To see a textual note, click on a red square. 

OME citye at first Kinges guided.  Popularitie and Consulship L, Brutus  ordained. Dictators but for a tyme did serve, neither did the ten mens rule above two years laste, no longe did  dyde the Consuls rule over Tribunes bandes. No lasting power Cinna nor Sylla had, and soone Pompeys and Crassus rule to Caesar fell. Lepidus and Anthonyes armes to Augustus gave place, who  he to his rule did take with princes title, all weryed with civill discords. As for the auncient Roman people both prosperous and miserable, by cleare authors are well remembred. There lacked not flourishing wittes to sette out Augustus days untill flatteries glose to muche affrighted them. Tiberius, Caius, Claudius, and Neroes time, <honoued> when they flourished for feare of falsehood, after their days by fresh hates were accorded. This made me take in hande the laste and few of Augustus days, and so Tiberius rule and all the rest without malice or zeale, from which  both I am farre of.
spacer2. After Brutus and Cassius slaine there were no common armes. Pompey oppressed in Sicilia, Lepidus reiected, Anthony killed, and none left for Julius partey but Cesar alone, who leaving the name of Triumvir remained but Consul, contented by Tribunes right to defend the people. Wherein when he had won the soldier by giftes, the people by plenty, and all by eases  swetnes, then began he to pluck and drawe the Senates office, the Magistrates power, and all lands to himselfe, none gainsaying, when the stoutest by battalye or exile were decayed.  The rest of noblest and redyest in service, so moste advanced in wealth and dignitie, increased by new gyftes, chose rather the safe and present then ancient and dangerous. Nether did the  Province gainsay this ordered state. The rule of Senate and people suppressed for the great ones striffes, and magistrates avarice, nought availing lawes helpe, which by violence, ambition, at laste for money were all shaken.
spacer3. But Augustus tooke for rules healpe Cla<udius> Marcellus his sisters sonne, a young man, advancinge him first to be Bushoppe and Aedyle. And Agrippa also, base for his place but a good soldier and compagnon of his his victories, he preferred to a double Consulshippe and soone after dying he chose him for sonne in lawe. Tiberius Nero and Claud<ius> Drusus his wyfes sonne he endued [endowed] with Emperors names, though his owne howse were well filled, for he had drawen into the family of Cesar Caius and Lucius Agrippas sonnes, though scares they had caste of their childish cloakes. He willed them to be called Youthes Princes whom greedely he desired thoroughe color of refuse [a show of refusal] to appointe Consuls. And as Agrippa dyed so did hastie death or stepdame Livias crafte deprive of lyfe Lucius Cesar going to the Spanishe army and Caius leavinge Armenia for his wound unserviceable. So, Drusus destroyed, Nero alone remained of all his wifes children whom onely all respected. He was the sonne, the rules [government's] compagnon, the Tribunes powers fellow, sent out to the army not by slye art, as before of his mother, but openly now by a publicke desire. For she had so wonne the olde Augustus that he banished his onely nephew Agrippa Posthumus into Planasia island. Ignorant he was of all good artes, and grossely strong for bodies stength, but never guiltie of wicked acte. Yet Germanicus Drusus sonne he approinted ruler of the eight legions beyoind the Rhyne, and bad Tiberius adopte him (although he had a yong childe of his owne) with greater strength to inforce his rule. No warre was loste at that time but onely against Germanie, which was rather don to blotte out the infamy for the army loste by Quintilius Varus then for desire of enlarginge the Empire or hope of worthy rewarde. At home all thinges quiett. The voices of Magistrates agreed. After the Actium victory yong men <arose>, moste olde men since the civill warre were borne. What one was lefte then that had seen the common wealth?
spacer4. Wherefore, the state of <the> city turned, nothing remained of olde and sounder condition. All learning equalitie obeyed the Princes will. No feare of present state while Augustus in sounder healthe himselfe his family and peace mainteined. But when his elder dayes grew on weryed with sickly body, and that his end and hope of new estate drew nye, few carelessly their good neglected, more feared warre, other desired it. The greater parte differred [deferred] their choice of lorde for sundry brutes [rumors] of whom might raign, Agrippa for cruell and fierce <actes> defamed, neither for yeares nor experience to weilde suche a charge. Tiberius Nero, rype of yeares, famous in warre but of olde and grafted [inherited] pride like to Claudius race. Many tokens of crueltie burst out in him though smothered. In childish yeares brougut up in raigning family, obtained both Consulship and triumph, yet even in these very yeares when he had made made away ito Rhodes as an exile he mynded nought but wrath, deceipt and secret luste. A mother he had of feminyne weaknes, serve they must a woman and withall two yong men who sometyme grieved the commonwealthe, ofte divided it.
spacer5. With these and suchlike driftes Augustus health decayed, not voyd, as was suspectred, of <his> wfes mischief. A brute [rumor] ran a few monthes afore that Augustus had gonne to Planasia choosing as privy thereof Fabius Mximus, to visit Agrippa. Many teares passed between them and signes of love, which bread a hope of the young mans return to his grandfathers howse. Maximus tolde this to his wife Martia, she to Livia, Maximus to Caesar. Nether long after Maximus dying (doubtful whether by forced death) Martia made great mone at his funerals, accusing herselfe for guilty of husbands end. Howsoever the matter went, Tiberius, scarce entered Illiricum, was sent for by his mothers letters (not yet being knowen whether Augustus breathed) to Nola citye. For Livia had layd all wayes and house it selfe with sure gardes and ofte time plesant messengers should tell good newes untill when they sawe tyme they uttered Augustus death, and at that instant Nero by brute [proclamation] possessed cald.
spacer6. The first mischief of the new rule was Post. Agrippas murder, whom ignorant and unweaponed, scarse coulde the Captaine with stable mynde destroy. Tiberius made no mention of that in the Senate, saying it was his fathers charge who gave the order to the Captaine of the watche not to differre Agrippas death, although his lyfe were gon. Augustus indeed complained muche and ofte of this yonge mans conditions so as the Senate did exile him., but never so indurate to slaughter of his own. Nor shoulde it be believed that kille he would his nephew for surety of his sonne in lawe, but rather that Tiberus and Livia, the one for feare, the other for stepdames hate, wolde haste the envyed yong mans end. The Centurion telling like martiall guise [in military fashion] that don was what was byd, he denyed that charge and sayd he shoulde make accomopte to the Senate for it. Which when Sallustius Crispus, privy to the secret, found (for he sent the byll to the Tribune), fearing as guilty and nearest danger to smarte, warned Livia, whether he sayde true or false, that neither home secrets, nor frendes councell, nor soldiers enterprises ought to be bared least Tiberius wolde give up his rule and power, calling all the Senate. For so is the state of raigne that accompote be suche as <is> made to one.
spacer7. But at Rome Consuls, fathers, gentlemen fell all in bondage. As every one was greatest so falsely heeded they to frame their counteance least to joyfull at <the> Princes deathe or to sory for other begiinning they should shewe themselves. They mixed teares, joye, complainte, and all with flattery. Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius Consuls first sware their allegience to Tiberius Cesar, and with them C. Strabo and C Turannius the one of the praetorian companie, the other of the victuallers. The like the Senate, soldier and people did. For Tiberius began all by the Consuls as in ancient tyme, yet doubtfull of his raigne. No edict he made to calle the fathers into courte but in selfe sorte by Tribunes power, as under Augustus was. The wordes few and of a mylde sence, that he wolde consulte of his fathers funerals, nor goe from the body as observing that duty in publike office. But Augustus deceasing, he gave the watche worde to the Praetorian companie as an Emperor shoulde. Wardes, armes and all for a courte. The soldiers garded him both in palace and courte. He sent letters to the armyes as getting the rule. Never slowe but when in senate he spake. The chiefest cause for feare, lest Germanicus in whose handes so manie legions, great associates healpe and wonderfull peoples favor might make him choose rather to have the rule then attend [obey] it. He made a brute, as thoughe he were rather chosen and called by the commonwealth then creape into it by wifes pride or olde adoption. After it was knowen, to determine the noble willes a doubte was made. Protesting wordes and lookes he kept them in store for cryme.
spacer
8. He suffered nought to be done in first councell day but of Augustus enduring wordes, whose laste testament he had brought in by virgins Vestals, appointinge Tiberius and Livia heyres. Livia brought into Julius family tooke name Augusta. For second succession his nephewes and their children. In thirde degree the principall of the citye, manie hatefull to him but for pride and glory to posterity lefte them. His legacies not exceading the civill manner, saving to the people and commonalty he bequeathed mmxxxj s<esterces>, to soldiers of the praetorian companies every one a thousand of that coyne. To the legionary bandes of roman citizens ccc coyne for a man. Then they determined how honnors should be bestowed accordinge to eache mans callinge. Gallus Asinius first that the hearse shoulde be carryed thorough triumpant gate. Howe tytles of lawes made, and names of wonne nations should goe afore him L. Aruntius appointed. Messala Valerius added that the othe shoulde be renewed eache yeare in Tiberius name. Asked by Tiberius whether he comanding that wold he speake, answered of free wylle, nether in things of common wealthe woulde he use but his one own councell, though he incurred offence. That onely kynde of flattery remayned. The fathers exclaimed that the body should be brought to the funnerall on Senators shoulders. Cesar remitted it with an arrogant temper, and warned the people by edict that not as once they did vex Julius funeralles by a superfluous observance, so nowe they woolde. Rather in palace then in Mars feilde have him burnt as fittestest place. The day of the funerall, the soldiers stoode as his gard, manie scorninge. Who sawe themselves and had had heard of their parents that day shoulde be the caller-in of cruell bondage and unfortunatel libertie. Whern Cesar Dictator was slaine it seamed to some the worst, to other the best deed. Now this olde Prince of long raigne providing for his heyeres treasure against the commonwealhe shoulde be defended by military force to make his grave quiettt.
