country, he came unto them, who have him friendly interteinment and presently masacred him and all his company in revenge of their kinsfolke whom hee had beforehand slaine. By whose death the warre being ended, and himselfe with all those that went into the field with him attainted, Queene Elizabeth granted this Claneboy unto Walter D’Eureux Earle of Essex, who crossed over the seas hither and, I wot not whether under a goodly colour of honour (for chosen hee was Governour of Ulster and Mareschal of Ireland), hee was by the polliticke practise of some Courteours finely packed away into a Country alwaies rebellious and untamed. But whiles with the expense of a mighty masse of money hee went about to reduce it to good order, after hee had beene crossed and tossed with many troubles both at home and abroade in the warres, hee was by untimely death taken out of this world, leaving unto all good men a wonderfull misse of himselfe, and this Country unto the O-Neales and Brian Carragh of the Mac-Conells race, who since that time have gone together by the eares, and committed many murders one upon another about the soveraignty of this Seignory. Neere unto Knoc-Fergus there is a By-land with a narrow necke (as it were) annexed to the maine, which notwithstanding is called the Isle of Magie, taking up foure miles in length and one in bredth, wherein, as some suppose, flourished that Monastery of Magio so highly praised by Bede, whereof I have made mention before in the county of Maio.
2. Then the Glinnes, that is, the Valleys, beginne at Older Fleet a bad roade for ships, and runne out a great length upon the sea. This country belonged in ancient times to the Bissets Noblemen of Scotland, who when upon private grudges and quarells they had made away Patrick Earle of Athol, were banished hither and through the beneficiall favour of Henry the Third King of England, received Lands here. For John Bisset, who died in the beginning of Edward the First his reigne, had large possessions heere, and under King Edward the Second Hugh Bisset for rebellion lost some of them. But in our fathers daies the Highland Irish Scots out of Cantire and the Hebrides, under the leading of James Mac-Conell Lord of Cantire in Scotland, made an entry upon the same, and he, laying claime thereto, challenged it, as descended from the Bissets. Howbeit Shan O-Neale, having slaine their Capitaine, easily chased them away. Yet returned they, and in this tract committed continually robberies and outrages in cruell maner, yea and mainteined seditious commotions, untill that even of late Sir John Perot Lord Deputy of Ireland brought first Donell Goran (who together with his brother Alexander was slaine by sir Richard Bingham in Conaught) and afterward Angus MacConel, the sonnes of James Mac-Conel, to that passe that they betooke themselves to the Queene of Englands protection, and upon their humble suite received at her hands this county to bee held of her by service under certaine conditions, namely to beare armes within Ireland under none other but the Kings of England, and to pay yeerely a certaine number of cowes and haukes &c.
3. Above his, as farre as to the river Bann, all the tract is called Rowte, the seat of the Mac-Guilles, a familie of good reputation in their country: which, notwithstanding the violence of the Islander Scots and their continuall depredations, hath driven them into a narrow corner. For Surley Boy, that is, Charles the Yellow, brother unto James Mac-Conel, who possessed himselfe of the Glines, became also in some sort Lord hereof, untill that Sir John Perot Lord Deputy, having wonne Donluse Castle, a very strong pile seated upon a rocke that hangeth over the sea, and severed from the Land with a deepe ditch, dispossessed him and all his. Which for all that, hee recovered the next yeere following by treason, after he had slaine Carie the Captaine thereof, who manfully defended himselfe. But the Lord Deputy, sending against him Captaine Meriman, an approved warrior, who slew the sonnes of James MacConel, and Alexander this Surley Boys sonne, so coursed him from place to place and drave away his cattaile, the onely riches he had (for hee was able to number of his owne flocke 50000 cowes), so that Surley Boy rendred Donluse, came to Dublin, and in the Cathedrall Church openly made his submission, exhibited a supplication craving mercy, and afterwards being admitted into the Lord Deputies Great Chamber, so soone as he saw the Picture of Queene Elizabeth upon a table, once or twice flung away his sword, fell downe at her feet, and devoted himselfe unto her Majesty. Whereupon, being received into favour and ranged among the subjects of Ireland, he abjured and renounced openly in the Courts of Chancery and Kings Bench all service and allegeance to any foraine Kings whatsoever, and hee had given unto him by the bounteous liberality of Queene Elizabeth foure territories (toughes they call them) lying from the river Boys unto the Bay, Don Severig, Loghill, and Balla-moyn, with the Constableship of Donluse Castle, to him and the heires males of his bodie, to hold of the KIngs of England with these conditions, that neither hee nor his, nor yet his posterity, serve in the wars under any foraine Prince without Licence; that they keepe their people from all depraedations; that they furnish and finde twelve horsemen and fortie footmen at their owne charges for fortie daies in time of warre; and present unto the Kings of England a certaine number of cowes and hawkes yeerely &c.


