1ff. In this poem Leland describes the Queen’s crossing from Greenwich to the Tower, accompanied by a civic barge procession, which occurred on May 29, the day previous to the coronation procession through the City of London to Westminster Palace. It is described in detail by Hall fols. 212v - 213v (cf. also Anon. pp.2 - 4 Hui).
14 The mythical founder of the Tower of London. According to Geoffrey of Monmouth Belinus son of Dunvallo ruled Leogria, Cambria and Cornwall. His brother Brennius held Northumbria and Albany. Belinus eventually defeated Brennius, and thus came to rule all of Britain. He was a great road-builder, and Billingsgate in London was built by and named after him. Milton in Book I of his History of Britain wrote:
However Belinus after a while returning home, the rest of his days rul’d in Peace, Wealth, and Honour above all his Predecessors; building some Cities, of which one was Caerose upon Osca, since Caerlegion; beautifying others, as Trinovant, with a Gate, a Haven, and a Tower, on the Thames, retaining yet his Name; on the top wherof his Ashes are said to have been laid up in a Golden Urn.
17 According to Hall fol. 212v (see also Anon. p. 3 Hui) there were about fifty barges representing London’s various companies and guilds, with the Lord Mayor’s barge nearly at the head of the procession (so Leland is describing the procession according to a wrong order). They went downstream to Greenwich, were joined by the Queen, then rowed back the Tower, so Leland’s mention of the Queen only at the end of his description is accurate.
20 A white falcon was the badge of the Boleyn family (Anne’s personal badge was the same bird, tricked out with a crown and scepter, for which see Kipling p. 56 Fig.3). Hence the pageant of the falcon let down from heaven (306ff.) subsequently performed at Cornhill. Hans Holbein’s cartoon that appears to depict the “set” used for the first portion of this pageantry depicts an enthroned Apollo seated in a sort of bower and surrounded by the nine Muses. Atop the bower is perched a bird which surely represents Anne’s falcoln (it bears a distinct resemblance to that depicted on her official badge, although unfortunately the artist has cut off the top of the bird’s head so one cannot verify that it was bearing a coronet, as did Anne’s). A woodcut reproduction of Holbein’s cartoon appears on Anon. p. 16 Hui, and her badge is shown on p. 17.
21 Cf. Hall fol. 213r, Next after the maior followed his fellowship, the Haberdashers; next after them the Mercers; then the Grocers; and so every companie in his order.
23 According to Hall, the deckes of the [Lord Mayor’s] barge, and saile yardes, and the top castles, were hanged with rich cloth of god and silke: at the foreship and the sterne were two great banners, rich beaten with the armes of the King and the Queen. Neither eyewitness mentions the detail of the diving Moor. According to Hall fol. 212v:
Fyrst before the Maiors barge was a foyst or waster full of orrdubabcem ub wgucg fitste was a great red dragon continually mooving and casting wild fire; and round about the said foyste stood terrible monstrous and wilde men casting fire, and hideous noyse.
This might be the likeliest place for such a display to be included.
27f. Cf. Hall fol. 213r, …and in the meane time the ships which were commanded to lie on the shoare for letting of the barges, shotte diverse peales of guns, and ere shee landed, there was a marvellous shot out of the Tower, I never heard the like. Cf. also Anon. p. 3 Hui.
31ff. Cf. Hall, loc. cit. (also Anon. p. 4 Hui):
…and in that order they rowed downeward to Greenewich towne, and there cast anchor, making great melodie. At three of the clocke, the Queene, apparelled in rich cloth of golde, entered into her barge, accompanied with divers ladies and gentlewomen, and incontenent the cittizens sette forward in their order, their minstrels continually playing.
…then came the Queene in a white litter of white cloth of golde, not covered or vailled, which was led by two palfreis clad in white damaske downe to the grounde, head and all, led by her footmen: she had on a kirtle of white cloth of tissue, and a mantle of the same furred with ermine.
The iconographic symbolism of presenting Anne dressed all in white is reinforced throughtout the poems by Udall and Leland, who repeatedly stress her whiteness (a fair complexion was regarded as a feature of a woman’s beauty), and also her virtuousness.
48 Although in some Neo-Latin literature of the Tudor and early Stuart periods the word senatus is frequently pressed into service to designate Parliament (or, occasionally, the Privy Council), here the senatus purpureus clearly refers to the London Court of Aldermen.