spacer9. Muche talke there went of Augustus, manie wondering at vanities. The same day first of his raigne and laste of his lyffe. That at Nola he ended his breath in the palace and chamber in which his father Octavius red dyed. His number of Consulships equal to Valerius Corvus red and C. Marius. The Tribunes power continued xxxvij years, the name of Emperor xxj, other honnors increased or new. But among wise men his lyfe was diversly extolled and misliked. The one <spoke> for his piety toward his parents and common wealths love in which there was no place for lawes. Need compelled to civill warre, which neither could be gotte nor keapt by good artes. Muche he gave to Anthonie to revenge his fathers death, much to Lepidus. But after the one by sluggy age, the other by wicked lust went to wracke, no other remedy for troubled state but ones rule. No raign yet nor Dictator, but by Princes title the common wealthe was governed. The empire bounded by Ocean sea or large rivers. Regions, provinces, navy linked in themselves. Lawes to citizens, modesty to associates. The citie royally adorned. Few things handled by violence that the rest might have more ease.
spacer10. But on the other side it was sayde that love to parents and care of common wealth was but a cloake for his luste. That for desire of rule he had garboiled [corrupted] the olde soldiers by gyftes and prepared an army in his single youthe, corrupted the Consuls legions, and dissembled the favor of Pompeys parte. red Streight when by fathers decree he had creapt into Praetors office and armes, Hircus and Pansa killed, he occupied both the roomes (whether ennemy or Cesars guile had wrought that feat, or Pansas venomed wound, or Hircius, the soldiers privy). The Cousuls drawen from Senates will with Armes which for Anthony he tooke, against the common wealth were turned. The cities exyle, the fieldes division not much praised by them that made them. Cassius and Brutus ends excused by his father hate, though need it be that private ire give place to common good. But Pompey thorough show of powre, Lepidus with collor of frendshippe were deceaved. Anthony laste of all thorough the Brundisian and Terentyne league united by sisters maryage, payd by death the reward of craftie affinitye. Peace there was after this, but a cruell one, as Lollius and Varus red slaughters. Varrones, red Egnatians, and Julians destroyed in Rome did show. His owne howse not spared for marying Neros wife, in a show he demanded the Bushoppe whether mary he miight one with childe afore the birthe. The ryott of Tedius and Vedius Pollio not forgotten. Last Livia heavy mother to common wealth, more grievous stepmother to Caesars howse. Nothing lefte for Gods honor, whom they in temples as Gods by pictures, by priests and sacrifices wolde be adored. That Tiberius was not chosen succcessor for love or care of commonewealth, but foreseeing his and cruelty, by wicked comparsions gave him more glory. For Augustus few yeares afore craving the Tribuneshippe of the fathers for Tiberius though with much gracing prase, he lett falle some speach of this grace, behavior, and action, which as by excuse he reproched. But funerals ended, the Temple and divine service were all respected.
spacer11. Their prayers they turned to Tiberius, and he diversly spake of the greatnes of the empire, seaming mylde. Only the sacred Augustus mynde was capaable of suche a burden. Him selfe as called by him to part of care had learned by proofe, how harde and subject was to fortune, all burden of rule, after all cleaving to the censure of worthyest men. Not all in City to be referred to one man. The more, the more. Their labors equal, the comomwealthe charge might be best performed. In this speach there was more dignity then faithe. Doubtfull and darke speaches Tiberius used in those things that hyde he could not, whether by nature or use, hee ever wrapte in uncertainty and doubte. But the fathers whose only feare was if they should seame to understand him, burst out in wayles teares and vowes, with handes lyfte up to heaven, and bended knees Augustus picture. Then red he bad the booke be brought out and received conteyning the common treasure, the cities, and associat forces, the number of their many kingdomes, provinces, tributes, revenues, their loss and liberalities, which all with his own hande Augustus wrotte, and added his concell to keep with in limits the empire, ucnertain whether for feare or hate.
spacer12. In middest of which, the Senate bowing themselves in humblest request, Tiberius sayd perchance he might be fitte for some parte of the rule which they wolde prescribe him, but meet for all he thought not. Then Asinius Gallus “I aske Caesar (quoth he) what parte you may wish for you.” Stricken with the soddane demand, a while he stayede. Plucking up his minde, he answered it was not fitte for modesties sake to choose or shunne that of which he wished rather of all to be excused. Then Gallus (for he found in his face offence) replyed. He asked him not therefore that he meant to divide that could not be separate, but by his own confession to shew that one body of common wealthe ought with ones will be guided. Nor for all that his wrath was appeased. He added Augustus prayse, remembring Tiberius own victories and what as Senator manie a yeare noble he had done. Nor for all that his wrath was appeased, afore stirred up for Vespania daughter to M. Agrippa (marryed to him now, but once Tiberius wiffe, that stirred more than civill cause), and that he retayned the fiercenes of Asinius Pollio his father.
spacer13. Afterwards Aruntius offended no lesse, not differing much from Gallus speach though no olde malice against Aruntius there were, but for riches, redines to great actes, and for reputation suspected. For Augustus in his laste speaches of suche as either sufficient wolde refuse a Princes place, or unfit wouild have it, or might and desired. He said Marc. Lepidus capable but despising it, Gallus Asinius greedy but unworthy, L. Arunctius not unmeet, and if chance happened wolde adveture it. For the first it is agreed on. For Aruntius some sayde Cn. Piso. All but Lepidus alone were taxed with divers crymes, Tiberuis framing it so. Hatterius and Mamarcus Scaurus vexed his suspitious mynde. Hatterius when he sayde how longe wilst thou suffer, Caesar, the common wealth without a head? Scaurus because he sayde that nowe there was some hope the Senate desire shoulde not be voyde for that mislike he was not of the Consuls relation by Tribune power. He enveyed straight against Hatterius. Scaurus he passed over in silence, though with a wrath implacable. Weyred with common showes, at each mans request a litle inclined, not to confesse that the rule he would take, but to leave it without nay or sute [consent]. Sure it is that Hatterius entring into the palace, in touching Tiberius knees as a sutor well nye the soldiers slewe, for that Tiberius by chance, or slipping from his hande, fell downe, nether was he appeased with the danger of such a man, till Staterius introduced Augusta and so was protected by hir carefull sute.
spacer14. Great was the fathers flattery to Augusta. Some censured [proposed to call ] her their parent, others Countryes mother, many would have Caesar graced by adding to his title Julias sonne. He sayd no: mens honnors must be tempered, and the like measure he wolde use in graces given to himselfe. Yea vexied with envy (taking the womans glory shoulde hinder his), suffered not a sergeat to be hirs, and forbad her the altar of adoption, and such like. But for Germanicus Cesar he asked the Proconsuls roome, and sent there were Ambassadors to tell it him and comfort his sorrow for Augustus death. Least like for Drusus shoulde be asked, who was appointed Consul and preest, twelve there were in rolle of Praetors choice, the number geven by Augustus. The Senate beseaching increase, he sware he wolde not exceed.
spacer15, Then first elections from people to fathers were turned. For untill that day though weightiest causes accorded to Princes will, het seeme as the tribes woulde. Nether did the peopole grudge of priviledge broken but by vaine brutes. The Senate wonne by giftes and lewd desires willing he heald. Tiberus keeping his boundes to aske but foure chosen, and they appointed without repulse or sute. At which time the plebeian tribunes desired that of their own charge they might make interludes which shoulde beare name of Augustals in Augustus festival dayes, but oney decreed not of common purse, and that they might use a triumphall vesture going in Circus, but not permitted chariotts seat. To Praetors charge was appointed the annuall celebration to whose turnei t should befal to judge between citizen and stranger.
spacer16. This was the state of citties maters when a sedition began in the Hungarian [Pannonian] legions from no cause but that change of Prince gave hope of rebellious liberty and pay by civill warre. In the somer campe were three legions under Junius red Blaesus Lieutenant, who hearing of Augustus end and Tiberius new raigne, either for suspence or for joye, his wonted office omitted. So began the soldier insolent to disagree, to lend his eare to such lewd talke, red to desire, lust and slowthe, rule and lawe to despise. There was in the army one Percennius once surveyer of the theatricall workes, then a common soldier, lavish of tongue, and skilfull to please the multitude with players guile. This man drue the unskilfull myndes and such as doubted military state after Augustus dayes with nightly conventions, or in twilightes when the best retired, the worser sorte remained.
spacer17. At laste with other ready seditious ministers he asked as in an oration, why they woulde obey like slaves a few Centurions, fewer Tribunes. When wold they boldlyer aske for remedy then now that Prince was new and moved with sutes or armss? In slouth they had sinned enough so many yeares, the older had receaved thirty or fortie payes, and many their bodies maymed with woundes. No end of warre to the dismissed but keapt under ensigne, wiith collor of other name suffered like toyle. And if lyffre wolde endure so manie mishaps yet should be drawen to sundry cuntries, where under name of fieldes they shoulde receave but fenny mystes or craggy rockes. The warre sayd of itselfe laborsome and barren, their lyffe and body valued at prince of eight pence a day and therewith must provide apparell, arms and tentes. They should acquitte centurions tyranny and rewardes want., but sure of blowes, woundes, harde wynter, laborious summer, cruel warre, or barren peace for ever. No other relief except they were brought under certain conditions. That their pay should be each one a denarius by day, the sixteenth yeare and end of service, no longer byde under ensigne. In the same campe with monie their reward to be payed. Have the praetorian cohortes, who receave double pay, return to their homes at sixteen yeares and endured red more perill? They were not tyed to cities garde and watch, yet driven to see their ennemy out of their cabins among the rudest nations.