EYOND the Glynnes West standeth Krine, which now they call the Country Colran of the principall towne therein. It lieth betweene the river Ban and Lough-foile, and confineth South upon the County of Tir-Oen. This Ban, a passing faire river, as Giraldus saith (which the name also witnesseth), rising out of the Mountaines of Mourne in the County of Downe, carrieth himselfe and his name into Lough Eaugh or Lough-Sidney a large Lake, which name for all that, after thirty miles or thereabout (for of so great length that Lake is esteemed to be), at his going forth in the end he resumeth againe at Tome Castle, and, being beset and shadowed along the sides with woods by Glancolkein, where by reason of thicke woods and unpassable bogges there is the safest place of refuge for the Scottish Ilands and the Rebels (and which the English felt who pursued Surley Boy whiles he lurked heere), carying a proud streame, entreth into the sea, breeding Salmons in aboundance above any other river in all Europe because, as some thinke it passeth all the rest for cleerenesse, in the which kinde of water Salmons take speciall delight. In this part the O Cahans were of greatest authority, the principall person of which family O Cahan is thought to be one of the greatest of those Potentates or Vraights, as they terme them, that ought service unto O Neal the Tyrant of Ulster: as who in that barbarous election of O-Neal, which with as barbarous ceremonies is solemnized in the open aire upon an high hil, performeth this honorable service forsooth as to fling a shooe over the head of the elected O-Neal. Howbeit, he is not of power sufficient to restrain the Scots Ilanders, who to save charges at home every yeere in Summer time flocke hither out of those hungry and barraine Ilands (where is nothing but beggery) to get their living, ready upon every occasion and opportunity to maintaine rebellions, in so much as provided it hath been by law, under paine of high treason, that no person call them into Ireland, nor give them lodging or entertainement. ‡But this County with other confining is escheated to the King, who, gratiously purposing a civill plantation of those unreformed and waste parts, is pleased to distribute the said lands to his civill subjects, and the City of London hath undertaken to plant Colonies heere.‡


ENEATH Colran lieth Southward the County of Tir-Oen, in old bookes named also Tir-Eogain, that is, if a man interpret it, The land of Eugenius, which name the Irish have contracted into Eogain and Oen. This is altogether upland from the sea, divided toward the Sunnes setting by the river Liffer from Tir-Contell, toward the rising with the Lough Eaugh from the County of Antrim, and Southward with the Blackwater, which in Irish they call Aven More, that is, The great Water, from the County of Armagh. A country though rough and rugged, yet fruitfull and very large, as which lieth out threescore miles in length and thirty in breth, divided by the Mountaines called Sliew Gallen, into the Upper Tir-Oen Northward and the Nether Southward. In it are, first, Cloghar a Bishopricke, and that a slender one; then Dunganon, the chiefe habitation of the Earles, which through the favour of King Henry the Eight gave the title of Baron unto Matthew sonne to the first Earle of Tir-Oen. And verily this is an house fairer built than commonly they be in this Country, but hath beene oftentimes by the Lords themselves defaced with fire because it should not be burnt by the enemy. Also Ublogahell, where O-Neal, that most proudly ruleth and oppresseth Ulster, was wont to be inaugurated after that barbarous maner and tradition of the Country. And the Fort at Black-water or the River More, which hath susteined the variable changes and chances of warre, while there was no other way into this country, being the place of refuge for the Rebels. But now it is neglect ever since there was found another Ford more below, at which on both sides of the river Charles Lord Montjoy, Deputy, erected new Sconces [fortifications] when with hot war hee pursued the rebels in these parts. Who likewise at the same time raised another garison-fort, called by his owne name Montjoy, at the Lake Eaugh (Logh Sidney in honor of Henrie Sidney souldiers now tearme it), which encloseth the West side of this shire, and is made, or much encreased, by the river Bann, as I have said. Surely this is a goodly and beautifull Lake, passing fishfull and very large, as stretching out thirty miles or thereabout, as the Poet saith:

Fresh water though it bee,
A Sea folke think they see.