54ff. See Hall, fol. 214v:
…and from thence shee rode unto Grace-church Corner, where was a costlie and marvellous cunning pageant made by the marchants of the Stil-yeard, therein was the Mount Pernassus with the Fountaine of Helicon, which was of white marble, and four streames without pipe did rise an ell high, and met together in a little cup above the fountaine, which fountaine ranne abundantly with rackt Reynish wine till night; on the mountain sat Apollo, and at his feete sat Caliope; and on every side of the mountaine sate four Muses playing on severall sweete instruments, and at their feete epigrams and poesies were written in golden letters, in the which every Muse, according to her property, praysed the Queene.
Cf. also the anonymous contemporary account (pp. 16f. Hui):
…and so passed to Grase-churche where was a ryght costly pagent of Apollo with the Nyne Muses amonge the mountayns syttyng on the mount of Parnassus and every of them havyinge their instrumentes and apparayle acordyng to the descryption of poets and namely of Virgyll with many goodly verses to her great prayse and honour.
This “set” for the pageant was designed by no less a figure than Hans Holbein. For his preliminary sketch-design, cf. Kipling p. 62 Figure 5 (with the doubly inaccurate caption “Preliminary sketch for Leadenhall pageant of Apollo and the Three Muses” — this confuses the pageant of the Muses with the Pageant of the three Graces, subsequently performed at the Leadenhall, and all nine Muses are clearly visible in Holbein’s cartoon).
The meter of Leland’s preliminary poem is Sapphic stanzas.
58 Roman poets sometimes called Parnassus bicornis because it is a mountain with twin peaks.
63 Paestum was a town in southern Italy famous in antiquity for its roses (the Oxford Latin Dictionary cites Ovid, Metamorphoses XV.708 and Martial, XII.xxxi.3).
84 Although this pageant of the Muses turns out to be a polymetric cycle of poems, its first part is dactylic hexameters, and its second in elegiac couplets.
85 The Romans used white stones to mark auspicious days on their calendars. Udall and Leland will return to this image repeatedly in their poetry, especially because of its connection with the other leitmotiv of the Queen’s whitness.
124ff. Meter: Third Asclepiadean stanzas.
125 Her father Thomas Boleyn was Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and her maternal grandfather was Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk,
141 The Sibyl of Cumae, proverbial for her old age (mentioned repeatedly in these poems).
144ff. Meter: iambic strophes (iambic trimeters alternating with iambic dimeters).
147 The goddesses are scarcely envious of Anne. Rather they are jealous of each other — this is a proleptic allusion to the rival goddesses who submit to the Judgment of Paris, the subject of the pageant subsequently performed at Cheapside (519ff.).
158ff. Meter: First Pythiambics (dactylic hexameters alternating with iambic dimeters).
172ff. Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
182f. The allusion is to the introduction of the cult of the Magna Mater into Rome during the dark days of the Second Punic War, as described by Livy (XXIX.x.4ff.).
192ff. Meter: trochaic strophes (one so-called Eurpidean verse, followed by an iambic trimeter catalectic).
199 The vine is specified as Falernian simply because Falernian wine had an excellent reputation in antiquity.
208ff. Meter: Fourth Archilochian strophes (one greater Archilochian verse followed by an iambic trimeter catalectic).
210f. Cornelia, the daughter of Scipio Africanus, was married to Tiberus Sempronius Gracchus (the father of the political reformers). After his death she refused to remarry, thus establishing herself as a paradigmatic Roman matron.
214 Portia committed suicide, supposedly by drinking hot coals, when she learned of Brutus’ death.
220 Alcestis, who sacrificed herself so her husband might continue to live (but Hercules returned her from the Underworld).
226ff. Meter: Second Asclepiadean strophes (one glyconic followed by one First Asclepiadean).
254ff. Meter: Alcmanic strophes (one dactylic hexameter followed by a dactylic tetrameter).
262ff. Udall looks forward proleptically to some of the following pageants.
282ff. Having cycled through various Horatian lyric meters, we now return to elegiac couplets.