spacer18. The commons cried out with manie a persuasion, some shewing their stripes [scars] marks, some their age, manie their worn garments and naked bodies. At last felle into suche fury that three legions one they woulde have made. Emulation keapt them asunder when every legion seaking that honnor for itself turnes otherwhere, and withal placed togither three egles and their ensignes, gather turfes, make a mount that higher might be the seat. Blaesus came as they chyded, rebuked and them reframed with loude voice. With my bloud rather embrew your handes. You shall with lesse faulte kill the Lieutenant then faile your Prince. Either saffe shall I presere the legions faithe or haste repentance by my deathe.
spacer19. And yet this work went on and heaped it was brest high, when at lengtht they lefit it, ovecome with earnestnes. Blaesus tolde them with much eloquence sodiers petitions must not be brought to Caesar by sedition an dmultitude. Neither of the olde former Emperor, nor them selfes of Augustus had ever sought suche novelties and out of season now they shold beginne to overburden their new Princes cares. But if they meant to attempt in peace suche things as victors in civill arres never aske, why against all duety, against disciplines rule should they use violence? Lett them chuse messengers and before himselfe give those instructions. They desired all that Blaesus sonne a tribune might serve for that message, and should require soldiers dismission at sixteen yeares. The rest they wolde give in charge when the first they had gotte. The yong man gon a little rest there was, but the soldier grew proude that the Lieutenants sonne chosenh orator for publicke cause gave shew that necessitie had extended that which by modestie they had never obtained.
spacer20. In the meane while certain bandes afore the sedition sent to Nauportus to make wayes and bridges and for other uses, hearing of the tumulte in the campe, tore down ensignes, spoiled the next villages and Nauportus it selfe, which was a place of defence. The Centurions offering [attemting] to stay them with laughter they despised. At last they fell to blowes, whose chiefest wrath was against Aufidienus Rufus master of the campe, whom taken they laded with manie a burden, and seetting him in the formost rancke, asked him in a skorne whether so great loades so willingly he wolde cary. For Rufus a long while a pioner after Centurion, next camp master, the olde [word omitted?] and warrers hardnes put in ure [had made experienced], invincible in toile and labor and so much the fitter for having borne it.
spacer21. At these mens comming the sedition renewed, and stragling spoiled all about. Blaesus bad a few that had gotten great bootie for others terror to be whipped and imprisoned, for yet both Lieutenant and Centurions were of base soldiers obeyed. They striving with those that drew them, clunged about their knees, rehearsed each mans name and the bande whereof they were, exclaiming that companie, legion and all shoulde have a like <fate>. They heape reproch upon the Lieutenant, they prayde heaven and the gods, leaving nothing undon which move spite, mercy, feare or wrathe. All runne together, and breaking prison shooke of the shackles, the forsakers and condemndes they tooke for fellowes.
spacer22. They increase their violence and <take> men rebellious as heades. And Bibilinus [Vibulenus] a common soldier ,lifted up on mens shoulders, afore Blaesus satte red ammidest the mutinous and trouibled sort. "You have given (quoth he) to those inocents and wretches lyffe and breath, but who restoreth me my brother, or him his lyffe? Who sent to you from the German army for common cause, this last night was kilde by his blades [gladiators] whom he both hath and armes for soldiers wrack. Answeare, Blaesus, where is the carcas throwen? Foes themselves envye not the grave. With cheere, with teares when my sorrow I have satisfied byd me kylde to, whom legions shall bury since for no faulte but for theyr good we are slaine.'
spacer23. This mone he made with teares, knocking with his hand his face and brest, and then throwne of from their shoulders flatte on the ground, creeping to each mans feet he stirred up so much spite and disdaine. Ihat part of the souldiers his blades, red parte those of Blaesus family, did bynde, others busy to seake the body. And but that in haste it was knowen that no such body could be founde, and that the very slaves by turnes denied the murder and tolde that he had no such brother, the Lieutenant had hardly scaped with lyffe. But the tribunes, the master of the campe, they beat away. The flyers baggage they tooke. Lucius a centurion was slaine, to whom they gave in warlike shorne [as a soldierly nickname] the name Give Me An Other for that breaking vyne rodde on the sldiers backe, with sherle [shrill] voice he called for an other, and so an other. The rest by lurking were safe. Clemens Julius onely remained, for ready were healde meet to discharge the soldiers willes. The legions among them selves began to warre, the viijth and the xvtth, and to sharpen weapons, while the one chalenged the death of Serpicus a centurionthe other defended him, if Nonanus a soldior red had not used request and sette his threates against their spite.
spacer 24. These things heard moved Tiberius (though wont to hyde and collor the sorrowfullest happes) to send Drusus his soone, with the chief citizens and two praetorian bandes, with no certain commission but that he would consulte of the matter. The companies with chosen soldiers were reinforced above the wont [unusually]. A great parte of the Praetorian horsemen was added, and strength of Germans which then attended the Emperor as his garde.Witht hem Elius Seyanus Captain of the praetorians, appointed fellow to Strabo his father, of great authority with Tiberius, the yong mans tutor, to other men a boaster of perilles and rewardes. Drusus drawing neere, legions mette him fur duetyes sake, not joyfull as they wonted, nor glistering with their ensignes, but with folwle face and deformed slownes, with counterfate sorrow, but neerer to despite.[defiance].
spacer
25. When he entered the campe, they strengthened the gates with gardes and commanded the armied companies to make standes inscertain places of the campe, the rest environed the throne with great multitude. Drusus standes up bidding silence with his hande, they as ofte as they beheald the multitude showted which a shrile voice, but beholding Caesar they quaked. Uncertain murmurs, fierce clamor and straignt a sudden pause. With divers the myndes motions they feared and gave terror. At length, the tumult appeased, he recited his fathers letters, in which he was commanded to show his greatest care for strongest legions, with whom he had endured manye a battalye, and when his mynde should be quieted from woe he woulde treat with the fathers of their demandes,The whilest [meanwhile] he had sent his sonne, who without delay should graunt them that which might be geven.
spacer26. It was answared by the multitude that they had given in charge to Clement the Centurion such things as they had to pripound. He beganne with the dismission at sixteen yeares, and with the reward when warre was ended. That eight pence might be their dayes pay, that no olde soldier might be kept under the ensigne. To this Drusus, when he referred all to the Senate and fathers, well was vexed with a common showe. Why came he nether to increase their pay, nor ease their labor, nor with authority to doe any good, but blowes and deathe permitted to all? They sayd Tiberius was wont to defraud the legionns requests with Augustus name. Drusus now had born away the like arte. Shall they nevre have other come to them but the sonnes of one family? A novelty in deed that the Commander should turn over to Senate onely what concerned the soldies good. Will he consult with Senate as ofte as correction or battalle be made? Shall rewardes be under ordes and pynes as well?
spacer 27. At last they leave the throne. As anie praetorian soldier or frend to Caesar mett them, they fell uppon him straght and made it cause of discorde and beginning of armes, moste offended with Cn. Lentulus for that he exceading others in age and warres glory was thought to embolden Drusus and make him despise the soldiers fowle attempt. And not long after when he came about with Cesar to view the wintering places, foreseing perils they environed [surrounded] him, asking whether he went, to the Emperor or to the fathers, that he might crosse the legions commodities to [that he might report their plight], Upon him they goe, and threw stones, and bloody [made him bleed] with the hittes, and certain of death protected he was by the running in of the m ltitude that with Drusus came.
spacer28. Happe appeased the threatning might and bursting into mischief. For the moone almost in clearest skey seamed her light to dymme. This the soldier, ignorant of the reason, tooke for a present boding, comparing the skyes lacke to their labors, that all wolde happen prosperous if the shyne and clearnes of the Goddesse were restored. Wherefore with brassy sound, with blast of horne and trumpett, they blew out. As clearer or darker it shined they joyed or wayled, and when a dymme clowde amazed their sight and they beleaved she was hidden with darkness (as the myndes striken with feare be ready to superstition) they thought it boded their labor eternall and lamented that the Goddesse gainsayd their sinnes. Caesar thouoght meet to make use of this their fancy and suppposed best to turn that to witte [to good purpose] which chance had made, commanded the campe to be examined. Clemens the centurion was called for, and so others plausible to the many by pleasing meanes rusht into the watche, sentinells and corps de gardes offring hope and threatning feare. How long shall we besiege our Emperors sonne? When end of strife? Shall we be sworne to Persennius and Bibilinus? Shall they distribute wages to the soldiors and land to the deserver? Shall they rule the Roman people in Neroes and Drusus place? Nay rather as lastest in faulte, so first be our repenance. Slowly be granted petitions for common good demanded. Particular favor dost them deserve who haste it straight.With this the myndes perturbed, among themselve suspicuous, the new soldier from the olde departe, and one legion from an other. Then obedience <and> good will returned unto them, and leave they doe the gates, and ensignes taken and throwne in an heape at the mutinies beginning they bring to their due places.
spacer29. Drusus at dawning day gathering the multitude, although of rude eloquence yet of noble race, accuseth the paste, allows the present, denyes to be overcome with terror or threats. If bent he see them to temper, if as petitioners he hears them, he will write to his father that appeased he willbe pleased to receave the legions desires. They humbly beseach him, and again the same Blaesus and L. Apronius, a Roman gentleman of Drusus bande, and Justus Catenius a centurion of the first ranck were sent to Tiberius. Then arose difference of opinions when some thought best to stay for the messengers and, the whilest the soldior to be weakened with kyndnes, others to worke stronger remedies. No meane in multitude, terrible if they feare not. If they dread, boldely dispised. While superstition lasted the Generall ought to adde feare and take away seditious authors. Drusus nature was readiest for the sharpest way and biddes Biblinius and Percennus called, be killed. Manie say they were overthrowen in the Generals tent, others that their bodyes were cast in a travery [not in O. E. D., copying error for traverse?] out of the trenche.