And considering the variety of shew upon the bankes, the shady groves, the medowes alwaies greene, the fertile corne fields, if they be well manured, the bending and hanging hilles, and the rills running into it, fashioned and shaped for pleasure and profite even by Nature herselfe, who seemeth as it were to be very angry with the inhabitants therby for suffering all to grow wild and barbarous through their lasie lithernesse [idleness]. In the upper Tir Oen stands Straban a Castle well knowen, wherin dwelt in our daies Turlogh Leinigh of the sept of O-Neals, who after the death of Shane O-Neale, as I shall shew anone, by election of the people attained to the dignity of O-Neal; also some other Piles or Fortresses of smaller reckoning, the which (like as elsewhere in this Iland) be no more but towres with narrow loope-holes rather than windowes, unto which adjoine Hauls made of turfes and roufed overhead with thatch, having unto them belonging large Courts or yards fensed round about with ditches and hedges of rough bushes for defense of their cattaile against Cowe-stealers. But if this county have any name or glory at all, it is wholly from the Lords thereof, who have ruled heere as Kings and Tyrants rather, of whom there were two Earles of Tir-Oen, namely Con O-Neale and Hugh his nephew by his sonne Matthew. But of these I will speake more at large by and by, when I am to treat of the Earles and Lords of Ulster.


HATSOEVER remaineth now behind in Ulster toward the North and South was possessed in ancient times by the Robogdii and Venicnii, but at this day it is called the County of Donegall or Tir-Conell, that is, as some interpret it, The land of Cornelius, or as others, The land of Conall, and in truth Marianus plainly nameth it Conallea. this County is all in a maner champian [flatland] and full of havens, as bounded with the sea on the North and West sides beating upon it, and disjoyned on the East from Tir Oen with the river Liffer, and from Conaght with the Lake Erne. Leffer nere unto his spring head enlargeth his streame and spreadeth abroad into a Lake, wherein appeereth above the water an Iland, and in it hard by a little Monastery, a very narrow vault within the ground, much spoken by reason of I wot not what fearefull walking spirits and dreadfull apparitions, or rather some religious horrour. Which cave, as some dreame ridiculously, was digged by Ulisses when hee went downe to parlee with those in Hell. The Inhabitants terme it in these daies Ellan u’ Frugadory, that is, the Isle of Purgatory, and Saint Patricks Purgatory. For some persons devoutly credulous affirme that Patrick the Irishmens Apostle, or else some Abbat of the same name, obtained by most earnest praier at the hands of God that the punishments and torments which the Godlesse are to suffer after this life might here bee presented to the eye, that so hee might more easily root out the sinnes which stuck so fast to his Countrimen the Irish, and withall their heathenish errors. But seeing that this place is named in Saint Patricks life Reglis, I would deeme it to be the other Regia that Ptolomee mentioneth, and the very situation of it in the Geographer implieth no lesse. Besides this Patricks Purgatorie, their was another Purgatorie also of Saint Brendan in this Island, but since I could not finde out the place, take here with you that only which I found, namely Nechams Tetrastichon of it:

If common fame say true, a place of Brendan taking name
There is, and often times cleere lights doe shine within the same.
The soules have licence here to passe through Purgatory fire,
That worthily before that Judge they may at length appeere

2. Where this river Liffer, augmented by other waters comming unto it, approacheth nerer to the sea, it spreadeth out againe into a Lake, which Ptolomee called Logia, and now they usually terme it Logh Foyle and Logh Der, whereupon Necham hath these verses:

Lough-Der, a Lake in waters rich, this Ulster knoweth well,
Comodious, and pleasing much those that about it dwell.