306ff. Cf. Hall, fol. 214v (also Anon. pp. 17f. Hui):
From thence the Queene with her traine passed to Leadenhall, where was a goodly pageant, with a tippe [canopy] and heavenly rose; and under the tippe was a goodlie roote of gold set on a little mountain, environed with red roses and white; out of the tippe came downe a faulcon all white, and set uppon the roote, and incontinent [immediately] came downe an angell with great melodie, and set a close crowne of golde on the faulken’s head; and in the same pageant sate Saint Ann, with all her issue beneath her; and under Mary Cleophe sate her foure children; of the which children one made a goodlie oration to the Queene of the fruitfulness of Saint Anne, and of her generation, trusting that like fruit should come of her.
This pageant is based on apocryphal lore concerning St. Anne, mother of the Virgin Mary. As stated in The Catholic Encyclopedia article on her:
The renowned Father John of Eck of Ingolstadt, in a sermon on St. Anne (published at Paris in 1579), pretends to know even the names of the parents St. Anne. He calls them Stollanus and Emerentia. He says that St. Anne was born after Stollanus and Emerentia had been childless for twenty years; that St. Joachim died soon after the presentation of Mary in the temple; that St. Anne then married Cleophas, by whom she became the mother of Mary Cleophae (the wife of Alphaeus and mother of the Apostles James the Lesser, Simon and Judas, and of Joseph the Just); after the death of Cleophas she is said to have married Salomas, to whom she bore Maria Salomae (the wife of Zebedaeus and mother of the Apostles John and James the Greater). The same spurious legend is found in the writings of Jean de Charlier de Gerson (Opp. III, 59) and of many others.
Then shee passed to the Conduit in Cornhill, where were the three Graces sette in a throne, afore whome was the spring of grace, continuallie running wine; afore the fountaine sate a poet, declaring the property of every Grace: that done, every ladie by herself, according to her propertie, gave to the Queene a severall gift of grace.
479ff. Meter: hendecasyllables.
484 Lenaeus is a cult name of Bacchus.
492ff. Cf. Hall, loc. cit. (also Anon. pp. 19f. Hui): That done, shee passed by the great Conduit in Cheape, which was newlie paynted with armes and devises; out of the which Conduit (by a goodlie fountaine set at the end) ranne continuallie wine, both white and claret, all that afternoon.
504ff. Cf. Hall, loc. cit. (also Anon. p. 20 Hui): …and so shee rode to the Standart, which was richly paynted with images of Kinges and Queenes, and hanged with banners of armes; and inthe toppe was marvellous sweete harmonie, both of songs and instruments.
511 The famous Greek artist, known for his painting of Venus.
514ff. Cf. Hall fol. 215r (also Anon. p. 21 Hui):
…and so he rode to the little Conduite, where was a rich pageant full of melody and songs, in which pageant were Pallas, Juno, and Venus, and afore them stood Mercurie, which in the name of the three goddesses gave unto her a ball of gold, divided into three, signifying three gifts which these three goddesses gave to her, that is to say, Wisedome, Riches, and Felicitie.
603ff. Meter: hendecasyllables.
607 I. e., Mercury (Marmaricus = “African.”)
608 I.e., Jupiter, who was born on Mt. Dictys in Crete.
612 “Dardanian” = Trojan.
646ff. Meter: hendecasyllables.
660ff. Cf. Hall fol. 215v (also Anon. pp. 24f. Hui):
After that shee was past Ludgate, shee proceeded toward Fleetstreet, where the Conduit was newly paynted, and all the armes and angels refreshed, and the shalmes melodiouslie sounding. Upon the Conduit was made a tower with foure turrets, and in every turret stood one of the cardinal vertues with their tokens and properties, which had severall speeches, promising the Queene never to leave her, but to be aiding and comforting her: and in the middest of the tower closely was such severall solemne instruments, that it seemed to bee an heavenly noyse, and was much regarded and praysed: and besides this, the Conduit ranne wine, claret and redd, all the afternoone.
670ff. Cf. ib. (also Anon. p. 25 Hui):
…till shee came to Westminster-hall, which was richly hanged with cloth of arras and newly glased; and in the middest of the hall shee was taken out of her litter, and so lede up to the high deske under the cloth of estate…
Meter: Sapphic stanzas.
694 Τhe nymph Galatea, beloved of the shepherd Acis. Their story is told by Ovid, Metamorphoses XIII.789ff.
696 For Cornelia, see the note on 210f. She was a kind of bluestocking and surrounded herself with learned men.
698 Brutus’ wife Portia (for whom see the note on 214) was the daughter of Cato the Censor.
712 In mythology Niobe was credited with fourteen children.