spacer
30. As anie one was chiefest head of tumulte, so was he narrowlier sought. Some stragling without the campe were slaine by the Centurions or soldiors of the praetorian bandes, some the companies as testimony of their faith delivered. The wynter drawing nye with continewall showres increased the soldiors care, so vehement as scarcely coulde go out of tents, or meet togither, or keep their ensignes which with hurlying wyndes and floodes were born away. There lasted a feare of heavenly wrathe., that not in vayne against the wicked the heavens darken and tempest fell. No other redresse for woe but that they leave their unluckie campe, and defiled and freed of punishment each man returned to their wintring place. First the eigihth, then the fifteenth returned. Nonanus red cryed out Tiberius letters might be expected, and then lefte alone by manie mens departure willingly he prevented the comming necessity. And Drusus not tarying the Commissioners, considering sufficiently the present, to the City returnes.
spacer31. At that tyme for like cause the German legions mutenied, the more the number, the more vehement in great hope that Germanicus Caesar wolde not beare an others rule, and give himselfe he wolde to the legions to draw all by force to himselfe. Two armies there were on the Rhynes side. The higher they called that which C. Selius Lieutenant ruled, the lower Aulus Caecina guided. Over all Germanicus commanded, busy then abowt the taxing of France. But those under Silius charge with doubtfull mynde expected the successe of the others sedition. The soldiers of the lower army felt red more rage, the beginning rising from the nyneteenth and fifeteenth legion, the first and twentieth drawen in. For these in summer tyme lay in the shires of the Ubii at their ease having little to doe, and hearing of Augustus death the vulgar sorte, late come from the city, used to wantonnes, ill suffering labor, filled the rude myndes of the reste. That the tyme was come that olde soldiers might claime speedy dismission, the young larger pay, and all stay of misery, and might revenge centurions cruelty. It was not Percenniuis red alone, as among the Hungarian legions, nor to fearefull soldiers eare awayting the behavior of stronger armyes, but manie were the mouthes and voices of seditous that tolde howe the Roman rule was sette in their handes, that with their victoryes the common wealth was increased and the Empereors did beare their names.
spacer32. Neither came the Lieutenant against them, for others fancies made him stagger. Madde with swords drawen they awayte the centurion, that being the olde ground of soldiers hate and roote of rage. Throwen down they whippe them, threescore to one, each one to matche the centurions number. Then all to torne and rent and halfe dead before the trench or in the ryver Rhyne they threw them. Septimus when he fledde to the tribunal, rolling himselfe to Caecinas feet so long was asked that to death he was given. Cassius Charea, memorable to posterity for Caius Caesars death, then yong and of fierce courage, through the letting [obstructing] and armed made way with his sword. No tribune, no campe master bare rule. The soldiers red divided themselves the gardes and all that present use required, the greatest signe of great and unplacable tumulte engrafted in soldiers minde, to more aspiring for that dismayed they were not. Nought done at a fewes intsigation, but togither they attempt, and so silent, with so like lasting myndes that kinges you wolde have thought them <commanded>.
spacer33. Whyle Germanicus was gathering of the French taxes newes was brought of Augustus end, whose neece Agrippina in maryinge he had, and by her manie children, himselfe borne of Drusus Tiberius brother, nephew to the Emperor but discontent, for uncle and gramdmonthers secreat hates the more grievious to him that unjust the causes were. Drusus memory was much pleasing to the Roman people, and was believed that liberty he wolde have restored if rule he had enioyed. Like love and hope of Germanicus, for the young man had a mylde spirite, great curtesy, a grace farre different from Tiberius speach, proude and obscure. Womans displasures were added to this. Stepdame Livias offence against Agrippina, and she somewhat sharpe in deed, but that her chasteness and husbandes love turned hir fierce mynde to good.
spacer34. But Germanicus the neerer he was to hope the nearer to Tiberius he stucke. He made the French and lowe countrie cities sweare him fayth. Then hearing the legions tumultes, straight thither he goes. They mette him without the campee. When he was come within the campe casting downe their eyes as the penitent shoulde. When he was come within the trench, sundry complaintes he heard, and some taking him by the hande as kissing it sundred fiingers [put their fingers in his mouth] that he might feele their toothlesse moutnes. Some other shewed him their lymmes bowed down with age. The throng gathering togither,because they were more mingled, he bad them goe into bandes so should they heare better his answere, and bring their ensignes, that so he might see their companies. Slowlye they obeyed. Then beginning with Augustus praise, he turned to Tiberius triumphes and victories, honoring with greatest praise that which with those companies in Germany he had don. Commanded the agreement of Italy, the faith of French. Nought spake of fire or discord. All this was heard in silence or with a still buzze.
spacer35. But when he touched on sedition, he asked where was the soldiers temper, where the honnor of olde discipline? How farre had they driven the Tribunes, the Centurions? They pluck of their clothes, showed their woundes markes, their stripes wales. Straight with broken wordes they cryed out of sought red ease, of smalle pay, of their hard labor. Each man began to reckon up by name trenches, ditches, carrying of fictualle stuffe, wood, stacks, and all other things that ether red for necessety or to avoyd idlenes they are used to be put unto. A better exclamation of the elder sorte, who numbring thirty and upward payes beseached now redresse for the weyred, that they might dye in those paines, but end so long continewed serves, yet with no poore ease. There were some that asked for money that Augustus gave, with happie bodings for Germanicus as ready they were to give him the Empire if he wolde. Then as touched with a cryme, headlong he leapes from the seate. They letted [obstructed] his going with threats unlesse he wolde retorne. But he exclaimed that rather dye he would then fayle his faith, takes his sword from his syde and to breast he sette it but that the next his right hande pluckt away. The furtherest of and thickest of in throng, and some single drawing neare (scarce to be belieaved) exhorted him. One by name Calusidius offred him his drawen sorde, adding it was sharper. This seamed a cruell and wicked fashon even to the furious, and made roome that Caesar was taken by his frendes into his tente there to consult of remedy..
spacer36. For it was tolde that messenger was sent to drawe the next army to the same matter. The Ubian city appointed to be spoyled, their handes once entred into the pray like to burst out further to the Frenches ruyne. It increased feare that the ennemy, hearing the Romans sedition and that the rivers side were abandoned, wolde invade them. But if forces or associates were armed against the legions that went away, then civill warre beganne. Dangerous severity and wicked liberality, whether nothing or all were granted the soldier,in doubtful state of commonwealthe. Wherefore all reasons considered it was decreed that letters sholde in Princes name be written, dissmissed should be they that had served twentie yeares. Belike red shoulde be they that sixteen yeares, but yet keapt under ensigne free from other service then to repulse the ennem.y. Such bequestes as they desired shoulde be payde and doubled.
spacer37. The soldiers perceaved all this was devised for present tyme, and desired speedy performance. Hastened was the dismission by the tribunes, but the gyftes were differed. The fifth and nineteenth wolde not to their wintering untill in the same place as much was payede as Caesar, ether of his gatheringe in his way or by frendes or of his owne coulde make. The first and twentiethe Caecina the Lieutenant lead back to the Vibian citye, a shamefull companie that under ensignes carryed the Emperors treasure spolyled. Germanicus going to the uppermost army did not neglect the second, xiiitth and xviith legions and putte them to their othe. The fourteenth stuck as money and dismission without asking was offered.
spacer38. There beganne a mutiny in Chaucis by the standard bearers of the disagreeing legions lying there in garrison, and by the present punishment of two soldiers were somewhat pacified. Mennius the camp master bad so, more for example than lawyerish. The tumult increasing, he fledde and was found. His lurking proving unsaffe, he borrowed heaple of boldnesse. It was not the Camp master but Germanicus their governor and Tiberius their Emperor was dishonored. The wishstanders feared, his ensigne he turnes to the ryversyde proclayming that if anie went out of his ranke for a traytor he shold be healde, <and> brought the mutiners and dastardes to their wintering.
spacer39. The whilest messengers sent from the Senate came to Germanicus at Vibiorum Aram. There two legions, the first and twentithe, with old soldiors lately dismissed under bannder did wynter. Dread enters into their fearfull and guiltie conscience that they were come which by the fathers commandement sholde make frustrate suche things as by sedition they had extorted. And as the vulgar use is to charge one or other as guilty, though with untruthes, they accused Munatius Plancus, once Consull, then chief of the Commission, to be the author of this counsayle. At midnight they began to calle for the standard sette in Germanicus house. The multitude gathering to the gate, they forced the same, and taking Caesar out of his chamber compelled him to deliver the standard with threatened deathe. Strait scattering themselves, in the way the Commissioners they mette, bending to Germanicus hearing of this tumulte. They lay on despitefull wordes and threatened death to Plancus chiefly, whose dignitie letted [prevented] his flight, nor other healpe had he in his danger but the camp of the first legion. There embrasing their ensignes and pensils [banners] keapt himselfe in sanctuary, and but that Calphurniuis the standard bearer restrained red their violence (rare among ennemyes) the Roman Commisionar in Roman campe with his blood had spotted the divine altars. In the morning when Captaine and soldiers red and all their deeds were knowen. Germanicuus entring the campe bad Plancus be brought him and pluckt him to his own seate. Then exclaiming against their fatall rage told them it was not the soldiers but Gods wrathe shewed them why those messengers came, the substance of their message, and the grievous and undeserved chance of Plancus, and withall eloquently bemoned the great shame the legions had incurred, and so dismissed the Commissioner thorough their auxiliary horsemen, the multitude more astonied then quiett.