Hard by this there flourished sometime Derry, a monasterie and Episcopall See, where in the yeare 1566 Edward Randolph, renowned for his long service in the warres, spent his life in the behalfe of his Country to his everlasting fame, and gave Shane O-Neal (who had then assembled and armed all the powre he could possibly against the English) such an overthrow as that he could never after recover the losse he then susteined. But now of late Sir Henry Docwra Knight, who in the warres of Ireland quit him so well that with great praise hee hath approved his singular valour and martiall skill, brought hither first a garizon, and afterwards planted heere a Colony to bridle the Earle of Tir-Oens insolent pride, and established and settled the same with so good orders that it both standeth in good steed for helpe against the Rebells and also traineth the barbarous people to their duties. The Robogdii placed above Logia held all that Northren sea coast of Ireland, where O-Dogherty an obscure Potentate had great sway. Amongst these, Robogh, a little Episcopall towne, reteineth the expresse footings of the old name Robogdii. Which should be that promontory Robogdium unlesse it be Faire Foreland, I know not. From hence the utmost shores, all rockie, bend backe againe by the mouth of Swilly Lake, which Ptolomee seemeth to call Argita.
3. Beyond these more Westward were the Venicnii seated, where Mac Rwyny Faid, Mac Swyn Neteoth, and Mac Swyn Bannich have great lands and large possessions. Amongst these Ptolomee placeth the river Vidua, which is now is called Crodagh,and the Promontory Venicnium, which they now call Rames-head, and the Foreland Boraeum, now S. Helens Head.
Upon this shore, as it twineth backe from hence Southerly, Calebeg affourdeth an Haven and commodious harbour for sailers. Then appeare the ruines and rubbish of Sligah Castle, which Maurice Fitz-Girald Lord Justice of Ireland built about the yeere 1242 when he had made himselfe Lord of this Country. But John Fitz-Girald the first Earle of Kildare was dispossessed of this Castle and a goodly inheritance in this tract, fined also in a great sum of mony, for that he had raised a civill and dangerous war against the Earle of Ulster.
Lower yet and not far from the mouth of Logh Earne, Donegal, that is The towne of the Gallicians of Spaine, with an Abbay sheweth it selfe, whence this County when it was made a County tooke the name. There have beene rulers over this territory for these many ages they of the house of O Donel, and those extracted from the same stocke that the family of Oneals, neither had they any other title than O-Donell and Lords of Tir-Conell. For the getting of which title, and that they might be by a certaine election of the people inaugurated with their due complements at a stone beside Kilmacrenan, they were at deadly discord, and committed outrages one upon another untill that King James not long since by his honourable Letters Patents conferred the honour, title, and stile of Earle Tir-Conell upon Rory O-Donell the brother of that Hugh the rebell, who being fled out of his Country died in Spaine, ‡and this Rory his successour, practising new treason against King James his advancer, upon the terrour of a guilty conscience fled the Realme in the yeare 1607 and died at Rome.‡
4. The ancient inhabitants of this Ulster, like as the rest of all Ireland throughout, were by one name in times past cleped Scoti, and from hence carried they over with them the name of Scots into the North parts of Britain. For, as Giraldus writeth, about the yeere of Salvation foure hundred, six sonne of Mured King of Ulster seized upon the North parts of Britain, whereupon it was by a speciall and peculiar name called Scotia. And yet it appeareth by the Scotish Annales that this hapned long before. Also Ferguse the Second, who reestablished the Kingdome of Scots in Britain, came from hence, unto whom Patricke had prophesied by way of Divination or Soothsaying in these words: Although thou seemst at this day base and contemptible in the eyes of thy brethren, thou shalt shortly be the Prince and Lord of them all. And to avow the credit and authority of this prediction, the said writer addeth moreover and saith, No long space of time after this, Fergus according to the Holy mans prophesie obteined the soveraignty in all that land, and his seed raigned for many generations together. From his stemme proceeded that most Valorous King Edan, the sonne of Gabran, who subdued Scotland, but is called Albanach, whose posterity in lineall descent and succession reigneth there still.