spacer40. In this feare all blamed Germanicus for not going to the higher army, where obedience and heaple againste the rebelles was. He had faulted enough and to much in dismissing and paying, and with mylde councels. If he cared not for his owne life, why wolde he suffer his young sonne and great bellyed wife byde among the furious and breakers of all humane lawes? At least lette him restore them to his grandfather and commonwealth. Pawsing a while his wife refusinge, saying she was borne of Augustus race and wolde not degenerate, despising peril,, At last embrasing hir great belly and the sonne that was of bothe, he compelled her to departe. There followed a wofull companie of women to see the generls wyffe carrying in armes her yong sonne, morning about their frendes wifes that were drawen away, and no lesse sorrowfull were they that remayned.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Km34EXxGZ4spacer41. Not like florishing Caesars tyme, nor as in his campe, but as in a city taken the countenance, lamentation and wayling the soldiers eare and eye did move. They went out of their tents. What m ournefull sounde, what lamentation was this? Shall noble women without centurion, without soldier for guide, without trayne beseaming Emperors wyfe, goe out of campe to the Trevires, committed to strangers faythe? Then began shame and pitie, the memory of Agrippa father, Augustus grandfather, Drusus father in lawe. Hir selfe fruitfull of honorable chastity, the childe borne in campe. brought up amidde legions cabins, with soldiers name Caligula called (for ofte to wynne the soldiers good wile suchs hoes they put on him), but nothing more grieved then envy to Trevers. They beseached, they requested that they wolde returne and stay, some running to Agrippina, manie to Germanicus. He as lately in ire and sorrowe to the standers by thus spake:
spacer42. <Neither> my wife to me nor sonne more deare then father and common wealthe. But him his own maiesty, the other armyes, the commonwealth shall defend. My wiffe and children whom for your honnor willingly to death I have offered, farre now I remove from raging people that what mischief happe with my bloode alone be quenched, that nether Augustus nephew slaine nor Tiberius daughter in lawe killed, may increase your guilte. What is in these dayes undared, what unviolate of you? What name shall I give this rabble? Shall I calle them soldiers that have environed with trench and armes their Emperors sonne. Or citizens who, despising Senates authority, have broken ennemyes lawe, Comissioners sacred priviledge, and all naitons right? Holy Julius with one word repressed the armyes sedition, calling them Quirites who refused him their othe. Worthy August with countenance and looke feared the Actian legions. It were wonder and unmeet [improper] that we, though not the same yet of their offspring, should be despised of the Spanisn and Syrian soldier. You the first and twentieth legion, the one that tooke your ensignes of Tiberius, the other followd with him in so manie battaies, increasd by such rewards, have yhu not given your Generall a goodly thanke? Shall I bring this message to my father, that hath heard all prospierity out of other provinces, that the new, yea the olde soldior, are not satisfied with leave nor pay? That here onely Centurions be killed, Tribunes caste out, Commissioners imprisoned, the campe, the ryvers filled with blood? Myne own lyfe healde at will of offenders.
spacer43. Why the first day of this throng pluckt you away the sworde which to my brest I stucke? O carelesse frendes, better and lovinglyer he that offered me his. For then I shoulde have fallen, the army not guilty of such crimes. Ye might have chosen a Captaine that wolde have lefte without revenge my deathe, Varus and the three legions perhaps yet requited. The gods forbidde that the Belgicks, though they offered it, should have the honnor and glory to have repressed the German people and saved the Roman credite. Thy soule, o Augustus, to heaven receaved, o father Drusus, thy image, thy memory wash away from these soldiors (whome shame and pride had possessed), this spoile and turne the civille warres to ennemyes ruyne. But you among whom now among other faces and other mindes I see, if you meane to restore to the Senate their messingeres, to the Emperor obedience, to me my wiffe and children, depart from touche, divide you from the mutinous. This is your sure way to repentance and your faithes band.
spacer44. This sayde, confessing all reproched was true, they beseached that guilty might be punished, light offences pardoned, and so broughte be to the ennemy. His wyffe might be revoked [recalled], the legions foster child might return and not be given pledge to Frenche. Agrippinas returne he excused for neerenes of hir tyme and wynter. His sonne shoulde come again and reste shoulde graunted be. With changed myndes they runne abowte and drawe bound to Ca. Cetronius, the firste legions Lieutenant, each seditious, who executed his iudgement and correction on eache man in this sorte. The legions stoode afore the throng with swordes drawen. The guilty showed a highe by the Tribune, if they adjudged him guiltie, headlong throwene downe killed he was, and soldier<s> joyed at suche slaughter freed themselves. Nor Caesar restrained it, content that without commandement of his the crueltie and envye of the facte among the same did falle. The olde soldiors following that example were not long after sent to the Rhoeti under collor of defending the province againste the bordering Suevians, but in deed to drawe them from the army yet fierce no lesse for sharpenes of remedy then rembrance of wickednes. Then called he the centurions. The cited by the Generall tolde his name his ranncke, his cuntry, number of payes, what stowtly don in field, and what military giftes he had receaved. If the Tribunes or legions approved his diligence and innocency, he retained his place. If common voice obiected avarice or cruelty, he was cashiered.
spacer45. Thus all things present ordered, there remayned no lesse labor for the fierceness of the fiveth and nyneteenth legion<s> that wintered at the sixtieth myle at Vetera. The first beganne tne mutiny. By them al cruell acts committed, not feared by fellowes paine nor changed by repentance, they continewed their fury. Wherefore Caesar praepared to send by the Rhyne armes, navy and associates, resolved if his rule were reiected to fight it out by battailes.
spacer46. But at Rome this rebellion not yet knowen, nor the end of that in Illyria. The fearefull city accused Tiberius that whyle had mocked with fained deliberation the fathers and people whylest the soldier mutinied, nor coulde be appeased by the yong age of two young men. He shoulde have gon himselfe and shewed his imperiall maiesty. Then had they ceased when they had seen a Prince of long experience, soveraign of correction and rewarde. Coulde Augustus of olde yares travayle so ofte into Germanye, Tiberius in best age sittei n the Senate cavelling wordes among the fathers? The Cites bondage was well enough, locked into soldiors myndes muste be cherished that peace they may bringe.
spacer47. Stille he stoode against all these speaches and contant. It was not Tiberius parte to leave the head of state and give himselfe and commonealth to chance. Manie and divers things he had to vex him. The stronger army in Germany, the neerer in Hungary, the one leaning to the Frenche, the other treatning Italy. Whether [which] shulde he preferre least the neglected as despised shold into greater heate? But by his sonnet sonding, they were equally respected, his owne maiesty resting entire, to whom the greatest reverence farthest of is yealded. Excused the yong men, some things layed to fathers charge. Resisting Drusus and Germanicus, coulde they be by him mitigated? What other healpe if Emperor they despised? But as if by and by he wolde have marched, he chose his comopanie, gatherd provisions, rigged shippes, straight excusinng the wynter or business first the wyser, then the vulgar, long time the provinces he deceaved.
spacer48. But Germaicus, though ready were his army and rebelles revenge, thought best to give some space. Perhaps the late example might make them better advised. He sends afore his letters to Caecina that he came with strong power, and without excepthe punished the offenders wolde give them present death. The lettres Caecina secreatly read to the ensignes and to such as he thought most sure in the army, exhorted them to deliver themselfes from death and all from infamy. For in peace reasons and desert [merit] be regarded, when warre comes innocent and guiltie both falle without respect. They proving such as they thought meetest, when they founde the greatest parte of the legions duetifull, appoint a time with the Lieutenants privity, at which with weapon they wolde invade the wickedest and most rebellious. Then giving a watch word among themselves they rusht into the cabins, held them unwares, none knowing what cause or end of slaughter.
spacer49. Divers was the manner of those civill armes from anie that ever were. It was not in fight, in sundry campes, but in selfe same chambers wher in the day they eate and rested at night. In paires they divide them, falle to blowes. Screeching, woundes and blood open. The cause all hidde. The rest happy ruled. Some of the good men slayne, for when it was understoode againste whom they raged, the worser sorte tooke armes. Nether Lieutenant nor Tribune had they for guide, but liberty permitted to all, revenge and satiety. Soone after Germanicus arrived at the campe, with manie teares calling this no medicine but a slaughter, bad burne the bodyes. Desire to assayle the ennemy came into their cruell hartes, a fury that could not otherwise fellowes ghostes be appeased but if their wicked brestes receaved honorable woundes. Caesar folloes the soldiers rage, and making bridge lettes parte twelve thousande out of the six legions, twenty associate bandes, and eight companies of horse whose temper was alwaies keapt unspotted in the sedition.
spacer50. Glad were the Germans (not farre of), as well while weare busy about Augustus finerall rights, as also for our dicordes. But the Romanes with force speedely sent cut Caesia wood and skirt <barrier> begon by Tiberius, pitched their campe in the frontier, fortifie the front and rereward with a trenche, the roings [flanks] with hedge of fallen trees Then viewes the darke copses, consulteth of two wayes whether to follow, the shorte and wonted or a combersome and unused but apter to deceave the ennemy. The longer chosen, other things hastened, and by espiall came newes that that was a festivall night of the Germans and full of solemne quaffinge. Cecina vancurreth [led the vanguard] and downe falles all toppes of woodes. Legions straight after followed. The night was favorable with starres light. They came to the Marsians villages, and environing [surrounding] their lodgings, founde no watche was sette but all things carelesly neglected. No dread of warre nor peace but weake and distordered among the dronken. spacer51. Caesar that larger might be the spoyle divides the greedy legions into fowre quartrers, and wasteth with fire and sworde fiftie myle lnonge. No spare of sex nor age, the prophane and sacred smothed <leveled> all to grounde, yea even the noble temple that called was Tanfana. The soldier without wounde, as having to doe with men halfe a sleepe, unweaponed or straglinge. That slaughter stirred up the Bruceri, Tubantes, and Usipetes, who did beset the passages by which the army shoulde retire. Which the Captaine knowing, he keapt in order sette both for marche and fight. A fewe horsemn of auxiliarye troupes lead the way, next were the first legion, the xix guided the lefte winge, the baggage in the middest, the fiveth closed on the right side, the xxth backed them, and after came the associates. But the ennemy till the army was entred the wood stoode still, then lightly assayling the flanckes and front, and with violence charged the laste. The light horse were troubled with the thick rancks of German when Caesar with a lowde voice came to the xxth legion and cryed out this was the time of blotting out their sedition. Lette them hye [hurry] therefore to turne to honnor their shame. Their hartes boyled and with one vehemence they rushte on their ennemyes, drove them to the open fieldes, and there slue them. The whilst the formost troupes, having passed the wood, fortified the campe. So ended was the iorney and soldior, forgetting bypasst, emboldened with present, was settled in their wintering place.
spacer52. This tolde Tiberius was ioyfull and sadde, reioced at the seditionj appeased but to seake by paying and dismissing the soldier to winne their good willes, that grieved him muche. No lesse Germanicus warlike glory. But yet he tolde the Senate how matters went, and much of his valure. Smoth wordes dissembled for fashions sake more then that he thought it. With fewer wordes he praised Drusus and the end of the Illyrian mutiny, but in a shorter and trewer speache. All that Germanicus had granted he keapt. So did he likewiseto the Hungarian army.
spacer53. In that yeare Julia ended liffe who for unchasteness first in the isle Pandaterea, next at Rhegium was conteyned, which both doe lye abowt the passage of Sicily. She was married to Tiberius while Caius and Lucius florished, but despised him as to base. Nether was there other invalide cause why Tiberius went to Rhodes. Getting the kindome, bannished, defamed, and voyede of alle hope after Post. Agrippa slayne, with need and lingring disease made her away, supposing the murther shoulde be the darker for the banishementes farnes. Like was the cause of cruelty against Sempronius Gracchus, who of a noble howse, craftie witte, and wicked eloquence the same Julia, while she was M. Agrippas wiffe, had abused. Nor so did end his luste, but after she was married to Tiberius the wicked adulterer incensed her to hate and stubbornes against her husband, and letters which Julia to her father wrotte inveying against Tiberius were thought to be of Gracchus making. wherefore removed to Sarsinna, an island in Africk sea, suffered there banishement foourteen yeares. Then soldiers sent to the slaughter found him at the seaside looking for good newes, at whose comming he desired but a short tyme that he might send his laste wylle to his wiffe Allaria by his letter, and so offered his necke to the murtherers. A deathes constancy not unworthy Sempronius name though his lyffe did degresse. Some gave out those were sent not from Rome but from Asprenas red proconsul of Africke (Tiberius being the author), in vaine hope that the fame of the slaughter shoulde be on Asprenates be turned.
spacer54. That yeare new crewe was made, a fellowshippe of priests instituted to be called Augustals, at once Tatius appointed for the Sabyne sacrifices. By lotte one and twenty chosen of the chiefest citizens. Tiberius, Drusus, Claudius, and Germanicus were added also. A discord among the players perturbed all this new begonne pastyme. August favored that sport to content Maecenas, in love with Bathillus, nether did himselfe mislike suche games and thought it good manner to accompanie the vulgar delight. Tiberius had an other fashion, but durst not alter the peoples wonte of so manie yeares from softe delightes to harder customes.
spacer55. A triumph was appointed for Germanicus, the war lasting, Drusus Caesar and Caius Norbanus being consuls, which though it were prepared with great sumptuousnes for the sommer red was prevented in the springe by the soddain iorney against the Catti. For hope was given that the ennemy wolde be divided about Arminius and Segestus, either of them notable to us for treason or faythe. Arminius the disquiter of Germans. Segestes discovered a rebellion to be prepared ofte tymes elswhere, but chiefly in the laste feaste afore they tooke armes. He persuaded Varus to bynde himselfe, Armenius, and the principalle that the people would dare the nothing, the chiefs removed, and so he shoulde hae time to discern thefaulty or gultless. But Varus by destiny and Arminus violence was slaine. Segestes, though driven into warre by peoples consent, disagreeing remained. His hatred for private cause grew that Arminus had taken his daugher from him contracted to another. The sonne in lawe envyed his unfriendly father in lawe, and those bandes that are of love among the agreeing were debates cause with the offended.
spacer56. Wherefore Germanicus delivered to Caecina fore red legions, five thousand auxiliaryes, and mutinous rancks of Germans dwelling on this side the Rhyne. HImselfe lead as many legions, double number of associates, and erecting a castle uppon the place begonne by his father on the mount Tauno, he carryed a speedy army against the Catti, leaving L. Apronius to garde the wayes and rivers. For he hyed his jorney, finding it without lette [hinderance] by reason (which is rare in that cuntry) of drought and lowe waters, and feared his return might be hindred with showres and rising of floodes. But so unlooked for he came to the Catti that what so was weake for age or sex was taken or slayne. The middle age by swimming passed the ryver Adravus and kept the bridge from the Romans entry. But repulsed by artillery and shotte, in vayne required peaces conditions. While some fledde to Germanicus, others leaving villages and townes escaped to the woodes. Caesar seeing Mattium on fire the head towne of that country, and the fieldes being spoyled, turned to the Rhyne, the ennemy daring not come neere the departers backs, which was his accustomed fashion when he retired more by ceafte then for feare. The Cherusci <were> minded to ayde the Catti but Caecina, of all sides turning his army, feared them, and the Marsians adventuring to fight he repulsed with a faire skirmishe.
spacer 57. Not long after messengers came from Segestes beseaching healpe agains the popular violence of whom he was beset, Arminius prevayhling more with them persuading warre. Among the barbarians the bolder that a man is the faithfuller they thinke him and ready for mutiny. Segestes had added to the messingers his sonne Segemundus by name, but the yong man for guilty conscience lingered. For in that yeare that the Germans rebelled he was sacred priest at Ara Vibiorum, tore in peeses is vestmentes and fledde to the rebelles. Brought in good hope of the Romans clemency, he suffered his fathers commandment and willingly obyed, and was sent with the gard to the French coaste. Germanicus with all care turned backe the army, fought with the besiegers, and delivered Segestes witha great number of his kinsmen and frendes. Among them were noble women of which Arminius wyfe was one, and the she Segestes daughter but more of her husbandes mynde then partents. Being taken she neither uttered teares nor lamenting voice, but crossing hir handes in her bosome looked uppon her great belly. Spoyles were brought in of the Varian slaughter, gven in pray to many of those that nowe were taken.
spacer58. Segestes himselfe, goodly to looke on and in regard of society paste without feare, thus spake. This not the first day of my faith and constancy toward the Roman people, since first I was made denizon [citizen] by holy Augustus frendes and ennemyes I have chosen for your behooffe, not for hate of my cuntry (for traytors are hated even of those whom best they please) but the Romanes and Germans avayles [interests] be like, and that I liked paece better than warre. Therefore I accused the ravisher of my daughter Arminius, and breaker of your league to Varus the Gouvernor of the Army. Detected by Generalles negligence, and seing lawes healpe unprofitable, I desired he wolde bynde me, Arminius and the gulty that might be witnes, which woulde God had been my losse. That which followed ought rather be bemoned then defended. But I laydde Arminius in gyves [manacles] and suffered the lyke my selfe of his faction. And nowe as soone as opportunity served I preferre the olde course to new and quietnes to trouble, not for reward but to quitte me of perjury, and that I may be the fitter recocnciler of the German nation if they choose rather repentance then uyne. For the youth and error of my sone pardon I beseache. My daughter I confesse I have brought by constraint. Yours be it to determyne whetgher shall more move yhou, that by Arminius she is with childe or that she is borne of me. Caesar to that gently aunswered, granteth surety to his children and frends, and to himselfe his olde place in the province. Home he brings the army and takes Emperors name, Tiberius willing it so. Arminius wyffe brought fortth a sonne, brought up at Ravenna. With what skorn afterwardes he was used in tyme you shall heare.
spacer59. Report of Segestes accepting which such favor spread abroad, was receaved with grief or hope as each man against his will or with it had entred into the warre. Arminius besides his naturall viole nce, his ravished wyffe and childe subiect to bondage by hir imprisonment, exceedingly vexed, and flees to Cherusci asking for healpe agaisnt Segestes, and armes against Caesar. Nor did he reproches forbeare sayinge, a notable father, a mighty Emperor, a valiant army that had taken prisoner sith so mannie handes, one sely [mere] woman. He had three legions and as manie Lieutenants destroyed. That not by treason or against women with childe, but openly aginst armed men had fought. That yet were to be seen hanging upon their woodes the Roman ensignes which he had dedicate to their cuntry gods. Segestes might dwell by the subdued Rivers side, restore the Priesthood to his sonne. The Germans coulde never excuse him that between the Rhyne and Elbe axes, †mases† and Roman gownes had been seen. To other nations was unwont the Roman correction, unknowen their tributes as ignorant of the Imperiall rule, which since they had once caste of, and that without successe departed had that holy Augustus canonized among the gods, that beloved Tiberius, they should not not now feare a yong mans rule and a seditious army. If they loved their parents and cuntry, desired their anncient customes rather than new lordes and colonies, leett them follow rather Arminius their guide to glory and liberty then Segestes to misrable slavery.
spacer60. The Chorusci were not onely stirred by this, but the bordering people and Inguimerus Arminius uncle drawen into the party, of olde authority among the Romans. Whereby Caesar fearing the more, and least the warre at one instant wolde breake out, sends Caecina with foure Roman trouppes to the ryver Armisia through the Bructers, therby to distract the ennemyes force. Pedo the Lieutenant ledde the horse by the Frisians borderss. Himselfe with fowre legions embarked in boates passed the lakes. Foote, horse and navy at the ryver togiether meetted. Chauci offeringt heir healpe were added to the army. The Bructers burning their owne, Luc. Stertius sent by Gemanicus with speedy troupes overthrew. Amidde the slaughter and pray he found the xixth legions eagle loste with Varus. The army was leede to the uttermost bordrs of the Bructers, all wasted between Amisia and Luppia. Not farre from thence is the Tutoburgensi wood, in which the reliques of Varus and legions umburyed remayned.