5. The first Englishman that in the reigne of King Henry the Second attempted this Country was Sir John Curcy, who having by force won Downe and Armach, either by dint of sword conquered, or by surrender gat the whole into his owne hands, and was the first that was stiled Earle of Ulster. But when his great exploits and fortunate atchievements had wrought him such envie that through his owne vertues and other mens vices he was banished out of the Realme, Hugh Lacy, the second sonne of Hugh Lacy Lord of Meth, who had commandement to pursue him by force and armes, was by King John appointed his successour, being created Earle of Ulster by the sword, of which honour notwithstanding the same King afterwards deprived him for his tumultuous insolency, and he was in the end received into favour againe. But for the sounder testimony heereof, it were good to exemplifie the same word for word out of the Records of Ireland. Hugh de Lacy, somtime Earle of Ulster, held al Ulster (exempt and seperate from all other counties whatsoever) of the King of England in chiefe by service of three Knights so often as the Kings service was proclaimed, and he held al Pleas in his owne court that pertaine to a Justice and Sheriff, and held a Court of Chauncery of his own &c. And afterward all Ulster came into the hands of our soveraign Lord King John by the forfaiture of the foresaid Hugh: unto whom after that King Henry the Third dimised it for terme of the said Hughs life. And when Hugh was deceased, Walter de Burgo did that service unto Lord Edward King Henry his son, Lord of Ireland before he was King. And the same Lord Edward feoffed the aforesaid Walter in the said land of Ulster, to have and to hold, unto the same Walter and to his heires, by the service aforesaid, as freely and wholly as the abovenamed Hugh de Lacy held it, excepting the Advowsons of Cathedrall Churches and the demesne of the same, also the Pleas of the Crowne, to wit, Rape, Foristall, Fyring, and Treasure Trove, which our soveraigne Lord King Edward retained to himselfe and his heires. This Walter de Burgo, who was Lord of Conaght and Earle of Ulster, begat of the onely daughter of Hugh de Lacy Richard Earle of Ulster, who after he had endured many troubles and calamities died in the yeere 1326. Richard had issue John de Burgo, who departed his life before his father, having begotten upon Elizabeth, sister and one of the heires of Gilbert Clare Earle of Glocester, William, who succeeded after his grandfather. This William, being slaine by his owne men when he was young, left behind him a little daughter his onely child, who being married unto Leonell Duke of Clarence beare one daughter likewise, the wife of Edmund Mortimer Earle of March, by whom the Earledome of Ulster and signorie of Canaght came unto the Mortimers, and from them together with the Kingdome of England unto the house of Yorke, and afterward Edward the Fourth King of England adjoined it unto the Kings Domaine or Crowneland. And whenas at the same time England was divided into sides and factions, whiles the civill warre grew hote, and the English that abode heere returned out of Ulster into England to follow the factions, O Neal and others of Irish bloud seized the countries into their owne hands and brought them to such wildnesse and savage barbarisme as it exceeded, insomuch as this province, which in times past paied a mighty masse of money unto their Earles, scarcely ever since yeelded any coine at all unto the Kings of England.
6. And verily in no one thing whatsoever (pardon this my over-boldnes) have the Kings of England beene more defective in pietie and policie than that they have for these so many ages seene so slightly to this Province, yea and to all Ireland, in the propagation of religion, establishing the weale publicke, and reducing the life of the inhabitants to civility, whether it was for carelesse neglect, sparing, or a forecast of dammage, or some reason of state, I am not able to say. But that the same may be no longer thus neglected, it seemeth of it selfe by good right to importune most earnestly, being an Iland so great, so neere a neighbour, so fruitfull in soile, so rich in pastures more than credible, beset with so many woods, enriched with so many mineralles (if they were searched), watered with so many rivers, environed with so many havens, lying so fit and commodious for sailing into most wealthy countries, and thereby like to be for impost and custome very profitable, and, to conclude, breeding and rearing men so abundantly as it doth, who, considering either their minds or their bodies, might be of singular emploiment for all duties and functions as well of warre as of peace, if they were wrought and conformed to orderly civilitie.

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