spacer61. Therefore a great desire tooke Caesar to pay to the solidors and Captaines their uttermost right. The whole army being also moved to pity of their neighbors and frendes, warres chance and mens happes. Caecinia <was> sent before to search the danger of woodes, and to make bridges over bogs and marshes. So came they to the dolefull place ugly to see and remember. Verus first campe by largenes of circuite and o derly quartering of the front made full show of the three whole legions. After, by halfe broken tranch and shallow ditche it appeared. Here the remnant (the whole being broken) had sett downe. In middest of cample the naked bones lay scattered or in heap as they had fledde or stoode, and broken weapons lay thereby. Horses limmes with faces sticking to truncks of trees. In next wodes were the barbarian altars at which they had slayne the Tribunes and centurions of the first ranckes. Such as were living, escaped from the fight or prison, made reporte. Here Lieutenants fell, there ensignes broken. Where Varus gotte his firste wound. Where with unhappie hande his owne stroke brought his death. Where Arminius from Tribunall made his oration. What gives [manacles], what gallowes for prisoners sette up, and how proudely he had scorned the banderoolles [standards] and ensignes.
spacer62. Therefore the Roman army now present six yeares after that slaughter, wofull and irefull [angry] gathered the legions bones, no man knowinge whether his owne kynne or others carcases they putte in grounde, tooke all for frendes and kynne, wrath to ennemy increasing withall. The first turffe to make the grave Caesar layde as a gratefull office to the dead and fellow of present woe. Which Tiberius not allowed, either for that he drew all things to the worste for Germanicus or that he believed the army by view of the slane and unburied wolde be slower warre and that the Gnerall being augur and priest of the ancient ceremonies ought not have touched funerall thinges.
spacer63. But Germanicus, following Arminius flying into by wayes, when first he might he bad the horse to passe through and take the fielde where the ennemy was. Arminius, warning his to goe close and deep neere to woodes, suddainly turnes giving designe to such as were hidde. Then the horse, disoredred with this sudden charge, and the auxiliary bandes sent to second them but broken by the fleers, made the rowte great and had been driven into a marish knowen to the victors but disadvantageous to such as knew it not, but that Caesar brought on his legions. Then feare in foe and hope in soldior made them parte with even hande. The army was brought back to Amisia., the legions by boats as they came. Parte of the horse <was> commanded to goe to the Rhyne along by the Oceans side. Caecinna, who lead suche as he had charge of, was warned (though he went back by knowen wayes) yet with all speed to passe the long bridges. The same is a causey [causeway] amidde wastes and marishes, once made by L. Domitius,. the reste mudde, styfffe myre, or uncetain for waters. About is more craggy woodes which then Arminius possessed, preventing the soldior laden with baggage and heavy armor by shorter wayes and lighter troupes. Caecina, doubting howe he might both repaire the bridges broken with age and also repulse the enemy, thought good to encample in a place that fittest was for worke and fight.
spacer64. The barbarians brake their fences, and invading the laborers, beate red environs and vex them. A showte of soldiors and laborors mixte togither all adverse to the Romayne syde. The place was of thick claye, unsure for feet and slippery to marche in. Their bodyes laden with heavy armor could hardely for waters shake their pykes. On the other side the Cherusci were used to warre amidde the bogges, of bigge bodyes, bearing long pikes to wound afarre of. But the night saved the legions bending to flight. The Germans for their good luck unweryed tooke not their rest, but turned down to the flattes, the waters that arise in higher groundes., so the lower being drawned and worke already wrought overflowen redouble the soldiors payne. Caecina was then in the fortiethe yeare of his service ether as soldior or commander, expert both of adverse and prosperous happes and therefore the lesse fearfull. Wherefore forecasting what might be found no way meeter then to keep the ennemy within the woodes, while the hurt men and hevyer armed might gette afore. For amiddest the hylles and marishes a plane there was that a smale army might receave. The legions were divided, the fiveth to the right syde, the xxith red to the lefte. The first for battalye the xxth against the followers.
spacer65. The night unquiett for sundry cause. The barbarians with feasts. with mery songe and cruell schreeches filling both vallyes and resounding woodes. But among the Romans uncomfortable fires, uncertain voyces, some lying in the trenche, some walking about rather wanting sleep than watching. The captaine, terrefied with unuqiett rest, who dreamed he saw L. Varus all bloody sticking in the myre, and heard him calle but followed him not, putting back his hande which he offered him. When light beganne, the legions sent to their quarters either for feare or spite forsooke their stande, and speedely tooke anothe grounde beyond the bogges. Neither did Arminius, though easy more his way, come by and by out. But when he sawe the baggages sticke in the myre and diches, the soldior troubled about them, the ensignes out of order, and as at such a time eache man shifting for himselfe, their eares slowe to obey. He bad the Germans shoulde com out, crying out here is Varus, and with like destiny the legions overcome. With this and with a chosen troupe he charges them, wounding chiefly the horse. They what with their blood and slippines of the bogge doe falle, casting of their ryders, overthew all they mette and overranne the downefallen. Much was the labor about the ensignes which neither coulde be helde up for thicknes of the shore nor stuck red faste for muddy grounde. Caecina as he stoode encouraging his men, his horse being hurte felle downe, was environed [surrounded] and had been slayne but that the firste legion defended him. The ennemyes greedines heaped him well, who among the slaughter fell to the pray. The legions doing their uttermoste by twilight came to opener and sounder grounde, but there was not an end of woe. A trenche was to be made and rapire [rampart], all instruments being loste wherewith either earth was to be carryed or turffe cutte. No tents for the soldier, no healpe for woundes, their meat full of blood or myre. They bemoned the hideous darknes and that so many thowsand men had but one day to live.
spacer66. By chance a horse breaking from his coller and frighted with noice, in his running overthrew some that he mette, which made so great a stirre thincking the Germans had entred the trenche that every one ranne to the gates, of which the Dcumana was moste soughte as farthest from ennemy and safest for fleer. Caecina, fynding that vayne was the feare, when nether charge or treaty nor hande might soldor stay, casting himselfe over the gates porche shutt the way, pity moving not to march over the Lieutenantes brest, the tribunes and centurions telling it was a false feare.
spacer67. Then drawing them to a head charged <them> to heare with silence what time and necessitiy bad. All surety as in armes, but those tempered with advice; that in tranch they muste abyde till neere ennemy came in hope to overthrow them. Then straight burst ouit they must and so force their way to the Rhyne. Yf they fledde, thicker were the woodes, deeper the marishes, cruell was the ennemy, but if they overcame honnor and glory was theirs. He remembered what was deare at home or honorable in fielde, all woes he overslipt [did not speak about]. He divided horses to everey bravest man, first of his owne, then of the Lieutenant and tribunes, not for ambitioun but to give harte that they first and then the foote should the ennemy invade.
spacer68. No lesse the Germanes <were> unquiet, for hope, greedines, and for variable opinions of their captains. Arminius persuading to lett them goe, and when out they were to environ them again in fenny and letting [obstructing} place. Inguimerus crueller and bettter pleasing the barbarians, to besette the trenche. It was easy to be forced, the captives wolde be more, and greater the spolle. When day dawned they caste downe the ditche, throw in hassocks [hurdles], to the highest of rampire they presse where the soldior stoode thynne (and those ever still for feare). When they were thus uppon the fences [defences], a signall was given to the horse, the hornes and trumpits sound, with shoute and violence about the Germans backs they ranne, reproching them that here were no woods nor fences, but equally gods on even places. To the ennemy, who thought the attempt easy, the number few and unarmed, suche trumpets and armors lustre as least expected moste dreafdull was. And downe they went as in good happe greedy, in adverse chances unwary. Arminius whole, Inguiomerus after a grievous wound, lefte both the battayle. The vulgar killed as long as wrath and day endured. At night late the legions returning, though woundes and like scarcety of foode did grieve them, yet victory seamed to be instead of strength, health, goodes and all.
spacer 69. Fame [rumor] ranne in the meane tyme how besieged was the army, and that a mightie and wicked company of Germans were marching toward France. And but that Agrippina forbad the Rhynes bridge to be broken, then more that trust for feare attempted so lewd a fact. But she, a woman of great courage lplayde the Captaine for that tyme and bestowed on the soldiers as every man needed or was wounded bread and clothes. Plinius, a writer of the German warre, saythe that she stoode at the bridges end to to give lawde and praise to the returning legions. That pearced deepely Tiberius in mynde. Suche diligence was not f for nought, it was not against forrain ennemy the soldiors harte was sought. Nothing lefte for Emperor when a woman couild visite the trouppes, give the signall, corrupt with liberalitye that with ambitious purpose. The Generals sonne was carryed abowt in a soldiers weed [uniform] and called Caesar Caligula. Agrippina now of more credite with the army than Lieutenant or Generals. Sedition appeased by a woman which Princes name could not represse. Seyanus kindled this and layede on lode as best acquainted with Tiberius manner, breeding hatred for tyme to come which shoulde be kept in store and, increased, expressed.
spacer 70. But Germanicus of the legions which by shippe had been brought delivered the second and xxth to P. Vitellius charge in fieldes passage, that the fleet the easyer might passe those shallowe seas or ryde at ebbes. Vitellius had his force march easy, the ground being drye and tyde but gently flowing. But after a while, the northern wynde arising on the aequinoctiall season (in which the Ocean doth moste swell), his army was carryed and driven, the ground overflowen. Alike was the view of the sea and shore, nor well coulde be discerned the loose from firme, the shallowe from deep. Their carryages and cattayle overthrowen by waves then swallowed, the bodyes halfe dead swimming betweeen custled red together, the companies intermixed, some to breast, some to the one sticking faste. Sometrme the ground sliding away they felle and overturned, nor speach nor warning one an other helped. The adverse streame made no difference between stowt and coward, wise and improvident, no oddes between councell and chance. All thinges wrapt in like violence. At length Vitellius, clyming to higher grounde, brought the army thither. They nighted without provision or fyre, the moste plart having their bodies naked or hurte, in no lesse misery then whom an ennemy beseigeth. For they have an honest kynde of death, these a dishonorable end. Day came on the ground and they recovered the ryver Viisurgis whither Caesar sayled. Then the legions were embarked whom fame [rumor] had tolde were drowned, nor believed they otherwise till Caesar and the army returned they sawe.
spacer 71. By this tyme Sternitius, red sent before to receave the yealding of Sigemerus Segestes brother, had brought him and his sonne to the Ubian city, pardon given to bothe, quickly to Segemerus but slower to his sonne, who was sayde to have scorned Varus body. But to supplye the armyes losse the French, the Spaniard and Italians strave, offering weapon, horse or mony as they had ready. Whose good will Germanicus praysing tooke onley horse and armor and with his owne money the soldior relieved. and to blot out with kyndenes the slaughters memory. The wounded he visited, their acts he extolled, looking on their woundes, some with hope others with glory, all with curtesy and care he hardned to himselfe and to the warre.
spacer72. Decreed were that yeare triumphant ensignes to A. Caecina, L. Apronius and C. Silius for valiant actes don in service with Germanicus. The name of Cuntryes father offered by the people, Tiberius refused, nor wolde permitte their othes him though Senate bad, saying all mortall things uncertain and the more he had gotte the slippier red was his standinge. Yet did he not winne creditte to have a popular mynde. For he renewed the law of maiesty [treason] whose name among the auncient was the same but other matters it extended to. Infamie by betraying armies or raising sedition or ill governing the common wealh had dimininished the maiestie of the Roman people. But deedes were punished, wordes withoiut awe. Augustus was the first that under collor of that lawe called in question infamous libels, offended with Cassius Celerus intemperancy, who men and honorable women with vilanous pamphlets defamed. After given the lawes must be executed. Verses of unknowen authors provoked him the more, spread abroad of his cruelty pride and discorde with his mother.
spacerspacer73. It shall not grieve me to reporte the faultes layde to the charge of Falanius and Rubrio, two meane Roman gentlemen, wherby it will appeare by what beginnings, by what wilines of Tiberius craft in so great a mischief, then repressed, after burst out again and all hath ruyned. The accuser layd to Falanius charge that among the honors of Augustus, which in all howses like colledges were he had brouight on a player, a deformed person, and that selling his gardens, he had solde withal Augustus picture. Rubrios faulte was that he had dishonored by periury Augusuts name. Which when Tiberus knew he wrote to the Counsuls that his father had not obtayned heaven to have his honor turned to Citizens ruyne. That Cassius the player was wont among other of his faculty to be personat at interludes which his mother sacred [consecrated] to Augustus memory. Nether was it against relligion that his picture (as many other gods) passed in the sale of gardens and howses. The perjury to be esteamed no lesse then if Jupiter he had deceaved. The gods inuriues lett themselves care for.
spacer74. Not long after Caspio Crispinus quaestor accused of treason Granius Marcellus, Bithinians praetor, Hispo the Roman it subscribing. Who began that kynde of lyffe which afterwardes times misery and mens boldnes made notable. For beggerly unknown, unquiet by secreat informations creaping to some favor and moving the Princes cruelty, called every great man in quaestion, getting creditte with one and hate among the reste. But such an example he lefte as manie following became of poore riche, of despised feared, ruyne to others and in the end to themselves. He accused Marcellus as speaking evill wordes of Tiberius, a hard shunned cryme, when the accuser out of the Princes conditions every vilest thing did pike [pick] and to the guilty object fore sayd they were beleaved as true they were in deed. Hippo ioyned that Marcellus picture was sett higher then the Caesars, and in another statue Augustus head cutt of, Tiberius face was sett in. At which he was so furious that breaking silence he protested that in that cause he wolde give sentence himselfe and sware it, hat others might be bound thereby. There remayned then some printes [traces] of dying liberty. Wherefore Cn. Piso spake. "In what place wilt thou give verdict, Caesar? If first I shall have to followe, if after all I feare least unwittingly I shall dissent. Moved with his, and that unheading [unheeding] he had raged, using patience for pennance he permitted the prisonner be quitted of maiesticall [treasonous] cryme. For the money, he bad goe to the recoverers [commissioners].
spacer75. Not satisfied with the fathers iugementes, he sate himselfe in a corner of the tribunall,not to displace the praetors seate, and before himselfe there were many things more ordered against bribery and great mens sutes. But whyle true dealing was provided for, liberty went to decay. Whilest these were doing Propertius Aurelius a senator complaining that his howses were fallen by the caryages of common wayes and pipes of conduites, beseached the father healpe. The Thresorors gainsaying it, Caesar healaed him and gave Aurelius his howses price, desirous to spend his money by honest meanes. That vertue a long tyme he retained, spoiled of all the rest. Propertuis Celer of Praetors degree asking leave to give it over for poverties sake, he gave him fifty talents, knowing well enough his fathers necessity. Others suing for the like, he willed the Senate shoulde examyne the cause, affecting severenes even in those thinges which right he did, which made many preffere silence and poverty before acknowedgement and reward.
spacer76. This yeare the Tyber swelling with continuall showres, the lower partes of the city were overflowen, and when the water fell great destruction of men and buildings went withal. Therefore Asinius Gallus thought good that the Sybelles bookes might be looked in. Tiberius gainsayd it, accustomed to cover both divyne and humane matters. But charge was given to Aterius Capito and L. Aruntius to remedy the overflowings. Achaea and Mracedonia complaining of their burdens were relieved by taking way the Proconsuls rule and giving it to Caesar. Drusus presided at the fence playes [gladiatorial games] which in his owne name and Germanicus his brothers he sette out, although he joyed to muche in base bloode, which vulgar feared and his father (as it is sayde) did cheke. Diversely men spake why himselfe forbare that spectacle. Some as wery of multitudes noice, others for sullen nature and feare of comparson, for Augustus had used familiarly to be present. I will not beleave it to give his sonne occasion to shew his cruelty, or move the peoples offence, though the same were suspected.
spacer77. Grievously burst out the theaters libertye begon the last yeare before, not onley manie of the vulgar slayne soldors and centurions, but the tribune wounded of the praetorian bandes while he forbade contempt of magistrate and †dissutis† of vulgar. They treated of this mutiny among the fathers, and each man gave his sentence that the Praetors shoulde have power to whippe the players. Haterus Agrippa, Tribune of the people entreated for them and was reproved by Asinius Gallus speache, Tiberius silent, who suffered the senate to use such shadowes of libertye. Yet that request took place, for Augustus had aunsward once that players were free from stripes, and not lawfuull to Tiberius to breake his will. For dissolutte players red and against the disorderly actes of their fautors [supporters] manie things appointed, among the which these the chiefest: that no senator should enter into howse of common players, that knights of Rome should not attend them in publike places, nor other where but in when in theater they playde, and Praetors have power by exile to punishe the lookers on lightnes.
spacer78. A temple was permitted to Augustus at the Spaniardes request in the Tarracon colonye, and that a pattern fo all province. The people making sute to be released of the hundred parte of goodes bought and solde, instituted after the civill warre. Tiberius proclaimed it to be the soldiors store and ayde of healpe. That the common wealth shoulde without it be unable to beare the charge without each xxth yeare olde soldiors were dismissed. So were the unadvised graunts extorted by the late sedition, of the dismission at sixteen yeares foerver abolished.
spacer79. Then came it to be treated in the senate by L. Arunteius and Ateius whether that to asswage the Tybers inundations they should not turne the floodes coorse and lakes that doe increase it. Messengers were heard of colonies and free townes, the Florentines beseaching that Clanis removed from his accustomed chanell might not be turned to Arnus ryver, for that wolde undoe them. To like purpose the Interamnates disputed, saiyng the plentifullest fieldes of Italy woulde be destroyed if the ryver Nar (for that was intended) divided into armes should overflowe them. Nether did the Rhaetini keape silence, resisting the stopping of Velini lake where it commeth into Narre, for thence wolde burst out over all that was next, and sayd that nature had well cared for mortall things, giving rivers their mouthes and sundry coorses and boundes, as well as springes. That the Associates relligion ought muche to be regarded, who had dedicated their temples, sacrifices, and alters to their cuntry places, and that Tyber itself wolde not like well, bereft of neighbor streames to runne with lesse contenance and glory. Whether the colonies petitions or the works dificulty or religion it were, Pisoes opinion prevailed that nothing shoulde be changed.
spacer80. Alexia provence belonged red to Poppaeus Sabinus, adding Achaia and Macedon, for that was Tiberius manner to continue Governors in rule, and many till end of lyfe, over the same arymes and same iurisdictions. Of this were divers causes. Some sayd he did it as loth to enter into new cares, that which once pleased him wold keepe for ever. Some for envy that more shoulde not enjoy them. Mannie there were that thought that as his witte was craftie, so his iudgement doubtfull, and as he affected noe greate vertues, so he hated vice. Dangers from best he feared, from worste publicke shame. Thorough which doubt at laste was brought to this, that he gave provinces to some whom he woulde not suffer to goe out of the citye. Of the elections of Consuls when he was first king and after I dare scantly [scarcely] affirme anie thinge, so divers were not onely the rumors but his owne speache. Sometimes under the names of those in election he described eache mans berth, lyfe and fees, that it might appeare what they were, and sometimes striking out that note he wolde desire them not to perturbe the assembly with requests, promising his healpe. Ofte tymes he wolde pretend that they had onely made their sutes to him whose names to Consuls he gave, that others might stand also if they trusted favor or desert. Glorious wordes, in deed vayne or craftie, and with the more show of liberty they were covered, they shoulde burst out into the crueller bondage.

Finis